QuickC 2.5 C for Yourself

Microsoft QuickC Compiler - C FOR YOURSELF








────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
              Microsoft(R) QuickC(R) Compiler - C FOR YOURSELF

                                VERSION 2.5
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


                           MICROSOFT CORPORATION








Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does
not represent a commitment on the part of Microsoft Corporation. The
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VAX is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.



Document No. SY10423-0290
 OEM D703-2Z

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1






Table of Contents
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



Introduction
     About This Book
     Using the Example Programs
     Programming Style Used in This Manual
     Key to Document Conventions
     Other Books on C Programming


PART I  Learning C
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Chapter 1  Anatomy of a C Program

     A Typical C Program
     Comments
     Statements
     Keywords and Names
     Preprocessor Directives
     Functions
     Calling Functions
     Declaring and Initializing Variables
     External and Local Variables
     Function Prototypes
     A Few Words about printf

Chapter 2  Functions

     Functions and Structured Programming
     The main Function
     Placement and Visibility of Functions
     Function Definitions and Prototypes
     Calling a Function
     Passing Arguments to a Function
     Arguments Versus Parameters
     Assigning Parameters
     Passing by Value
     Returning Values from Functions
     Using Return Values
     Declaring a Function's Return Type
     Function Prototypes
            Prototyping Functions without Parameters
            Prototyping Functions with Variable Parameters
     Old-Style Function Declarations and Definitions

Chapter 3  Flow Control

     Loops: while, do, and for
            The while Statement
            The do Statement
            The for Statement
     Decision-Making Statements: if, else, switch, break, continue,
       and goto
            The if Statement
            The else Clause
            The switch Statement
            The break Statement
            The continue Statement
            The goto Statement

Chapter 4  Data Types

     Basic Data Types
            Specifying Basic Types
            Specifying Variables
            Specifying Constants
     Aggregate Data Types
            Arrays
            Structures
            Unions

Chapter 5  Advanced Data Types

     Visibility
            Local Variables
            External Variables
            Visibility in Multiple Source Files
            Visibility of Functions
     Lifetime
            Extending the Lives of Local Variables
     Converting Data Types
            Ranking of Data Types
            Promotions and Demotions
            Automatic Type Conversions
            Manual Type Conversions through Casting
     Register Variables
     Renaming Existing Types with typedef
     The Enumeration Type

Chapter 6  Operators

     Introducing C's Operators
            Arithmetic Operators
            Relational Operators
            Assignment Operators
     C's Unique Operators
            Increment and Decrement Operators
            Bitwise Operators
            Logical Operators
            Address Operators
            Conditional Operator
            The sizeof Operator
            Comma Operator
            Base Operator
     Operator Precedence

Chapter 7  Preprocessor Directives

     The #include Directive
            Specifying Include Files
     The #define and #undef Directives
            Simple Text Replacement
            Function-Like Macros
            The #undef Directive
     Conditional Directives
            The defined Operator
     Pragmas

Chapter 8  Pointers

     Using Pointers in C
     Pointers to Simple Variables
            Declaring a Pointer Variable
            How Pointers Are Stored
            Initializing a Pointer Variable
            Using a Pointer Variable
            Summary of Pointer Basics
     Pointers to Arrays
            Arrays and Pointer Arithmetic
            Comparing Pointers
            PARRAY.C Revisited
     Pointers and Strings
     Passing Pointers to Functions
            Passing Address Constants Versus Passing Pointer Variables
     Arrays of Pointers
     A Pause for Reflection

Chapter 9  Advanced Pointers

     Pointers to Pointers
            Equivalence of Array and Pointer Notation
            Getting Command-Line Arguments
            Null Pointers
     Pointers to Structures
     Pointers to Functions
            Passing Function Pointers as Arguments
     A Parting Word on Pointers

Chapter 10  Programming Pitfalls

     Operator Problems
            Confusing Assignment and Equality Operators
            Confusing Operator Precedence
            Confusing Structure-Member Operators
     Array Problems
            Array Indexing Errors
            Omitting an Array Subscript in Multidimensional Arrays
            Overrunning Array Boundaries
     String Problems
            Confusing Character Constants and Character Strings
            Forgetting the Null Character That Terminates Strings
            Forgetting to Allocate Memory for a String
     Pointer Problems
            Using the Wrong Address Operator to Initialize a Pointer
            Declaring a Pointer with the Wrong Type
            Using Dangling Pointers
     Library-Function Problems
            Failing to Check Return Values from Library Functions
            Duplicating Library-Function Names
            Forgetting to Include Header Files for Library Functions
            Omitting the Address-Of Operator When Calling scanf
     Macro Problems
            Omitting Parentheses from Macro Arguments
            Using Increment and Decrement Operators in Macro Arguments
     Miscellaneous Problems
            Mismatching if and else Statements
            Misplacing Semicolons
            Omitting Double Backslashes in DOS Path Specifications
            Omitting break Statements from a switch Statement
            Mixing Signed and Unsigned Values


PART II  Using C
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Chapter 11  Input and Output

     Input and Output Streams
     Screen and Keyboard I/O
            Manipulating and Printing Strings
            Printing Numeric Values
            Using scanf for Keyboard Input
     Standard Disk I/O
            Creating and Writing to a Text File
            Reading a Text File in Binary Mode
            Binary and Text Files
            Text Format for Numeric Variables
            Using Binary Format
     Low-Level Input and Output
            Low-Level Reading and Writing

Chapter 12  Dynamic Memory Allocation

     Why Allocate?
     Memory Allocation Basics
            Preparing to Allocate Memory
            Specifying the Size of the Allocated Block
            A Graphic Illustration
            Assigning the Address that malloc Returns
            Checking the Return from malloc
            Accessing an Allocated Memory Block
            Allocating Memory for Different Data Types
            Deallocating Memory with the free Function
     Specialized Memory-Allocating Functions
            The calloc Function
            The realloc Function
     Keeping Out of Trouble

Chapter 13  Graphics

     Graphics Mode
            Checking the Current Video Mode
            Setting the Video Mode
            Writing a Graphics Program
            Using Color Graphics Modes
            Using the Color Video Text Modes
     Text Coordinates
     Graphics Coordinates
            The Physical Screen
            Viewport Coordinates
            Real Coordinates in a Window

Chapter 14  Presentation Graphics

     Terminology
     Presentation Graphics Program Structure
     Five Example Chart Programs
     Palettes
            Color Pool
            Style Pool
            Pattern Pool
            Character Pool
     Customizing Presentation Graphics
            Chart Environment
            titletype
            axistype
            windowtype
            legendtype
            chartenv
     An Overview of the Presentation Graphics Functions

Chapter 15  Fonts

     QuickC Fonts
     Using QuickC's Font Library
            Register Fonts
            Set Current Font
            Display Text
     An Example Program
     A Few Hints

Chapter 16  In-Line Assembly

     Advantages of In-Line Assembly
     The _asm Keyword
     Using Assembly Language in _asm Blocks
            Instruction Set
            Expressions
            Data Directives and Operators
            EVEN and ALIGN Directives
            Macros
            Segment References
            Type and Variable Sizes
     Using C in _asm Blocks
            Using Operators
            Using C Symbols
            Accessing C Data
            Writing Functions
     Using and Preserving Registers
     Jumping to Labels
     Calling C Functions
     Defining _asm Blocks as C Macros
     Optimizing
     References and Books on Assembly Language

Appendix A  C Language Guide

     General Syntax
            User-Defined Names
            Keywords
     Functions
     Flow Control
            The break Statement
            The continue Statement
            The do Statement
            The for Statement
            The goto Statement
            The if Statement
            The return Statement
            The switch Statement
            The while Statement
     Data Types
            Basic Data Types
            Aggregate Data Types
     Advanced Data Types
            Visibility
            Lifetime
            Type Conversions
            User-Defined Types
            Enumerated Types
     Operators
     Preprocessor Directives
     Pointers

Appendix B  C Library Guide

     Overview of the C Run-Time Library
     Buffer-Manipulation Routines
     Character Classification and Conversion Routines
     Data Conversion Routines
     Error Message Routines
     Graphics 1: Low-Level Graphics Routines
     Graphics 2: Presentation Graphics Routines
     Graphics 3: Font Display Routines
     Input and Output Routines
     Math Routines
     Memory-Allocation Routines
     Process-Control Routines
     Searching and Sorting Routines
     String-Manipulation Routines
     Time Routines

Glossary



Introduction
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Ever since Microsoft introduced the QuickC(R) Compiler, version 1.0 in 1987,
QuickC users have asked for more information on the C programming language.
C for Yourself answers that need, particularly for those who have some
programming experience but are new to the C language.


About This Book

C for Yourself assumes you have programmed before but are not familiar with
C. Thus, it doesn't explain basic programming ideas such as why program
loops are useful. It assumes that you already know about loops in general
and now want to learn how to write them in the C language. The following
list summarizes the book's contents:


  ■   Part 1, "Learning C," covers basic C language topics such as functions
      and data types. The chapters in this section are designed to be read
      in order, from beginning to end.

  ■   Part 2, "Using C," covers practical programming topics such as
      input/output and graphics. This section is organized topically, so you
      don't have to read the chapters in any particular order.

  ■   Appendix A, "C Language Guide," summarizes the QuickC implementation
      of the C language. You can use this appendix as a quick reference once
      you have read Part 1 and have some familiarity with C.

  ■   Appendix B, "C Library Guide," summarizes the most commonly used
      functions in the QuickC run-time library. This appendix is designed
      mainly for browsing when you're not using QuickC. When you are in the
      QuickC environment, use the Microsoft(R) QuickC Advisor (online help)
      to get information about C language features and run-time library
      functions.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

The pages that follow use the term "OS/2" to refer to the OS/2 systems─
Microsoft (R) Operating System/2 (MS (R) OS/2) and IBM (R) OS/2. Similarly,
the term "DOS" refers to both the MS-DOS (R) and IBM (R) Personal Computer
DOS operating systems. The name of a specific operating system is used when
it is necessary to note features that are unique to that system.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────





Using the Example Programs

The example programs in this book are available through online help. This
feature allows you to load, run, and experiment with example programs as you
read.

 You can use online  help to load and run  example programs.

You must be using the QuickC environment to load an example. To load the
program, select Contents from the Help menu, then select the title of this
book. Find the desired program in Help, then copy it into the editor using
QuickC's Copy and Paste functions.

After you copy a sample program into the QuickC Editor, you can treat it as
you would any C source program. You can compile or edit the program, save it
on disk, and so on.

QuickC online help includes all the significant examples in this book (it
doesn't include code fragments and some very short programs). Every program
that is in online help begins with a line in this general form:

  /* POINTER.C: Demonstrate pointer basics. */

The line contains the program's name and a brief description of what it
does. The program containing the above line is listed as POINTER.C in online
help.

All the examples available in online help compile without errors at Warning
Level 3, in which QuickC does the most stringent error-checking. At this
Warning Level, some examples will generate the following harmless warnings:


  C4103: 'main' : function definition used as prototype
  C4035: 'main' : no return value
  C4051: data conversion

You can eliminate these warnings by compiling at a lower Warning Level.


Programming Style Used in This Manual

The C language allows considerable flexibility in formatting source code.
The style used in this book is recommended for program readability, but you
do not have to use it when writing your programs. Below is a list of style
guidelines used in this book for example programs:


  ■   Each example program begins with a comment that names the program and
      states what it does.

  ■   Each statement or function is listed on its own line.

  ■   Variable and function names are in lowercase. The names of symbolic
      constants, such as TRUE or FALSE, are in uppercase.

  ■   If a function doesn't take any arguments, an opening and a closing
      parenthesis follow the function name with no extra space:

      getch();


  ■   If a function takes arguments, a space appears after the opening
      parenthesis and before the closing parenthesis:

      printf( "Number = %i", num_penguins );


  ■   Binary operators such as addition and subtraction are preceded and
      followed by a space:

      3 + 5


  ■   If parentheses are used to control operator precedence, no extra
      spaces are included:

      (3 + 5) * 2


  ■   Opening and closing braces are aligned under the first character of
      the controlling keyword. The block underneath is indented 3 spaces:

      if( a == b )
      {
         c = 50;
         printf( "%i\n", a );
      }




Key to Document Conventions

This book uses the following document conventions:

Example                           Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
COPY TEST.OBJ C:                  Uppercase letters represent DOS commands
                                  and file names.

printf                            Boldface letters indicate standard
                                  features of the C language: keywords,
                                  operators, and standard library
                                  functions.

expression                        Words in italics indicate placeholders
                                  for information you must supply, such as
                                  a file name. Italics are also
                                  occasionally used for emphasis in the
                                  text.

main()                            This typeface is used for example
{                                 programs, program fragments, and the
}                                 names of user-defined functions and
                                  variables. It also indicates user input
                                  and screen output.

CL options «files...»             A horizontal ellipsis following an item
                                  indicates that more items having the
                                  same form may follow.

while( )                          A vertical ellipsis tells you that part
{                                 of the example program has been
   .                              intentionally omitted.
   .
   .
}

SHIFT                             Small capital letters denote names of
                                  keys on the keyboard. A plus sign ( + )
                                  indicates a combination of keys. For
                                  example, SHIFT+F5 tells you to hold down
                                  the SHIFT key while pressing the F5 key.

"array pointer"                   The first time a new term is defined, it
                                  is enclosed in quotation marks. Since
                                  some knowledge of programming is assumed,
                                  common terms such as memory or branch
                                  are not defined.

American National Standards       The first time an acronym appears, it is
Institute (ANSI)                  spelled out.


Other Books on C Programming

This book provides an introduction to the C language and some practical
programming topics. It does not attempt to teach you basic computer
programming or advanced C programming techniques. The following books cover
a variety of topics that you may find useful. They are listed only for your
convenience. With the exception of its own publications, Microsoft does not
endorse these books or recommend them over others on the same subject.

Feibel, Werner. Advanced QuickC,
    2d ed. Berkeley, California: Osborne McGraw-Hill, 1989.

    An intermediate-level C programming guide using QuickC. It includes data
    structures, parsing, simulations, and the DOS interface.

Hancock, Les, and Morris Krieger. The C Primer,
    2d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986.

    A beginner's guide to C programming.

Hansen, Augie. Proficient C.
    Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press, 1987.

    An intermediate-level guide to C programming.

Harbison, Samuel P., and Guy L. Steele. C: A Reference Manual,
    2d ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1987.

    A comprehensive guide to the C language and the standard library.

Hergert, Douglas. The ABC's of QuickC.
    Alameda, California: SYBEX, Inc., 1989.

    A beginner's guide to QuickC programming.

Kernighan, Brian W., and Dennis M. Ritchie. The C Programming Language,
     2d ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1988.

    The first edition of this book is the classic definition of the C
    language. The second edition includes new information on the proposed
    ANSI C standard.

Lafore, Robert. Microsoft C Programming for the IBM.
    Indianapolis, Indiana: Howard W. Sams & Company, 1987.

    The first half of the book teaches C. The second half concentrates on
    specifics of the PC environment, such as BIOS calls, memory, and video
    displays.

Plum, Thomas. Learning to Program in C.
    Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey: Hayden Book Company, 1983.

    A widely used introductory college text on computer programming in C.

Schustack, Steve. Variations in C.
    Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press, 1985.

    An intermediate-level guide to developing business applications in C.

Waite, Mitchell, Stephen Prate, Bryan Costales, and Harry Henderson (The
Waite Group). Microsoft QuickC Programming.
    Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press, 1988.

    Beginning- to intermediate-level C programming, with special emphasis on
    the QuickC Compiler.

Ward, Robert. Debugging C.
    Indianapolis, Indiana: Que Corporation, 1986.

    An advanced guide to the theory and practice of debugging C programs.

Wilton, Richard. Programmer's Guide to PC and PS/2 Video Systems.
    Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press, 1987.

    An advanced guide to all the PC and PS/2(R) video modes.






PART I  Learning C
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

The C language has steadily increased in popularity since it was created in
the early 1970s. C is currently the language of choice for many professional
software developers and is becoming quite popular among nonprofessional
programmers, as well.

C for Yourself  is divided into two parts. Part 1 is called "Learning C" and
discusses the C language itself. This part assumes you know the fundamentals
of computer programming but do not know C. Experienced C programmers may
only want to skim these chapters. Part 2, "Using C," discusses practical
programming capabilities, such as graphics, which are provided in the QuickC
run-time library. It should be read after you have finished Part 1 and have
some familiarity with the C language.

Part 1 begins with basic topics such as data types and functions, and it
progresses to more advanced subjects such as pointers. This part of the book
closes with a discussion of common C programming pitfalls.






Chapter 1  Anatomy of a C Program
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

As a knowledgeable programmer, you'll probably be tempted to immerse
yourself in C immediately. But before taking that plunge, you should know
the basic model for all C programs. This chapter sketches the anatomy of a C
program without getting bogged down in formal definitions or exceptions to
the rules. (You'll find plenty of rules in the chapters that follow.)

The discussion revolves around a short, reasonably typical C program named
VOLUME.C. To get comfortable with the look of C programs, as well as the
basic ideas that shape them, refer to VOLUME.C frequently as you read.


A Typical C Program

VOLUME.C is a simple program that calculates the volume of a sphere and
prints the following result on the screen:

  Volume: 113.040001

Like all of the sample programs in this book, you'll find VOLUME.C in
QuickC's online help. The "Introduction" explains how to load sample
programs. Figure 1.1 illustrates the VOLUME.C program.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Comments

The first line in VOLUME.C is a comment:

  /* VOLUME.C: Calculate sphere's volume. */

 Comments make a program more readable.

In C, a comment begins with a slash-asterisk (/*) and ends with an
asterisk-slash (*/ ). Because C is a compact language with very few
keywords, comments play an important role in making your programs readable.


You can't nest comments (put one comment inside another). The following line
creates a syntax error:

  /* Error! /* You can't */ nest comments in C. */


Statements

C statements always end with semicolons. Here is a statement from the
VOLUME.C program:

  result = 4 * PI * result;

 Statement blocks are enclosed in braces.

You can also enclose a group of statements in braces, making a "statement
block." Statement blocks contain related statements, such as the statements
in the body of a function.

The C language ignores white space (tabs, blanks, and line breaks) in your
source program, so you can arrange your program in almost any style.
However, a few de facto rules help promote readability. A typical C program
is written with one statement per line. Braces align vertically, and
statements inside braces are indented. The "Introduction" describes the
programming style used in this book.


Keywords and Names

C is a case-sensitive language (it distinguishes between uppercase and
lowercase letters). All of C's keywords are spelled completely in lowercase;
online help contains a complete list of C keywords.

You can declare names in any combination of either case, but many
programmers prefer to use lowercase for variable and function names, saving
uppercase for declaring symbolic constants. (A "symbolic constant" is a
descriptive name that represents a constant value. In VOLUME.C,  PI  is a
symbolic constant.)


Preprocessor Directives

 A preprocessor  directive is a command to the QuickC compiler.

Not every line in a C program is an executable statement. Programs can also
contain "preprocessor directives"─ commands for the QuickC compiler. A
directive begins with a number sign (#) and does not end with a semicolon.

The second and third lines of VOLUME.C contain preprocessor directives. The
#include directive in the second line tells QuickC to insert the file
STDIO.H when it compiles VOLUME.C:

  #include <stdio.h>

STDIO.H is one of the many "header files" supplied with QuickC. Header files
contain declarations and definitions required by C library functions.
("Library functions" are supplied with QuickC rather than written by you.)
In the VOLUME.C program, the printf library function requires information
from the STDIO.H header file.

The #define directive in the third line defines a symbolic constant named
PI:

  #define PI 3.14

Wherever  PI  appears later in the source program, QuickC substitutes the
text  3.14. The text can be any combination of letters, digits, or other
characters. The effect is much like a search and replace operation in a word
processor.


Functions

 A function performs a specific task and can also return a value.

Functions are the building blocks of C. Every C program has at least one
function, and every executable C statement appears inside some function or
another. In plain English, a "function" is a group of statements that
performs a specific task and often returns a value to the statement that
calls it.

C functions serve the same purposes as QuickPascal procedures and functions
or BASIC SUB and FUNCTION procedures. They allow you to write wellorganized
programs that perform different tasks in separate parts.

 The C language has no input/output statements.

C also uses functions to perform all input and output (I/O). Unlike other
high-level languages, C has no I/O statements such as PRINT or READ.
Instead, all I/O is done by calling C library functions such as printf.

 Every C program has a function named main.

The VOLUME.C program contains two functions, named main and sphere (see
Figure 1.1). The main execution section of every C program is itself a
function named main, which marks where execution starts and ends. When you
run VOLUME.C, execution starts at the beginning of the main function and
stops at the end of main.


Calling Functions

Functions can be called (executed) from anywhere in a program, and they can
receive values as well as return them. A value that you pass (send) to a
function is called an "argument."

Calling a C function is a simple matter. You state the name of the function
and supply in parentheses any arguments you want to pass to it. You must
place a comma between arguments.

The VOLUME.C program contains two function calls, one to the printf library
function and the other to the  sphere  function, which is defined in the
program. The following statement calls the printf function:

  printf( "Volume: %f\n", volume );

The statement passes two arguments to printf. The first, "Volume: %f\n",
supplies text and some formatting information. The second,  volume, supplies
a numeric value. See "A Few Words about printf," below, for more
information.

In C, a function does not necessarily have to return a value. It can either
return a value (like a QuickPascal function) or return nothing (like a
QuickPascal  procedure).

When a function returns a value, the value is often assigned to a variable.
The following statement from VOLUME.C calls the  sphere  function and
assigns its return value to the variable  volume:

  volume = sphere( radius );

A function uses the return keyword to return a value. In VOLUME.C, the last
statement in the  sphere  function returns the value of the variable  result
 to the statement that calls  sphere:

  return result;


Declaring and Initializing Variables

You must "declare" every variable in a C program by stating its name and
type. If you refer to an undeclared variable, QuickC displays an error
message when you compile the program.

The following statement from VOLUME.C declares a float (floating-point) type
variable named  volume:

  float volume;

After declaring a variable, you should "initialize" it─give it an initial
value─before using it. Uninitialized variables might have any value, so they
are dangerous to use. The VOLUME.C program initializes the variable  volume
by as- signing it the return value from a function call:

  volume = sphere( radius );

You can also initialize a variable when it is declared, a convenient and
common practice. The following statement from VOLUME.C declares the variable
 radius  as an int (integer) variable and initializes it with the value 3:

  int radius = 3;


External and Local Variables

The place where you declare a variable controls where it is visible. A
variable declared outside any function is "external": you can refer to it
anywhere within the program. (External variables are called "global" in some
other languages.)

A variable declared inside the braces of a function is "local." You can
refer to it inside the function but nowhere else. In VOLUME.C, the  result
variable is declared inside the  sphere  function:

  float sphere( int rad )
  {
     float result;
     .
     .
     .
  }

 Use external variables only when necessary.

Because it is local to the  sphere  function, the  result  variable cannot
be used elsewhere in VOLUME.C. Making variables local whenever possible
minimizes the risk that a variable's value will be changed accidentally in
some other part of the program.

When a function receives arguments, the arguments become local variables
within the function. The  sphere  function requires one argument, which it
names  rad. Within the function,  rad  is a local variable.


Function Prototypes

 Function prototypes allow QuickC to check every function reference for
accuracy.

A function can be declared in much the same way as a variable. Function
declarations, often called "prototypes," allow QuickC to do "type checking."
Given the information in the prototype, QuickC can check every subsequent
use of the function to make sure you pass the right number and type of
arguments and use the correct return type.

A function prototype gives the following information:


  ■   The function's name

  ■   The type of value the function returns

  ■   A list of arguments the function requires


The VOLUME.C program contains one function prototype, for the  sphere
function:

  float sphere( int rad );

The prototype states that the  sphere  function returns a float
(floating-point) value and requires one int (integer) argument.


A Few Words about printf

The VOLUME.C program, like most examples in this book, uses the printf
library function to display text. You won't need to know all of the details
of printf to read the rest of this book, but the examples will be easier to
follow if you know a few basic concepts.

The printf function works like the QuickBASIC PRINT USING statement or the
QuickPascal Writeln procedure. It can display string and numeric data in
various formats, and it normally prints to the screen.

You can print a simple message by passing printf a string (characters in
double quotes) as an argument:

  printf( "Hi, Mom!" );

The statement prints

  Hi, Mom!

The printf function doesn't automatically add a newline character at the end
of a line. The statements

  printf( "Le Nozze di Figaro" );
  printf( " by W. A. Mozart" );

print the following message on one line:

  Le Nozze di Figaro by W. A. Mozart

To start a new line, use the escape sequence \n as follows:

  printf( "Hi,\nMom!" );

The statement prints two words on separate lines:

  Hi,
  Mom!

The f in printf stands for formatting. To print the values of variables and
other items, you supply printf with format codes that tell printf the proper
format for each item. The codes are placed in the first argument, which is
enclosed in double quotes.

The following statement uses the %x code to print the integer 553 in
hexadecimal format. It passes two arguments to printf:

  printf( "%x", 553 );

The first argument ("%x") contains the format code and the second argument
(553) contains the item to be formatted. The line displays the following:

  229

The printf function accepts several other format codes. For instance, the
VOLUME.C program uses %f to print a floating-point number. Some programs in
later chapters use %d to print integers or %ld to print long integers.

The first argument passed to printf can contain any combination of
characters and format codes. The other arguments contain the items that you
want printf to format. The statement

  printf( "%d times %d = %d\n", 2, 128, 2 * 128 );

prints the line:

  2 times 128 = 256

The printf function matches the format codes to the items you want to
format, in left-to-right order. In the code above, the first %d formats the
number 2, the second formats the 128, and the third formats the expression 2
* 128 (which evaluates to the number 256).

There's much more to say about printf and other I/O functions, but the rest
can wait until you reach Chapter 11, "Input and Output," which describes I/O
in detail.

Now that you've glimpsed the big picture, we can take a closer look at some
specifics of C programming, beginning with Chapter 2, "Functions."






Chapter 2  Functions
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C Program," introduced functions, the building
blocks of C programs. In this chapter, you'll learn how to use functions in
C programs.

We begin by discussing some function basics, including the role of the main
function. We then show you how to call functions, pass data to them, return
data from them, and declare them. The chapter concludes with a brief look at
old-style function declarations, which you may encounter in some programs.


Functions and Structured Programming

As we mentioned in Chapter 1, a C function is a collection of statements,
enclosed in braces ({ }), which performs a particular task. It can receive
arguments (data) and also return a value.

Functions allow you to program with a "divide and conquer" strategy. Rather
than try to solve a large problem all at once, you break the problem into
several parts and attack each one separately. This approach, known as
"structured programming," allows you to write clear, reliable programs that
perform separate tasks in discrete, logically contained modules. In the C
language, these modules are called functions.

Functions offer several advantages. They can


  ■   Make programs easier to write and read. All of the statements related
      to a task are located in one place.

  ■   Prevent unexpected side effects by using private (local) variables
      that are not visible to other parts of the program.

  ■   Eliminate unnecessary repetition of code for frequently performed
      tasks.

  ■   Simplify debugging. Once the function works reliably, you can use it
      with confidence in many different situations.


If you know QuickPascal or QuickBASIC, you will see many similarities in the
C language. A C function serves the same basic purpose as a QuickPascal
function or procedure or a QuickBASIC FUNCTION or SUB procedure. In later
sections, we'll note some differences between C and these languages.


The main Function

 Every C program must  have one and only  one main function.

Every C program must have a function named main, which tells where program
execution begins and ends. Although main is not a C keyword, it has only one
use: naming the main function. A program must have only one main function,
and you shouldn't use the name anywhere else.

Below is the simplest possible C program:

  main()
  {
  }

The braces ({ }) mark the main function's beginning and end, as they do in
every function. This program doesn't contain any executable statements; it
simply begins and ends.

Most functions have executable statements, of course, and these appear
within the function's braces. The following program contains a statement
which prints  Hello, world!  on the screen:

  main()
  {
     printf( "Hello, world!\n" );
  }

The main function is called by the operating system when it runs your
program. While it's possible to call the main function in a program, you
should never do so, just as you wouldn't write a QuickBASIC program
containing the line

  10 GOSUB 10

A program that calls main will start again and again in an endless loop that
eventually triggers a run-time error.

Like all functions, main can accept arguments and return a value. Through
this mechanism, your program can receive command-line arguments from DOS
when it begins execution and return a value to DOS when it ends. Chapter 9,
"Advanced Pointers," describes how to receive command-line arguments via
main.


Placement and Visibility of Functions

 A function is normally visible everywhere in the program.

Every C function is normally "visible" to all other functions in the same
program. That is, it can call and be called by any other function. C
functions can even call themselves, a process known as "recursion."

In the program below, the functions  whiz  and  bang  are visible to main
and to each other. The main  function can call both  whiz  and  bang. In
addition,  whiz  can call  bang, and vice versa.

  main()
  {
  }

  whiz()
  {
  }

  bang()
  {
  }

Functions can appear in any order and at almost any place in your program.
Since main starts and ends the program's execution, this function often
begins the program. But this is a readability convention, not a language
requirement.

 C functions can't be nested.

One place where you can't put a function is inside another function. The C
language doesn't allow you to nest functions. Here C differs from
QuickPascal, in which one procedure can contain other "hidden" functions or
procedures. The following program causes a syntax error because the  bang
function appears within the  whiz  function:

  main()
  {
  }

  whiz()
  {
     /* Error! Incorrect function placement */
     bang()
     {
     }
  }


Function Definitions and Prototypes

Now that you understand some function basics, we can look at functions in
more detail. A function, or more precisely, "function definition," contains
several parts. Figure 2.1 shows the parts of the  sphere  function
definition from the VOLUME.C example in Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C Program."


(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

The function "header" specifies the type of value a function returns and the
function's name. The header also contains an argument list, which specifies
the arguments the function requires. The rest of the function
definition─everything inside the braces─is the function "body."

The ANSI C standard, which QuickC follows, recommends that you supply a
function "prototype" (declaration) for every function definition in your
program. The prototype is identical to the function header except that it
ends with a semicolon. Figure 2.2 shows the  sphere  function prototype from
VOLUME.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

The function prototype normally appears near the beginning of the program
and serves a purpose similar to a variable declaration. It provides advance
information about the function, which QuickC can use to check the accuracy
of subsequent calls to the function. We'll examine prototypes in detail in
"Function Prototypes," below.


Calling a Function

You call (execute) a function by stating its name. In the simplest case─when
a function doesn't receive or return any data─the function call consists of
the function's name, followed by an empty pair of parentheses and a
semicolon. The BEEPER.C program, shown below, demonstrates this kind of
function call.

  /* BEEPER.C: Demonstrate simple function. */
  #include <stdio.h>

  void beep( void );

  main()
  {
     printf( "Time to beep\n" );
     beep();
     printf( "All done\n" );
  }

  void beep( void )
  {
     printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
  }

When you run BEEPER.C, the program prints:

  Time to beep
  Beep!
  All done

As you may recall from Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C Program," the \n sequence
represents the newline character. The \a sequence is the "alert" character
(ASCII 7) which makes an audible beep.

In the main function of BEEPER.C, the statement

  beep();

calls the  beep  function. Since  beep  takes no arguments, the parentheses
of the function call are empty.

The prototype and definition for the  beep  function use the void keyword
twice, first to indicate that the function returns no value, and second to
indicate that it receives no arguments. We'll return to these points later
in this chapter.

A function call transfers control to that function. The statements within
the function's braces execute in order until the function ends. Then
execution resumes where it left off.

A function can end in one of two ways. The  beep  function above ends by
"falling off" the closing brace of the function definition. A function can
also end by executing a return statement, which we discuss later in the
section "Returning Values from Functions."

Figure 2.3 illustrates the flow of control in BEEPER.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Passing Arguments to a Function

If a function requires arguments, you list them in the parentheses of the
function call. In the BEEPER1.C program below, we revise the  beep  function
from BEEPER.C to take one argument.

  /* BEEPER1.C: Demonstrate passing arguments. */
  #include <stdio.h>

  void beep( int num_beep );

  main()
  {
     printf( "Time to beep\n" );
     beep( 5 );
     printf( "All done\n" );
  }

  void beep( int num_beep )
  {
     while( num_beep > 0  )
     {
        printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
        num_beep = num_beep - 1;
     }
  }

The function definition states what kind of arguments the function expects.
In the beep  function definition, the header,

  void beep( int num_beep )

states that  beep  expects one int (integer) argument named  num_beep
(number of beeps).

The statement that calls  beep,

  beep( 5 );

gives the value 5 in parentheses, passing that value as an argument. Figure
2.4 shows argument passing in BEEPER1.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

 Function arguments are assigned to local variables inside the function.

When  beep  receives the value 5, the function automatically assigns the
value to  num_beep, which the function can then treat as a local variable.
In this case, the function uses  num_beep  as a loop counter to repeat the
statement

  printf( "Beep!\a\n" );

num_beep  times. (The C while loop is very similar to WHILE loops in
QuickBASIC or QuickPascal. You don't need to know the details of loops for
now; they're explained in Chapter 3, "Flow Control.")

If a function expects more than one argument, you separate the arguments
with commas. For instance, the statement

  printf( "%d times %d equals %d\n", 2, 16, 2 * 16 );

passes four arguments to the printf function. The first argument is the
string

  "%d times %d equals %d\n"

The second and third arguments are constants (2  and  16). The fourth
argument is an expression (2 * 16) that evaluates to a constant.


Arguments Versus Parameters

In the C language, a value passed to a function is called either an
"argument" or a "parameter," depending on viewpoint. From the viewpoint of
the statement that calls the function, the value is an argument. In the view
of the function receiving it, the value is a parameter.

Thus, in BEEPER1.C, the following function call passes an argument to the
beep  function:

  beep( 5 );

Looking at the same value from the receiving end, the header of the  beep
function declares a parameter named  num_beep  as follows:

  void beep( int num_beep );

The argument and parameter refer to the same value─in this case, the value
5. The naming distinction is just a matter of viewpoint, similar to the way
you call a letter outgoing mail if you're sending it, or incoming mail if
you're receiving it.


Assigning Parameters

When you list a parameter in the function header, it becomes a local
variable within the function. This process is easy to follow when it
involves only one argument, as in the BEEPER1.C program above. The function
call passes one value, which the function assigns to one variable. The
variable can be treated like any other variable declared within the
function.

 There is a one-to-one correspondence between arguments and parameters.

If a function takes more than one argument, the values are passed in order.
The first argument in the function call is assigned to the first variable,
the second argument is assigned to the second variable, and so on.

The SHOWME.C program below demonstrates this process. Its  showme  function
takes three arguments. The main function defines three integer variables and
passes their values to  showme, which prints the values that it receives.
(You normally wouldn't write a function just to print one line, of course.
We'll add more to SHOWME.C in a later revision.)

  /* SHOWME.C: Demonstrate passing by value. */
  #include <stdio.h>

  void showme( int a, int b, int c );

  main()
  {
     int x = 10, y = 20, z = 30;
     showme( z, y, x );
  }

  void showme( int a, int b, int c )
  {
     printf( "a=%d b=%d c=%d", a, b, c );
  }

Here's the output from SHOWME.C:

  a=30 b=20 c=10

The function call in SHOWME.C passes the values of  z,  y, and  x  in the
order listed:

  showme( z, y, x );

 Functions receive parameters in the order they are passed.

These values are assigned, in the same order, to the parameters listed in
the  showme  function header:

  void showme( int a, int b, int c )

The position of the parameters, not their names, controls which arguments
the parameters receive. The first argument ( z ) listed in the function call
is assigned to the first parameter ( a ) in the function header, the second
argument ( y ) to the second parameter ( b ), and so on. Figure 2.5 shows
this process.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Passing by Value

 The C language passes copies of function arguments.

In C, all function arguments (except arrays) are passed "by value" rather
than "by reference." That is, a function receives a local copy of each
argument, not the argument itself. These copies are local variables within
the function. They are created and initialized automatically when the
function begins, and they disappear when it ends. Like all local variables,
their values can be changed without  affecting variables elsewhere in the
program.

We can clarify this point by adding a few statements to the SHOWME.C
program. The new program, SHOWMORE.C, will change the values of the local
variables in the  showme  function without changing the values of the
original variables.

  /* SHOWMORE.C: Demonstrate passing by value. */
  #include <stdio.h>

  void showme( int any, int old, int name );

  main()
  {
     int x = 10, y = 20, z = 30;
     showme( z, y, x );
     printf( "  z=%d   y=%d    x=%d\n", z, y, x );
  }

  void showme( int any, int old, int name )
  {
     printf( "any=%d old=%d name=%d\n", any, old, name );
     any = 55;
     old = 66;
     name = 77;
     printf( "any=%d old=%d name=%d\n", any, old, name );
  }

Here is the output from SHOWMORE.C:

  any=30 old=20 name=10
  any=55 old=66 name=77
    z=30   y=20    x=10

First, note that the  showme  function in SHOWMORE.C uses new names ( any,
old, and  name) when assigning the parameters it receives:

  void showme( int any, int old, int name )

 Function parameters can have any legal variable names.

Because these variables are local to the function, they can have any legal
names. (The rules for variable names are described in Chapter 4, "Data
Types.") The  showme  function prints the values of its parameters
immediately after assigning them:

  printf( "any=%d old=%d name=%d", any, old, name );

Then the function assigns new values to the variables and prints them again:


  any = 55;
  old = 66;
  name = 77;
  printf( "any=%d old=%d name=%d", any, old, name );

 Local variables are private to the function containing them.

Changing the local variables in the  showme  function doesn't affect the
original variables in the main function. Remember, a variable defined inside
a function is only visible inside that function. After control returns to
main, SHOWMORE.C prints the values of the original variables:

  printf( "  z=%d   y=%d    x=%d\n", z, y, x );

As the program output shows, the original values are unchanged:

  z=30   y=20    x=10

We'll say more about the visibility of variables in Chapter 5, "Advanced
Data Types." For now, just remember that when you pass a value to a
function, the function makes a local copy of that value. The local copy can
be manipulated without changing the original.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

In QuickPascal, you can pass either the value of an argument or the
argument's address. In C, function arguments are only passed by value.
However, that value can be an address. Chapter 8, "Pointers," explains how
to pass addresses to functions.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Returning Values from Functions

 The return keyword  ends a function and  can return one value.

Most C functions return a value. This is done with the return statement,
which also ends the function. The VOLUME.C program from Chapter 1, "Anatomy
of a C Program," (see Figure 2.1) contains such a statement. In that
program, the  sphere  function returns the value of the variable  result  as
follows:

  return result;

The following statement in the main function of VOLUME.C calls the  sphere
function and assigns its return value to the variable  volume:

  volume = sphere( radius );

Figure 2.6 shows the flow of control as the  sphere  function returns a
value in VOLUME.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

A return statement can only return a single value. If a function needs to
return multiple values, the normal method is to use pointers─a major topic
that we'll discuss in Chapter 8, "Pointers."

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

In QuickPascal, a function returns a value and a procedure does not. The
same distinction applies to QuickBASIC FUNCTION and SUB procedures,
respectively. In the C language, a function can do both. It can return a
value or return nothing.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

A function can contain more than one return statement, as shown below:

  if( error == 0 )
    return 0;
  else
    return 1;

The code returns a different value in different cases. It returns the value
0 when the variable  error  is 0 and the value 1 when  error  is nonzero.
(In C, the if and else statements work much like those in other languages.
Chapter 3, "Flow Control," explains these statements.)

 A return statement can  appear anywhere and  need not return a value.

You can place the return keyword anywhere within a function, and the
statement need not necessarily return a value. In the following fragment,
the naked return statement simply ends the function if the value of  count
exceeds 500:

  if( count > 500 )
     return;
  else
     /* execute more statements... */

A return statement ends the function immediately, no matter where it
appears. In the function shown below, the statements following the return
never execute:

  void do_nothing( void )
  {
     return;
     /* The following statements do not execute */
     printf( "This function " );
     printf( "prints nothing.\n" );
  }

If a function doesn't return a value, and you want the function to end by
falling off its closing brace, no return statement is needed. This method is
used to end the  beep  function in BEEPER.C, discussed earlier in this
chapter:

  void beep( void )
  {
     printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
  }

You could add a return to the end of this function, but it's not necessary.
The function ends automatically.


Using Return Values

 Function return values are  often assigned to variables.

A function's return value can be used in the same way you would use any
value of its type. In the VOLUME.C program from Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C
Program," the statement that calls  sphere  assigns the function's return
value to the variable  volume:

  volume = sphere( radius );

If there's no need to save the return value, you can use it directly. You
may have noticed that the variable  volume  isn't really needed in the
VOLUME.C program, which simply prints the variable's value and ends. Most
programmers would make the program more compact by replacing the two
statements

  volume = sphere( radius );
  printf( "Volume: %f\n", volume );

with this one:

  printf( "Volume: %f\n", sphere( radius ) );

The second version puts the  sphere  function call right in the printf
statement, eliminating the superfluous variable. Instead of assigning the
return value to a variable and passing that variable's value to printf, the
statement uses the value directly. (The  sphere  function is called first.
Then the return value from  sphere  is passed as an argument to the printf
function.)

While this change streamlines the program, it also makes the code a little
harder to follow. If you don't read carefully, you might overlook the fact
that the printf function call contains another function call.

 Unused return values  are discarded.

Occasionally, you may have no use for a function's return value. The printf
function, for example, returns the number of characters it displayed, but
few programs need this information. If you don't use a return value, it's
discarded.

You should never ignore the error codes that library functions return to
show whether the function succeeded. See Chapter 10, "Programming Pitfalls,"
for more information about library function return values.


Declaring a Function's Return Type

Thus far, we have explained how a function can return a value─and how the
calling statement can use that value─without paying much attention to what
type of value the function returns. (The C language supports various data
types, such as int for integer values, and float for floating-point values.
Chapter 4 describes data types in detail.)

The return type is important because it controls what the function returns.
If a function returns an integer when you expect a floating-point value,
your program may not work correctly.

 A function's prototype and definition control what  type of value it
returns.

The function's return type is specified in its prototype and definition.
Below are the prototype and definition of the  sphere  function from the
VOLUME.C program in Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C Program." They specify that
the function returns a float value.

  float sphere( int rad );  /* function prototype */

  float sphere( int rad )   /* function header */

The type name (here, float) in front of the function name shows what type of
value the function returns. If the  sphere  function returned an int value,
its prototype and header would look like this:

  int sphere( int rad ); /* function prototype */

  int sphere( int rad )  /* function header */

 Use the void type name  to show a function  returns no value.

You should declare the return type for every function─even for functions
that don't return a value. These functions are declared with the void type
name. In the SHOWME.C program, shown above, the prototype of the  showme
function follows this pattern:

  void showme( int a, int b, int c );

The void that precedes the function name indicates that  showme  returns
nothing.


Function Prototypes

Function prototyping is the major innovation of the ANSI standard for C. As
we mentioned earlier, a function prototype gives the same information as the
function's header: the name of the function, the type of value the function
returns, and the number and type of parameters the function requires.

   Function prototypes allow QuickC to check function references for
accuracy.

Function prototypes normally appear near the start of the program, before
the first function definition. Given the information in the prototype,
QuickC can perform "type checking." It checks each reference to the
function─its definition, as well as every function call─to make sure that
the reference uses the right number and type of arguments and the correct
return value. Without type checking, it's easy to create bugs by passing the
wrong type of value to a function or assuming the wrong return type.

C programs normally include one prototype for each function they define,
except the main function. Most programmers don't bother to prototype main
unless the program receives command-line arguments or returns a value to DOS
when it ends. (Command-line arguments are discussed in Chapter 9, "Advanced
Pointers.")

Here is the function prototype for the  sphere  function in VOLUME.C:

  float sphere( int rad );

You can see that  sphere  expects a single int-type parameter and returns a
value of type float. On the other hand, the prototype for  showme  in
SHOWME.C indicates that  showme  expects three int-type parameters and
returns nothing:

  void showme( int a, int b, int c );

It's common to use the same parameter names in both the function prototype
and the function header. In SHOWME.C, for instance, the  showme  function
prototype,

  void showme( int a, int b, int c );

uses the names  a,  b, and  c, as does the header for that function,

  void showme( int a, int b, int c )

Using the same names in both parameter lists makes the program more
readable, but it's not a language requirement. The names in the prototype's
parameter list are merely cosmetic. You can use any names you choose, or
even omit the names completely. The prototype in SHOWME.C works just as well
when written

  void showme( int, int, int );

as when you supply the names  a,  b, and  c. Both versions fully specify the
number (three) and type (int) of the parameters the function expects.


Prototyping Functions without Parameters

If a function doesn't expect any parameters, you might be tempted to leave
its parameter list blank. But it's better to put void in its parameter list,
as shown here:

  void beep( void );

The void in parentheses specifies that the  beep  function requires no
parameters. If you leave the parentheses empty, the compiler draws no
conclusion about what parameters the function takes and won't be able to
detect an error if you mistakenly pass an argument to the function.


Prototyping Functions with Variable Parameters

Some functions, such as the printf library function, can handle a variable
number of parameters. This capability can make functions more flexible. As
earlier examples have shown, the printf function can take one parameter or
several, depending on how many values you need to print.

To declare a function with a variable number of parameters, end the
parameter list with a comma and an ellipsis (, . . .). The following
prototype, for example, declares that the  sample  function expects at least
one int-type parameter and zero or more additional parameters:

  void sample( int a,... );

The ellipsis stands for an unspecified number of parameters with types that
are also unspecified. The parameter list in the function header should
follow the same pattern.

Don't declare a variable number of parameters unless it's necessary. Giving
this sort of prototype for a function that takes a fixed number of
parameters defeats the prototype's main purpose. QuickC can't perform type
checking for parameters you leave out of a prototype.


Old-Style Function Declarations and Definitions

This book explains how to declare and define functions under the ANSI
standard for C, which is now the norm. The original C language used slightly
different rules for function declarations and definitions. QuickC can
compile these "oldstyle" programs, but the ANSI standard recommends you use
the full function prototypes we just described.

Still, you may encounter old-style function declarations and definitions in
many existing C programs. So, you should be familiar with the style.

We'll use the VOLUME.C program from Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C Program," to
demonstrate the old style. First, here's the ANSI-style program presented in
Chapter 1:

  /* VOLUME.C: Calculate sphere's volume. */
  #include <stdio.h>
  #define PI 3.14

  float sphere( int rad );

  main()
  {
     float volume;
     int radius = 3;
     volume = sphere( radius );
     printf( "Volume: %f\n", volume );
  }

  float sphere( int rad )
  {
     float result;
     result = rad * rad * rad;
     result = 4 * PI * result;
     result = result / 3;
     return result;
  }

The same program written in the old style would look something like this:

  /* OLDSTYLE.C: Old-style function. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #define PI 3.14

  float sphere();

  main()
  {
     float volume;
     int radius = 3;
     volume = sphere( radius );
     printf( "Volume: %f\n", volume );
  }

  float sphere( rad )
  int rad;
  {
     float result;
     result = rad * rad * rad;
     result = 4 * PI * result;
     result = result / 3;
     return result;
  }

You'll notice two distinct differences. First, the old style doesn't allow a
parameter list in the function declaration. In the ANSI version, VOLUME.C,
the declaration of the  sphere  function specifies that the function takes a
single int parameter:

  float sphere( int rad );

The corresponding declaration in OLDSTYLE.C omits the parameter list:

  float sphere();

An old-style function declaration cannot provide any information about the
function's parameters.

The other change is in the way the function definition lists parameters. In
VOLUME.C, the function header lists the same information as the function
prototype, giving the type (int) and name ( rad ) of the function's
parameter:

  float sphere( int rad )
  {
     .
     .
     .
  }

In OLDSTYLE.C, the function header gives the parameter's name ( rad ), but
not its type. The parameter's type is declared in a statement directly below
the function header (and before the left brace that begins the function
body):

  float sphere( rad )
  int rad;
  {
     .
     .
     .
  }

The rest of OLDSTYLE.C is identical to VOLUME.C.

Now that you understand the basics of functions, we can turn our attention
to the C statements that a function can contain, beginning with flow-control
statements, the subject of the next chapter.






Chapter 3  Flow Control
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Flow control─diverting execution by looping and branching─is one area where
C closely resembles other languages. If you know how to loop and branch in
QuickBASIC or QuickPascal, learning the C equivalents is mainly a matter of
adjusting to somewhat different syntax. Here, as elsewhere, C never uses two
keywords when one will do. For instance, C has no "then" keyword. Instead,
it uses simple punctuation.

This chapter has two parts. The first part examines the looping statements:
while, do, and for. The second part describes the decision-making
statements: if, else, switch, break, continue, and goto.


Loops: while, do, and for

This section discusses the C statements that create loops: while, do, and
for. These loops repeat while a condition is true or for a set number of
times. We'll begin with the simplest loop, the while statement.


The while Statement

    A while loop evaluates its test expression before executing the body of
the loop.

A while loop repeats as long as a given condition remains true. It consists
of the while keyword followed by a test expression in parentheses and a loop
body, as shown in Figure 3.1. The "test expression" can be any C expression
and is evaluated before the loop body is executed. The loop body is a single
statement or a statement block that executes once every time the loop is
iterated. The distinguishing feature of a while loop is that it evaluates
the test expression before it executes the loop body, unlike the do loop,
which we'll examine next.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

We've incorporated the simple while loop from Figure 3.1 in the WHILE.C
program, shown below.

  /* WHILE.C: Demonstrate while loop. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int test = 10;

     while( test > 0 )
     {
        printf( "test = %d\n", test );
        test = test - 2;
     }
  }

Here is the output from WHILE.C:

  test = 10
  test = 8
  test = 6
  test = 4
  test = 2

In WHILE.C, if the variable  test  is positive when the loop begins, the
test expression evaluates as true and the loop executes. If  test  has a 0
or negative value when the loop starts, the test expression is false; the
loop body does not execute and the action falls through to the statement
that follows the loop.

(Chapter 6, "Operators," explains true and false values. For now, it's
enough to know that an expression is evaluated as false if it equals 0. Any
nonzero value is true.)

The loop body in WHILE.C happens to be a statement block enclosed in braces.
If the loop body is a single statement, as in the following code, no braces
are needed.

  main()
  {
     int test = 10;
     while( test > 0 )
        test = test - 2;
  }

Occasionally, you'll see a while loop with a test expression such as

  while( 1 )

or

  #define TRUE 1
     .
     .
     .
  while( TRUE )

The test expressions above are always true, creating an indefinite loop that
never ends naturally. You can only terminate this kind of loop with some
overt action, usually by executing a break statement. (See "The break
Statement" later in this chapter.) You can use such a loop to repeat an
action for an indefinite time period─until a certain key is pressed, for
instance.


The do Statement

A do loop is simply a while loop turned on its head. First comes the loop
body, then the test expression. Unlike a while loop, a do loop always
executes its loop body at least once.

   A do loop always executes at least once.

The difference is important. A while statement evaluates the test expression
before it executes the loop body. If the test expression in a while
statement is false, the loop body doesn't execute at all. A do statement, on
the other hand, evaluates the test expression after executing the loop body.
Thus, the body of a do statement always executes at least once, even if the
test expression is false when the loop begins.

Figure 3.2 contrasts the while loop from WHILE.C with a comparable do loop
to emphasize this difference. You'll notice that the do keyword comes right
before the loop body, which is followed by the while keyword and a test
expression─the same test expression that WHILE.C uses. Notice the semicolon
that ends the do loop. A do loop always ends with a semicolon; a while loop
never does.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

The DO.C program below uses the do loop from Figure 3.2 to perform the same
action that WHILE.C does.

  /* DO.C: Demonstrate do loop. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int test = 10;
     do
     {
        printf( "test = %d\n", test );
        test = test - 2;
     }  while( test > 0 );
  }

DO.C gives the same output as WHILE.C:

  test = 10
  test = 8
  test = 6
  test = 4
  test = 2

The programs do not give the same output if you modify them so that the
value of  test  is 0 when the loop starts. In that case, the loop body in
DO.C executes once, but the loop body in WHILE.C doesn't execute at all. You
should only use a do loop when you always want the loop body to execute at
least once.


The for Statement

As in QuickBASIC or QuickPascal, the for statement in C is often used to
repeat a statement a set number of times. Let's begin with a simple example.
The FORLOOP.C program, shown below, uses for to repeat a printf statement
five times.

  /* FORLOOP.C: Demonstrate for loop. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int test;
     for( test = 10; test > 0; test = test - 2 )
        printf( "test = %d\n", test );
  }

FORLOOP.C gives the same output as WHILE.C and DO.C:

  test = 10
  test = 8
  test = 6
  test = 4
  test = 2

Figure 3.3 shows the parts of the for loop in FORLOOP.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

A for statement is more complex than a while or do statement. The part in
parentheses can contain three expressions separated by semicolons:


  ■   An "initializing expression" that often initializes a loop counter

  ■   A "test expression" that states how long the loop continues

  ■   A "modifying expression" that often modifies a loop counter


Like the test expression in a while statement, the test expression in a for
statement causes the loop to continue as long as the test expression
evaluates as true.

All of the expressions in the parentheses of a for statement are optional.
If you omit the test expression (the second one), the statement repeats
indefinitely. In the following program, for instance, all of the expressions
in the parentheses of the for loop are empty:

  main()
  {
     for( ; ; )
        printf( "Hi, Mom!\n" );
  }

The loop above repeats indefinitely because it has no test expression that
specifies when to end the loop. It has the same effect as the following
while loop, whose test expression is always true:

  main()
  {
     while( 1 )
        printf( "Hi, Mom!\n" );
  }

You can use multiple expressions for either the initializing expression or
the modifying expression, as in FORLOOP1.C:

  /* FORLOOP1.C: Demonstrate multiple expressions. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int a, b;
     for( a = 256, b = 1; b < 512; a = a / 2, b = b * 2 )
        printf( "a = %d  b = %d\n", a, b );
  }

The output from FORLOOP1.C appears below:

  a = 256  b = 1
  a = 128  b = 2
  a = 64  b = 4
  a = 32  b = 8
  a = 16  b = 16
  a = 8    b = 32
  a = 4    b = 64
  a = 2    b = 128
  a = 1    b = 256

In the FORLOOP1.C program, the initializing expression of the for loop
initializes two variables ( a  and  b ) instead of one. The modifying
expression changes the values of the same two variables. Use commas to
separate multiple expressions in cases such as this.

Although for and while might seem quite different, they're interchangeable
in most cases. The FORLOOP2.C program demonstrates this principle. Both
loops, while constructed differently, produce the same effect─printing the
numbers from 0 through 9.

  /* FORLOOP2.C: Demonstrate similarity of for and while. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int count;

     for( count = 0; count < 10; count = count + 1 )
        printf( "count = %d\n", count );

     count = 0;
     while( count < 10 )
     {
        printf( "count = %d\n", count );
        count = count +1;
     }

  }

The two loops in FORLOOP2.C function identically. The for loop prints the
numbers from 0 through 9:

  for( count = 0; count < 10; count = count + 1; )
     printf( "count = %d\n", count );

as does the while loop:

  count = 0;
  while( count < 10 )
  {
     printf( "count = %d\n", count );
     count = count + 1;
  }

Most programmers prefer for over while in a case like this, because for
groups all the loop-control statements in one place. The for statement is
also appropriate when you need to initialize one or more values at the
beginning of the loop. The while and do statements are more appropriate for
cases in which the value used in the test expression has already been
initialized.


Decision-Making Statements: if, else, switch, break, continue, and goto

The C language provides six statements for decision making: if, else,
switch, break, continue, and goto. Like their counterparts in other
languages, these statements transfer control based on the outcome of a
logical test.


The if Statement

 The body of an if statement executes when its test expression is true.

An if statement consists of the if keyword followed by a test expression in
parentheses and a second statement. The second statement is executed if the
test expression is true, or skipped if the expression is false.

The IFF.C program contains a simple if test. It prints a prompt and waits
for you to press a key.

  /* IFF.C: Demonstrate if statement. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>

  main()
  {
     char ch;
     printf( "Press the b key to hear a bell.\n" );
     ch = getch();
     if( ch == 'b' )
        printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
  }

In the IFF.C program, the statement

  ch = getch();

calls the getch library function to get a keypress from the keyboard and
then assigns the result to the variable  ch. If you press the b key, the
program prints

  Beep!

and sounds a beep. (To simplify the code, IFF.C tests only for a lowercase b
character. A program would normally use a library function such as tolower
to test for both upper and lowercase.)

Figure 3.4 illustrates the parts of the if statement in the IFF.C program.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

The test expression of the if statement

  ch == 'b'

 The equality operator (==) tests if values are equal.

is true when the variable  ch  equals the letter b. In C the equality
operator (==) tests if two values are equal. (Chapter 6 discusses
operators.)

The body of the if statement in IFF.C happens to be a single statement, but
the body can also be a statement block, as in the following fragment:

  if( ch == 'b' )
  {
     printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
     printf( "You pressed the 'b' key\n" );
  }

You can also nest if statements, as shown below:

  if( ch == 'b' )
  {
     printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
     beep_count = beepcount + 1;
     if( beep_count > 10 )
     {
        printf( "More than 10 beeps...\n" );
        if( beep_count > 100 )
    printf( "Don't wear out the 'b' key!\n" );
     }
  }

The code nests three if statements. The first if tests whether  ch  equals
the letter b; the second tests whether the variable  beep_count  is greater
than 10. The third tests whether  beep_count  exceeds 100.


The else Clause

 An else clause can follow an if statement.

The else keyword is used with if to form an either-or construct that
executes one statement when an expression is true and another when it's
false. The ELSE.C program demonstrates else by adding an else clause to the
code from IFF.C. It sounds a beep and prints  Beep!  if you type the letter
b, or it prints  Bye bye  if you type any other letter.

  /* ELSE.C: Demonstrate else clause. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>

  main()
  {
     char ch;
     printf( "Press the b key to hear a bell.\n" );
     ch = getch();
     if( ch == 'b' )
        printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
     else
        printf( "Bye bye\n" );
  }

 To create an else-if construct, place an if statement after an else.

The C language has no "elseif" keyword, but it's easy to create the same
effect, because the statement that follows else can be any C
statement─including another if statement. The ELSE1.C program uses if and
else to test three conditions. It sounds a beep when you type the letter b,
it prints  Enter  when you press the ENTER key, or it prints  Bye bye  when
you press any other key.

  /* ELSE1.C: Demonstrate else-if construct. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>

  main()
  {
     char ch;
     printf( "Press the b key to hear a bell.\n" );
     ch = getch();
     if( ch == 'b' )
        printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
     else
        if( ch == '\r' )
           printf( "Enter\n" );
     else
        printf( "Bye bye\n" );
  }

The else keyword is tied to the closest preceding if that's not already
matched by an else. Keep this rule in mind when creating nested if-else
constructs. (See the section "Mismatching if and else Statements" in Chapter
10, "Programming Pitfalls.")


The switch Statement

 The switch statement can perform multiple branches.

The switch statement offers an elegant option in situations that require
multiple branches. It tests a single expression that can have several
values, providing a different action for each value.

One disadvantage of if and else is that they only allow one branch per
keyword. The program either executes the statement that follows the if or
else, or it doesn't. To perform more complex tests, you have to pile on more
if and else statements, as in the ELSE1.C program above.

A program that handles keyboard input, for instance, may require several
different responses to various keypresses. The ELSE1.C program above used
combinations of if and else to process keyboard input. We've used a single
switch statement in the SWITCH.C program below to do the same job:

  /* SWITCH.C: Demonstrate switch statement. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>

  main()
  {
     char ch;
     printf( "Press the b key to hear a bell.\n" );
     ch = getch();
     switch( ch )
     {
        case 'b':
           printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
           break;
        case '\r':
           printf( "Enter\n" );
           break;
        default:
           printf( "Bye bye" );
           break;
     }
  }

The SWITCH.C program produces the same output as ELSE1.C. Figure 3.5
illustrates the switch statement in SWITCH.C, comparing it with the if-else
construct in ELSE1.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

As in other decision-making statements, the parentheses after the keyword
contain the expression to test. This can be any expression that yields a
constant value. The test expression in SWITCH.C evaluates the value of the
variable  ch:

  switch( ch )

 The switch statement branches to one of several labeled alternatives.

The test expression is followed by a statement block enclosed in curly
braces. The block contains alternate sections of code that you want to
execute under various circumstances. The program's action branches to one of
the alternatives, depending on the value of the test expression.

Each alternative in the statement block starts with a "case label," which
consists of the case keyword, a constant or constant expression, and a
colon. (The only other C statement that uses labels is goto, which we'll
discuss later in this chapter.)

Below is the first case label in SWITCH.C:

  case 'b':

This case label lists the character constant  'b'. If the variable  ch
equals  'b', the program's action branches to this label. If  ch  equals
'\r', the program branches to the following label:

  case '\r':

The basic effect of switch is similar to the SELECT CASE statement in
QuickBASIC. The program can branch to many different alternatives, but only
one at a time.

A switch statement can have as many case alternatives as you need. Each
alternative must be labeled with a constant value. (You can't use a variable
in the label.)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

In previous versions of QuickC, the constant in a case label could only be a
char or int value. In QuickC 2.5, the constant can be any integral type,
including a long or unsigned long as well as a char or int.
hapter 4, "Data Types," describes the char, int, and long types.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

 The default keyword is used only in switch statements.

SWITCH.C also shows how to use the default keyword in a switch statement.
The statements after the default label execute if the value of the test
expression doesn't equal any of the values listed in other labels. In
SWITCH.C, the code following default executes when the variable  ch  equals
anything other than  'b'  or  '\r'.

Not every switch statement requires a default label. If no default is
present, and the test expression doesn't match any of the values listed in
the other case labels, no statements are executed.

 Use the break keyword to exit a switch statement.

You normally place a break statement at the end of each alternative, as
shown in SWITCH.C. The break statement exits the switch statement block
immediately. If you don't put a break at the end of the alternative, the
action falls through to the next statement.

For instance, say that you remove all the break statements from SWITCH.C, as
shown below:

  switch( ch )
  {
     case 'b':
        printf( "Beep!\a\n" );
     case '\r':
        printf( "Enter\n" );
     default:
        printf( "Bye bye" );
  }

If you run the revised program and type the letter b, the program executes
the first alternative, producing this output:

  Beep!

then goes on to execute the statements that follow:

  Enter
  Bye bye

Occasionally, you may want to fall through from one case alternative to
another. But you should be careful not to omit break statements
accidentally. (See the section "Omitting break Statements from a switch
Statement" in Chapter 10, "Programming Pitfalls.")

If you end each alternative with a break, as in SWITCH.C, the order of the
alternatives isn't critical. The program branches to the label containing
the correct value, no matter where that label appears in the switch
statement block. For instance, you can reverse the order of the alternatives
in SWITCH.C without changing the program's output. For readability's sake,
many programmers put default at the end of a switch statement and arrange
the other alternatives alphabetically or numerically.

Sometimes you'll want to execute the same code for more than one case. This
is done by grouping all the desired labels in front of one alternative. For
instance, if you revise the second alternative in SWITCH.C to read

  case '\r':
  case '\t':
  case ' ':
    printf( "What a boring choice!\n" );
    break;

the program will print

  What a boring choice!

when you press the ENTER key, the TAB key, or the SPACEBAR.


The break Statement

The previous section explained how to use break to exit from a switch
statement. You can also use break to end a loop immediately. The BREAKER.C
program shows how to do this. The program prints a prompt, then displays
characters as they are typed until the TAB key is pressed.

  /* BREAKER.C: Demonstrate break statement. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>

  main()
  {
     char ch;
     printf( "Press any key. Press Tab to quit.\n" );
     while( 1 )
     {
        ch = getche();
        if( ch == '\t' )

  {
    printf( "\a\nYou pressed Tab\n" );
    break;
        }
     }
  }

The while statement in BREAKER.C creates an indefinite loop that calls the
getche function again and again, assigning the function's return value to
the variable  ch. The if statement in the loop body compares  ch  to the tab
character. When TAB is pressed, BREAKER.C prints  You pressed Tab  and
executes the break statement, which terminates the while loop and ends the
program.

 A break statement exits only one loop.

It's important to remember that the break statement only ends the loop in
which it appears. If two loops are nested, executing a break in the inner
loop exits that loop but not the outer loop. BREAKER1.C shows how break
works within nested loops. The program's inner loop checks for the TAB key
and the outer loop checks for the ENTER key.

  /* BREAKER1.C: Break only exits one loop. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>

  main()
  {
     char ch;
     printf( "Press any key. Press Enter to quit.\n" );
     do
     {
        while( ( ch = getche() ) != '\r' )
        {
           if( ch == '\t' )
           {
              printf( "\a\nYou pressed Tab\n" );
              break;
           }
        }
     } while( ch != '\r' );
     printf( "\nBye bye." );
  }

The BREAKER1.C program includes a while loop nested within a do loop. Both
loops test the same condition─whether the variable  ch  equals the ENTER key
(\r). The while loop also calls the getche function, assigning the
function's return value to  ch.

When TAB is pressed, the program prints  You pressed Tab  and executes a
break statement, which terminates the inner loop. The break does not end the
outer loop, however. The program continues until ENTER is pressed, providing
the condition that ends both loops.

Note that break can only be used to exit a loop or switch statement. While
you might be tempted to use break to jump out of complex if or else
statements, the break statement cannot be used for this purpose. It has no
effect on if and else.


The continue Statement

 The continue statement skips remaining statements in the loop body where it
appears.

The continue statement, like break, interrupts the normal flow of execution
in a loop body. But instead of ending the loop, continue skips all following
statements in the loop body and triggers the next iteration of the loop.
This effect can be useful within complex loops, in which you might wish to
skip to the next loop iteration from various locations.

The CONT.C program shows how continue works. It increments the  count
variable, counting from 0 through 9, but stops printing the value of  count
when that value exceeds 3.

  /* CONT.C: Demonstrate continue statement. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int count;
     for( count = 0; count < 10; count = count + 1 )
     {
        if( count > 3 )
           continue;
        printf( "count = %d\n", count );
     }
     printf( "Done!\n" );
  }

Here's the output from CONT.C:

  count = 0
  count = 1
  count = 2
  count = 3
  Done!

The continue statement occurs within the body of the for loop. When the
value of  count  exceeds 3, the continue skips the rest of the loop body─a
statement that calls printf─and causes the next iteration of the loop.


The goto Statement

 The goto statement jumps from one part of the function to another.

Similar to the GOTO statement in BASIC, goto in C performs an unconditional
jump from one part of a function to any other part. The target of the goto
statement is a label which you supply. The label must end with a colon, as
do case labels, which we discussed earlier.

Most C programmers avoid using the goto statement. It's a bit inconsistent
with the overall philosophy of C, which encourages structured, modular
programming. And, regardless of philosophy, it can be very difficult to read
and debug a program that is littered with haphazard unconditional jumps.

Nevertheless, goto has at least one sensible use. If a serious error occurs
deep within a nested series of loops or conditional statements, goto offers
the simplest escape. The following code has several levels of nesting, with
a goto statement at the innermost level. If the value of  error_count
exceeds 15, the goto statement executes, transferring control to the label
bail_out.

  if( a == 1 )
  {
     while( b == 2 )
     {
        for( c = 0; c < 3; c = c + 1 )
        {
           if( d == 4 )
           {
              while( e == 6 )
              {
                 if( error_count > 15 )
                    goto bail_out;
              }
           }
        }
     }
  }
  bail_out:  /* The goto statement transfers control here. */

To achieve the same effect without goto, you'd have to add extra conditional
tests to this code, making the code more complex and perhaps less efficient.


Names in goto labels are governed by the rules for variable names, which
we'll discuss in the next two chapters. For now, just remember that a goto
label is visible only in the function in which it appears. You can't execute
a goto statement to jump from one function to another function.

The next two chapters explain how to create and manipulate data─variables
and constants─in C programs. Chapter 4, "Data Types," describes the basics,
such as how to declare and initialize variables of different types. Chapter
5, "Advanced Data Types," describes more advanced topics, such as the
visibility of variables.






Chapter 4  Data Types
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

This chapter explains the C data types and shows how to declare and use C
variables. The chapter begins by describing the basic data types from which
all other data types are derived. We then discuss more complex data types,
including arrays and structures. In Chapter 5, "Advanced Data Types," we'll
explore more advanced data-handling topics, such as variable visibility and
automatic type conversions.


Basic Data Types

All data in C programs is either a constant or variable, and each has an
associated data type. The concept of types is common to all high-level
languages. For instance, an integer (whole) number has the INTEGER type in
QuickBASIC, the Integer type in QuickPascal, and the int type in C. This
section describes the basic data types in C and explains how to specify
variables and constants using these types.

All of the basic data types contain a single value. Types that contain more
than one value─arrays, structures, and unions─are called "aggregate types."
We'll discuss aggregate types later in this chapter.


Specifying Basic Types

The C language has four basic data types, which are specified with the
keywords char, int, float, and double. The char (character) type is used for
text and the int type for integers. The float and double types express real
(floating-point) values.

The TYPES.C program creates variables of the four basic types and prints
their values:

  /* TYPES.C: Illustrate basic data types. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     char char_val       = 'a';
     int int_val         = 543;
     float float_val     = 11.1;
     double double_val   = 66.123456789;
     printf( "char_val   = %c\n", char_val );
     printf( "int_val    = %d\n", int_val );
     printf( "float_val  = %f\n", float_val );
     printf( "double_val = %2.9f\n", double_val );
  }

Here is the output from TYPES.C:

  char_val   = a
  int_val    = 543
  float_val  = 11.100000
  double_val = 66.123456789

Each basic data type requires a different amount of memory, as illustrated
in Figure 4.1. In QuickC, a char contains one byte, an int has two bytes, a
float has four bytes, and a double type has eight bytes.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

The C language is designed to run on many different computers, with machine
architectures that may be quite different. To accommodate these differences,
some C data types are "implementation dependent," meaning their sizes depend
on which computer you're using. For instance, the int (integer) type
contains two bytes on IBM PC computers and four bytes on VAX(R)
minicomputers. These differences are important only if you're transporting a
program from one operating system to another. Since QuickC runs only under
one operating system (DOS), this book describes C data types in DOS.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Special Type Specifiers

The C language has four special type specifiers─signed, unsigned, long, and
short. These act as "adjectives" to modify the range of values expressed by
a basic data type.

 The char and int data types  are signed by default.

The signed keyword signifies that a value can be either negative or
nonnegative. If you don't specify, a char or int value is signed.

You can preface a char or int with unsigned to extend the range of
nonnegative values. An unsigned int can have a value in the range 0 through
65,535, and an unsigned char can have a value of 0 through 255.

The long keyword is used to increase the size of an int or double type. A
long int value contains four bytes (twice as many as an int) and expresses
an integer in the range -2,147,483,648 through 2,147,483,647. A long double
value contains 10 bytes and can express a floating-point number with 19
digits of precision.

In QuickC, the short int type is identical to the int type. (This is not the
case in some operating systems other than DOS.)

Table 4.1 lists the basic data types and the range of values each can
express.

Table 4.1  Basic Data Types

╓┌────────────────┌────────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────╖
Type Name        Other Names              Range of Values
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
char             signed char              -128 to 127

unsigned char    none                     0 to 255

int              signed, signed int       -32,768 to 32,767
Type Name        Other Names              Range of Values
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
int              signed, signed int       -32,768 to 32,767

unsigned         unsigned int             0 to 65,535

unsigned short   unsigned short int       0 to 65,535

short            short int, signed short  -32,768 to 32,767

                 signed short int

long             long int, signed long    -2,147,483,648 to

                 signed long int          2,147,483,647

unsigned long    unsigned long int        0 to 4,294,967,295




Type Name        Other Names              Range of Values
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

float            none                     Approximately 1.2E-38 to 3.4E+38
                                          (7-digit
                                          precision)

double           none                     Approximately 2.2E-308 to
                                          1.8E+308 (15-digit
                                          precision)

long double      none                     Approximately 3.4E-4932 to
                                          1.2E+4932 (19-digit precision)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



Most programmers take advantage of type defaults. If a type qualifier
appears alone, the type int is implied. By itself, short is a synonym for
short int. Where long appears alone it is a synonym for long int, and where
unsigned appears alone it is a synonym for unsigned int.


Specifying Variables

As we mentioned in Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C Program," you must declare
every variable in a C program by stating the variable's name and type.
Variable names are governed by the following rules, which also apply to
other userdefined names such as function names:


  ■   C is case-sensitive. For example,  myvar,  MyVar, and  MYVAR  are
      different names.

  ■   The name can't be a keyword (see online help for a list of keywords).

  ■   The first character must be a letter or underscore ( _ ). Many of
      QuickC's system-defined names, including some library-routine names,
      begin with underscores. To avoid conflicts with such names, don't
      create names that begin with underscores.

  ■   Other characters can be letters, digits, or underscores.

  ■   The first 31 characters of local variable names are significant. The
      name can contain more than 31 characters, but QuickC ignores
      everything beyond the thirty-first character. Global variable names
      are normally significant to 30 characters.


All C keywords are lowercase, and it's common to use lowercase for variable
names. Mixed case is becoming popular in some contexts, however. OS/2 and
Microsoft Windows(tm) use mixed case for most system-defined names.


Specifying Constants

Constants─values that don't change during the life of the program─can be
numbers, characters, or strings. Your program can also define "symbolic
constants," which are names that represent constant values. This section
describes how to specify C constants.


Numeric Constants

A numeric constant can have any basic data type, and can be specified in
decimal, hexadecimal, or octal notation. Table 4.2 shows how to specify
numeric constants.

Table 4.2  Constant Specifications

╓┌──────────────────┌────────────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Constant           Type
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
255                decimal int
0xFF               hexadecimal int (255)
0377               octal int (255)
255L               long int
255U               unsigned int
0xFFul             long unsigned hexadecimal int (255)
15.75E2            floating point (1575)
-.123              floating point
.123               floating point
3e0f               floating point
Constant           Type
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
3e0f               floating point
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


A number without a suffix, such as 255, is treated as decimal. The  0x
prefix specifies a hexadecimal number, and the  0  (zero) prefix specifies
octal (base 8).

If a number doesn't have a decimal point, it is an integer. Integers are
signed by default; you can use the suffix  U  or  u  to specify an unsigned
constant. To specify a long integer, place the suffix  L  or  l  after the
number.

A floating-point constant contains either a decimal point or an exponent
preceded by  e  or  E . It can optionally include the suffix  F  or  f  to
denote the float type or the suffix  L  or  l to denote the long double
type.


Character and String Constants

The C language uses different notation for character and string constants. A
single character enclosed in single quotes is a character constant:

  'a'

A string constant is 0 or more characters enclosed in double quotes:

  "Hello"

A string also ends with a null character (\0), as we'll see in the section
"Strings."

The difference between character and string constants is important when you
perform comparisons. The character constant  'a'  contains 1 character, but
the string constant  "a"  contains 2 characters: the letter  a  plus a null
character. Because the two values have a different number of characters, any
comparison of them is invalid. (See "String Problems" in Chapter 10,
"Programming Pitfalls.")

You can specify special characters, such as the tab and backspace, with a
multi-character sequence that begins with a backslash ( \ ). These sequences
are sometimes called "escape sequences." Table 4.3 shows the special
character sequences.

Table 4.3  Special Characters

╓┌───────────────────────┌───────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Sequence                Character
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
\a                      Alert (bell)
\b                      Backspace
\f                      Form feed
\n                      Newline
\r                      Carriage return
\t                      Horizontal tab
\v                      Vertical tab
\'                      Single quote
\"                      Double quote
\\                      Backslash
\ooo                    Octal notation
Sequence                Character
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
\ooo                    Octal notation
\xhh                    Hexadecimal notation
\0                      Null
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Some unusual characters don't have a predefined sequence. You can specify
these with a backslash ( \ ) followed by the hexadecimal or octal number
representing the character's ASCII value. For instance, a telecommunications
program might need to specify ASCII 21, the NAK ("not acknowledged")
character. You can specify this character in either hexadecimal notation,
'\x15', or octal notation, '\25'. Note that the hexadecimal number begins
with  \x, while the octal number starts with a backslash alone.


Symbolic Constants

A "symbolic constant" is a user-defined name that represents a constant.
Symbolic constants are usually typed in uppercase. For instance, the
directive

  #define PI 3.14

declares a symbolic constant named  PI. Wherever  PI  occurs in the program,
the compiler substitutes  3.14. Chapter 7, "Preprocessor Directives,"
discusses symbolic constants and the #define directive.


Aggregate Data Types

This section describes aggregate data types, which contain organized
collections of data in a definite order. In C, the aggregate types are
arrays, structures, and unions.

An "array" is a collection of data items of the same type. Programs use
arrays in cases where a standard data format is repeated many times. For
example, you might use an array to store numbers representing the population
of Minnesota for all the years from 1950 to 2000. C-language arrays are very
similar to arrays in QuickPascal and QuickBASIC.

A "structure" is a collection of data items of different types. Programs use
structures in cases where a variety of data have a close association. For
example, you might use a structure to store information about a given
employee─name, months of employment, and hourly wage. Structures are similar
to QuickPascal records or QuickBASIC user-defined types.

A "union" allows you to use different data formats to access the same area
of memory. It can hold different kinds of information at different times.
Unions are similar to variant records in QuickPascal.


Arrays

 An array is a group of  data items of the same  type under one name.

The simplest aggregate data type is an array: a group of data items that
share the same type and a common name. You can make an array from any data
type, including basic types such as char and int and more complex types such
as structures. This section shows how to declare, initialize, and access
arrays, including arrays with more than one dimension. We'll begin with a
simple example that creates a one-dimensional array.


Creating a Simple Array

The ARRAY.C program creates the array  i_array, which contains three
integers.

  /* ARRAY.C: Demonstrate one-dimensional array. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int j;
     int i_array[3];

     i_array[0] = 176;
     i_array[1] = 4069;
     i_array[2] = 303;

     printf( "--- Values --------     --- Addresses -------\n\n" );

     for( j = 0; j < 3; j = j + 1 )
     {
        printf( "i_array[%d] = %d", j, i_array[j] );
        printf( "\t&i_array[%d] = %u\n", j, &i_array[j] );
     }

  }

Here is the output from ARRAY.C:

  --- Values --------     --- Addresses -------

  i_array[0] = 176        &i_array[0] = 3506
  i_array[1] = 4069       &i_array[1] = 3508
  i_array[2] = 303        &i_array[2] = 3510

As you can see, ARRAY.C prints the values in  i_array  and the memory
address where each array element is stored. You usually don't have to worry
about actual memory addresses in C, but it's useful to have some idea how
array elements are stored in memory. Depending on factors such as the amount
of memory in your system, you may see different addresses when you run
ARRAY.C.

(The second printf statement uses the "address-of" operator (&) to determine
the address of each array element. Chapter 6, "Operators," explains this
operator. For now, it's sufficient to recognize that the operator allows
ARRAY.C to print addresses.)

Figure 4.2 shows how  i_array  is stored in the addresses from the ARRAY.C
output.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Declaring the Array

You declare an array variable by stating its type and its name, as you would
a simple variable. You must also declare the size of the array, stating the
number of elements with an integer constant in square brackets. For example,
the line

  int i_array[3];

from ARRAY.C declares a three-element integer (int) array named  i_array.

Multidimensional arrays are declared the same way, except you must give the
size of each dimension. The following statement, for instance, declares a
twodimensional int array named  two_dim:

  int two_dim[2][3];

We'll return to multidimensional arrays a little later in this chapter.


Initializing the Array

Arrays, like simple variables, should be initialized before use. ARRAY.C
initializes  i_array  with these statements:

  i_array[0] = 176;
  i_array[1] = 4069;
  i_array[2] = 303;

 An array can be initialized  when it is declared.

ARRAY.C declares an array in one statement and then initializes its elements
one by one. You can also initialize an array when you declare it. The
following statement does both jobs at once:

  int i_array[3] = { 176, 4069, 303 };

Note the curly braces around the initializing values. The braces are
mandatory in this kind of initialization.

Under the ANSI C standard, which QuickC version 2.5 follows, you can
simultaneously declare and initialize an array within a function. Pre-ANSI
compilers, including QuickC version 1.0, don't allow this unless the static
keyword precedes the array declaration. Chapter 5, "Advanced Data Types,"
discusses static.

When you declare and initialize an array at the same time, the initializing
values are normally constants, as shown above. Occasionally, you may want to
initialize an array as you declare it using variables instead of constants.
QuickC version 2.5 allows this, but only within a function. The  sample
array in the following example is initialized legally under QuickC version
2.5 but illegally under QuickC version 1.0:

  func()
  {
     int val = 5;
     int sample[3] = { val, val, val };
  }

If you initialize a local array in this way, you must include the size of
the array within the square brackets following the array name. If the
example initialized the  sample  array with the following line:

  int sample[ ] = {val, val, val};

QuickC would issue an error because the size of the array (3) is not
specified.


Specifying Array Elements

 Array subscripts are enclosed in square brackets ( [ ] ).

You specify an array element by giving its position, using an integer value
called a "subscript." Square brackets ([ ]) enclose each subscript. In the
ARRAY.C program above we specify the first element of  i_array  as

  i_array[0]

Notice that the first element of a C array has the subscript 0, not 1.
Unlike QuickPascal and QuickBASIC, the C language does not give you the
option to start at an index number other than 0.

Since array subscripts begin at 0, the subscript of the last array element
is 1 less than the number used to declare that dimension of the array. In
ARRAY.C, the last element of  i_array  is  i_array[2] , not  i_array[3].

 C doesn't check array subscripts.

Unlike QuickBASIC and QuickPascal, C doesn't check the validity of array
subscripts. If the ARRAY.C program included the expression

  i_array[55];

it would refer to a nonexistent array element. (The expression refers to the
element 55, but  i_array  contains only three elements.) This would not
trigger a compiler error or run-time error, however. It's your job to
remember the size of the array and avoid references that go outside the
array's boundaries. This rule is also important when you're accessing arrays
with pointers (see Chapter 8, "Pointers").


Strings

 A string is an array  of characters.

You may have wondered why we didn't mention strings in our earlier
description of basic data types. The reason is that strings aren't a formal
data type. In the C language, a string is simply an array of characters
(char values).

The STRING.C program below creates the string  c_array  and displays its
contents in the same format as the previous example. The program prints the
value of each array element and its address.

  /* STRING.C: Demonstrate string arrays. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int j;
     char c_array[] = "Hello";

     printf( "--- Values --------     --- Addresses -------\n\n" );

     for( j = 0; j < 6; j = j + 1 )
     {
        printf( "c_array[%d]   = %x %c", j, c_array[j], c_array[j] );
        printf( "\t&c_array[%d]    = %u\n", j, &c_array[j] );
     }
  }

Here is the output from STRING.C:

  --- Values --------     --- Addresses -------

  c_array[0]   = 48 H     &c_array[0]    = 3522
  c_array[1]   = 65 e     &c_array[1]    = 3523
  c_array[2]   = 6c l     &c_array[2]    = 3524
  c_array[3]   = 6c l     &c_array[3]    = 3525
  c_array[4]   = 6f o     &c_array[4]    = 3526
  c_array[5]   = 0        &c_array[5]    = 3527

Figure 4.3 shows how  c_array  is stored in memory. Again, the addresses in
the output may differ depending on factors such as the amount of available
memory.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

 A string ends with  a null character.

The figure illustrates another important feature of strings. Although
c_array  has five printing characters ( Hello ), it actually contains six
characters─five letters plus a null character (\0) that marks the end of the
string. As noted earlier, the C language automatically adds a null character
to every string enclosed in double quotes.

STRING.C uses a shortcut when it initializes  c_array. You may have noticed
that the array declaration

  char c_array[] = "Hello";

doesn't declare the array's size (the square brackets are empty). When an
array is initialized at the same time it's declared, QuickC can figure out
how many elements the array has by counting the number of initializing
values to the right of the equal sign.

You can use this shortcut for any type of array, not just a char array. If
the array has more than one dimension, however, you can only omit the size
of the first dimension.


Multidimensional Arrays

A "multidimensional" array contains two or more array dimensions. The
TWODIM.C program below creates a two-dimensional array named  i_array.

  /* TWODIM.C: Demonstrate multidimensional arrays. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int j, k;
     int i_array[2][3] = { { 176, 4069, 303 }, { 6, 55, 777 } };

     printf( "--- Values --------     --- Addresses -------\n\n" );

     for( j = 0; j < 2; j = j + 1 )
     {
        for( k = 0; k < 3; k = k + 1 )
        {
           printf( "i_array[%d][%d] = %d", j, k, i_array[j][k] );
           printf( "\t&i_array[%d][%d] = %u\n", j, k, &i_array[j][k] );
        }
        printf( "\n" );
     }

  }

Here's the output from TWODIM.C:

  --- Values --------     --- Addresses -------

  i_array[0][0] = 176     &i_array[0][0] = 3498
  i_array[0][1] = 4069    &i_array[0][1] = 3500
  i_array[0][2] = 303     &i_array[0][2] = 3502

  i_array[1][0] = 6       &i_array[1][0] = 3504
  i_array[1][1] = 55      &i_array[1][1] = 3506
  i_array[1][2] = 777     &i_array[1][2] = 3508

Each subscript of a multidimensional array appears in its own set of square
brackets, as the TWODIM.C output shows. When you declare the array, the
first subscript states the size of the first dimension, the second states
the size of the second dimension, and so on. In TWODIM.C, the declaration of
 i_array,

  int i_array[2][3]

states that  i_array  contains two rows of values, each row containing three
integers. The statement that declares  i_array  also initializes the array,
listing the initializing values in curly braces to the right of the equal
sign:

  int i_array[2][3] = { { 176, 4069, 303 }, { 6, 5, 77 } };

The braces clearly show that the array contains two groups of three values.


Two-dimensional arrays are often pictured in rows and columns, as in Figure
4.4. Of course, since computer memory is linear,  i_array  is actually
stored with its rows end-for-end, as in Figure 4.5.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

You refer to a multidimensional array element the same way you would a
onedimensional array element, except that you use one subscript for each
dimension of the array. For instance, the statement

  printf( "%d\n", i_array[0][1] );

specifies two subscripts. It prints the value stored in element 0, 1 of
i_array, which is  4069.

Figure 4.5 shows how to specify every element of  i_array  in TWODIM.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Structures

 A structure is a group of related data items of different  types under one
name.

The second aggregate data type is the structure: a group of related data
items under one name. While array elements are all the same type, the
elements of a structure, known as its "members," can be of different types.


Structures are equivalent to records in QuickPascal or user-defined types in
QuickBASIC. As in those languages, the ability to group different types in
the same construct provides powerful, very flexible data-handling
capabilities.


Creating a Simple Structure

We'll write a simple program to demonstrate the basics of structures.
Suppose you want to write a payroll program that records these facts about
an employee:


  ■   Name

  ■   Number of months of service

  ■   Hourly wage


Each of these data items requires a different data type. The name can be
stored in a string (character array), while an integer will do for the
months of service. The hourly wage may contain a fraction; we'll store it in
a floating-point variable.

Although each of these variables has a different type, we can group all of
them in a single structure. The EMPLOYEE.C program below contains the
structure.

  /* EMPLOYEE.C: Demonstrate structures. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <string.h>

  struct employee
  {
     char name[10];
     int months;
     float wage;
  };

  void display( struct employee show );

  main()
  {
     struct employee jones;

     strcpy( jones.name, "Jones, J" );
     jones.months = 77;
     jones.wage = 13.68;

     display( jones );
  }

  void display( struct employee show )
  {
     printf( "Name: %s\n", show.name );
     printf( "Months of service: %d\n", show.months );
     printf( "Hourly wage: %6.2f\n", show.wage );
  }

Here is the output of the EMPLOYEE.C program:

  Name: Jones, J
  Months of service: 77
  Hourly wage:  13.68


Declaring a Structure Type

Since a structure can (and normally does) contain different data types,
creating it is a little more complicated than making an array or simple
variable. Before you can create a structure variable, you must declare a
structure type that tells the compiler how many members the structure
contains and what types they are.

A structure-type declaration starts with the keyword struct, which is
followed by a list of the structure's members enclosed in braces. Between
the struct and the list of members, you can also specify a "structure tag"─a
name that other parts of the program can use to refer to the type.

The structure declaration from EMPLOYEE.C,

  struct employee
  {
     char name[10];
     int months;
     float wage;
  };

 A structure declaration makes a template for variables  of the type it
defines.

creates a "template" for an  employee  structure that structure variables of
this type can use. It's as if you created a brand new data type, tagging it
employee. Figure 4.6 illustrates the  employee  structure type.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Creating a Structure Variable

Once you have declared a structure, you can create variables of that type
using the structure tag. Each variable can contain values of the types
defined in the structure type. In EMPLOYEE.C, the statement

  struct employee jones;

declares a structure variable of the type  employee  named  jones. The
struct states that the variable is a structure. The  employee  tag specifies
the variable's structure type, and  jones  is the variable's name.

You can also declare the variable in the same statement that declares the
structure type. The following code declares the  employee  structure type
and a variable of that type named  jones:

  struct employee
  {
     char name[10];
     int months;
     float wage;
  } jones;

The variable name ( jones ) appears at the end of the declaration.

 Use the member-of operator (.) to specify structure members.

You specify structure members by name, using the "member-of" operator (.) to
separate the variable name and the member name. These are the names of the
members of the  jones  structure variable in EMPLOYEE.C:

  jones.name
  jones.months
  jones.wage

Like other variables, structure variables should be initialized before use.
After  jones  is declared in EMPLOYEE.C, the statements

  strcpy( jones.name, "Jones, J" );
  jones.months = 77;
  jones.wage = 13.68;

initialize the members of the  jones  variable. The first statement
initializes the  jones.name  member by calling the strcpy ("string copy")
library function; this function is described in Chapter 11, "Input and
Output."

Figure 4.7 shows how the  jones  structure is stored in memory. Again, since
computer memory is linear, the members of the structure are laid out
end-to-end.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

You can initialize a structure when you declare it. The following code would
perform both operations in EMPLOYEE.C:

  struct employee jones =
  {
     "Jones, J",
     77,
     13.68
  };

This code declares the  jones  structure variable and lists the initializing
value for each of its members.


Using Structure Variables

A structure member can be treated like any other variable of its type. You
can assign a value to it, change its value, and so on. For instance, the
statement

  jones.months = 83;

would change the value of the  jones.months  member in EMPLOYEE.C.

 Assigning one structure  to another copies  the entire structure.

You can also assign an entire structure to another structure of the same
type. This copies the entire contents of the first structure to the second.
You might do this to save time when creating a new structure whose contents
differ only slightly from those of an existing structure.

To illustrate, let's modify the EMPLOYEE.C program. Say you have a second
employee named Lavik whose wage rate and months of service are the same as
those of Jones and you want to create a second structure. You could begin by
declaring a second  employee  structure variable named  lavik  in this
fashion:

  struct employee lavik = jones;

Now the members of the  lavik  structure contain the same data as the
members of the  jones  structure. The  lavik.name  member contains the
string  Jones, J, the  lavik.months  member contains the value 77, and the
lavik.wage  member contains the value 13.68. You could add the statement

  strcpy( lavik.name, "Lavik, B" );

to place a new string in the  lavik.name  member.

 Structure variables can be passed as function arguments.

When you pass a structure name to a function, the function creates a local
structure variable of that type. Like all local variables, the new variable
is private to the function that includes it.

For example, if you add the statements

  strcpy( show.name, "King, M" );
  printf( "%s\n", show.name );

to the end of the  display  function in EMPLOYEE.C, then a new string is
copied into the  show.name  member of the function's structure variable. The
printf statement in the second line prints

  King, M

Since this structure is local to the  display  function, the change doesn't
affect the structure defined in the main function. If you add the statement


  printf( "%s\n", jones.name );

to the end of the main function, the program prints

  Jones, J

The original structure is unchanged.

While you can pass a structure name to a function as we did above, it's more
common to pass the function a pointer to the structure. This not only
permits the function to access a structure defined elsewhere in the program,
but it conserves memory (since the function doesn't create a local copy of
the structure). Chapter 9, "Advanced Pointers," explains how to access
structures using pointers.


Arrays of Structures

 An array of structures  is a group of structures  of the same type.

Since it's rare for a company to have a single employee, a more practical
version of the EMPLOYEE.C program would have an array of structures─one
structure per employee. The concept may sound intimidating, but this is a
common use of structures.

The following statement declares a 50-element array named  payroll, with
each element a structure of the type  employee :

  struct employee payroll[50];

To specify members in such an array, you combine array notation and
structure notation, giving the array name, a subscript, and a member name.
For instance, the name

  payroll[0].months

specifies the  months  member of the first structure in the  payroll  array.
The first part of the name ( payroll[0] ) contains the array name and
subscript that identify the structure. The second part ( months ) identifies
the member within that structure.

Figure 4.8 depicts the first three elements of the  payroll  array.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Once you grasp the basic idea, it's easy to imagine practical uses for an
array of structures. Many programs, from an address book to a library card
catalog, might use a structure to store different types of information about
an individual item, then store many such structures in an array.


Structures of Structures

As noted earlier, a structure can contain members of any data type─including
other structures. So you can create a structure of structures: a structure
whose members are structures.

To illustrate, suppose you write a group of functions that draw various
kinds of graphic windows and message boxes. You could define a small
structure something like the following:

  struct title
  {
     char text[70];  /* Title text */
     int color;      /* Color of title text */
     short justify;  /* Left, center, or right */
  };

to aid in drawing titles. The  title  structure's three members specify the
title's text, its color, and how its text is justified.

Once the  title  structure is defined, you can make it part of other, larger
structures that use titles. If you define a  window  structure type to draw
windows, for example, that structure could include a  title  along with
other structure members:

  struct window
  {
     struct title wintitle; /* Window title */
     /* Other structure members go here... */
  };

In this structure type, the  title  member is named  wintitle.

You specify members of such structures using member-of operators and  the
appropriate names. If you create a variable of the  window  type named
mywindow, the name

  mywindow.wintitle.color

specifies the  color  member of the  wintitle  member of the  mywindow
structure.

If you program using QuickC's Presentation Graphics library, you'll find it
useful to understand the notation we just explained. Our fictitious  title
structure is a simplified version of the Presentation Graphics titletype
structure type (see Chapter 14, "Presentation Graphics").


Bit Fields

A "bit field" is a specialized structure that provides a way to manipulate
individual bits or groups of bits. One use for this advanced feature is to
access hardware addresses such as the computer's video memory.

 The members of a bit-field structure are groups of bits.

You declare and use a bit-field structure much as you would any other
structure. The difference is that every one of its members must be a bit or
group of bits. You can't include other data types in a bit field.

The following statement declares a bit-field structure type with the tag
SCREEN:

  struct SCREEN
  {
    unsigned character : 8;
    unsigned fgcolor   : 3;
    unsigned intensity : 1;
    unsigned bgcolor   : 3;
    unsigned blink     : 1;
  } screenbuf[25][80];

The colons in the declaration tell QuickC these are bit fields rather than
normal structure members. The number following each colon tells how many
bits the field contains. In the  SCREEN  type the  character  member has 8
bits, intensity  has 1 bit, and so on. Figure 4.9 illustrates the  SCREEN
type.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Figure 4.10 illustrates memory allocation for the  SCREEN  type. The members
of the  SCREEN  type mirror the arrangement of bits in screen memory.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Take another look at the structure declaration. In addition to declaring a
structure type, the statement declares a two-dimensional array variable
screenbuf, of the same structure type. You could use this array as an
alternate video buffer. Many graphics programs use a similar arrangement to
switch between an alternate video buffer and the computer's video memory.

The five members of the  SCREEN  type happen to take up a full int (two
bytes, on DOS machines). A bit field need not fill up a byte or int; the bit
field can contain as many bits as you need up to the maximum number of bits
for the field's

base type. The base type for each field in the example is unsigned (unsigned
int), so each field can contain a maximum of 16 bits.

The members of a bit-field structure are accessed with the structure-member
operator─like other structure members. For instance, the name

  screenbuf[13][53].blink = 1;

specifies the  blink  member of element 13, 53 of the  screenbuf  array.

The range of values you can assign to a bit-field member depends on the
member's size. Since the  blink  member of the  SCREEN  type contains one
bit,  blink  is limited to the value 0 or 1. The  fgcolor  member contains
three bits and can have any value from 0-7.


Unions

 A union is a group of  variables of different types  that share storage
space.

A union is a variable that can hold any one of several data types at
different times, using the same storage space. Unions are a rather advanced
feature. One use of them is to access DOS registers, which you may sometimes
need to access as bytes and at other times as words.

As with a structure, you must start by declaring a union type to tell the
compiler the number and types of the union's members. You include one of
each type that you expect to use.

The following code creates a union that can hold a char, int, or long value.
It declares a union type with the tag  u_sample  and declares a variable of
that type named  example.

  union u_sample
  {
    char c_val;
    int i_val;
    long l_val;
  }  example;

When you declare a union, QuickC allocates as much storage as the largest
data type in the union requires. Since the largest type in  u_sample  is
long, this union contains four bytes.

The elements of a union are called members and use the same notation as
structure members. Thus, the members of the  example  union are named

  example.c_val
  example.i_val
  example.l_val

The contents of a union depend on how you access it. For instance, the
statement

  example.c_val = '\0';

stores a char value in the  example  union. Since a char value takes one
byte, the statement uses only one byte of the space in  example. The
statement

  example.i_val = 77;

uses two bytes of the union, because an int value requires two bytes of
storage. Likewise, the statement

  example.l_val = 75621;

stores long value in  example, taking up all four bytes of its storage
space. Figure 4.11 shows memory allocation for the three members in the
example  union.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

It's your job to keep track of what is stored in a union. If you store a
long value in  example  and mistakenly treat that value as a char value
later, the result may be nonsense. It's especially important not to confuse
integer and floating-point types, which are stored in different internal
formats.

Now that you're familiar with the data types that C offers, you are ready to
tackle more advanced data-handling concepts. The next chapter discusses
several of these.






Chapter 5  Advanced Data Types
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

In Chapter 4, "Data Types," we described the basic C data types and showed
how to declare and use different kinds of variables. This chapter examines
more advanced data topics, including the visibility and lifetime of
variables and the conversion of values from one data type to another.

If you know QuickPascal or QuickBASIC, some of these topics, such as
visibility, should be familiar. For example, a variable declared within a
function is visible (accessible) only in that function. One area in which C
differs notably from QuickPascal is type conversion. The C language gives
programmers the freedom to convert a value from one type to another type,
whereas QuickPascal does not.


Visibility

Every variable in a C program has a definite "visibility" that determines
which parts of the program can "see," or access, the variable. Another term
for visibility is "scope."

As we mentioned in Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C Program," there are two basic
kinds of visibility: local and external. A "local" variable─one declared
within a function─is visible only within that function. An "external"
variable─one declared outside all functions─is visible to all functions that
follow it in the program.

This section begins by describing local and external visibility, then goes
on to discuss visibility in multiple-file programs and the visibility of
functions.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

While the examples in this section use simple int variables, visibility
rules apply equally to aggregate types such as arrays and structures.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

 Use external variables  only when necessary.

C programmers normally limit the visibility of each variable to those parts
of the program that need to access the variable. For instance, if a variable
is needed only within one function, it should always be local to that
function. By restricting a variable's visibility, you can prevent other
parts of the program from accidentally changing the variable's value. Such
haphazard side effects were common in older interpreted BASIC programs, in
which every variable had unlimited  visibility.


Local Variables

 Variables declared  within a function are  local to that function.

As we noted in Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C Program," and Chapter 2,
"Functions," the place where you declare a variable controls where the
variable is visible. Declaring a variable within a function makes the
variable local to that function; the variable can be seen only within the
function.

The VISIBLE.C program below demonstrates local visibility. It contains a
function named  be_bop  that tries to print the value of the local variable
val.

  /* VISIBLE.C: Demonstrate local visibility. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  void be_bop( void );

  main()
  {
     int val = 10;
     be_bop();
  }

  void be_bop( void )
  {
     printf( "val = %d", val ); /* Error! */
  }

Notice where the  val  variable is declared. The declaration

  int val = 10;

occurs within the main function, so  val  is local to main. When you compile
VISIBLE.C, QuickC stops, providing this error message:

  C2065: 'val' : undefined

What happened? The printf statement in the  be_bop  function

  printf( "val = %d", val ); /* Error! */

can't "see" the variable  val, which is declared locally within main.
Outside the main function, in which  val  is declared, the variable doesn't
exist.

You could eliminate the error message by declaring  val  externally, but
most programmers would avoid that solution. If a variable has external
visibility, any part of the program might change its value accidentally. A
better solution is to pass the value of  val  to  be_bop  as a function
argument, as shown in the program VISIBLE1.C below.

  /* VISIBLE1.C: Demonstrate local visibility. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  void be_bop( int param );

  main()
  {
     int val = 10;
     be_bop( val );
  }

  void be_bop( int param )
  {
     printf( "%d\n", param );
  }

The VISIBLE1.C program is identical to VISIBLE.C except for two changes. The
 be_bop  function now can accept an argument, and the statement that calls
be_bop  passes the value of  val  as an argument. These changes allow the
be_bop  function to print the value of  val  without the drawback of making
val  external.

Most local variables are declared at the beginning of the function and are
visible throughout the function. If you declare the variable later in the
function, it is visible only to statements that follow the declaration.

The reason for this rule is simple: QuickC, like all language compilers,
reads your program line by line, from beginning to end. Until the compiler
sees the variable's declaration, it must treat the variable as undefined.
This rule applies to all variables, including external variables, as we'll
see in the next section.

Although the practice isn't common, you can restrict a local variable's
visibility even further by declaring it in a statement block inside a
function. For instance, you might declare a variable within the body of the
loop or conditional statement. In fact, any pair of curly braces limits the
visibility of a variable declared within that pair.


External Variables

If you declare a variable outside all functions, the variable has external
visibility; every function that follows the declaration can see the
variable. External variables are called "global" in some other languages.

Experienced C programmers use external variables only when necessary─for
instance, when two or more functions need the ability to change the same
variable or communicate with each other by changing a variable. Even in
those cases, however, you may be able to avoid the dangers of external
visibility by passing a pointer to the variable as a function argument. See
the section "Passing Pointers to Functions" in Chapter 8 ("Pointers") for
more information.

Most external variables are declared near the beginning of the program,
before any function definitions. In this way, you can make the variable
visible to every function in the program. You could do this in VISIBLE1.C by
placing the declaration of  val,

  int val = 10;

immediately before the main function.

If you declare the variable  val  later in the program, it is not visible to
functions that precede the declaration. The VISIBLE2.C program below
demonstrates this principle.

  /* VISIBLE2.C: Demonstrate external visibility. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  void be_bop( int param );

  main()
  {
     be_bop( val ); /* Error! */
  }

  int val = 10;

  void be_bop( int param )
  {
     printf( "val = %d\n", param );
  }

The VISIBLE2.C program is identical to VISIBLE1.C except that  val  is
declared externally

  int val = 10;

following the main function, rather than locally within main.

Because the declaration occurs outside all functions, the variable is
external. However, because the declaration follows the main function, the
variable is not visible within main. When the printf statement in the main
function refers to  val, QuickC issues the error message:

  C2065: 'val' : undefined

Remember, QuickC reads the program line by line, from start to finish. Since
the compiler knows nothing about  val  when it reaches the reference in
main, it must treat  val  as undefined. In this program, only the  be_bop
function can refer to  val.


Visibility in Multiple Source Files

A "source file" is the file containing your program's text. Source files
normally have the .C file extension, to distinguish them from other files
such as executable (.EXE) files.

Simple programs have only one source file, but large programs are often
split into several source files. If you write a word-processing program, for
instance, you might place all the program's screen-output functions in one
file, all the file-handling functions in a second file, and so forth.

 Use the extern keyword to make an external variable visible in more than
one source file.

Normally, an external variable is visible only in the source file in which
it is declared. In a multi-file program, however, a function in one file
might need to access a variable in a second file. To make the variable
visible in more than one source file, you must declare it with the extern
keyword.

Let's look at a short two-file program that shows how to use extern. The
first source file, FILE1.C, declares two external variables,  chico  and
harpo. The file contains one function (main) that calls a second function
named  yonder.

  /* FILE1.C: Visibility in multiple source files. */

  int chico = 20, harpo = 30;
  extern void yonder( void );

  main()
  {
     yonder();
  }

The second source file, FILE2.C, contains the  yonder  function that is
called in FILE1.C. This file also declares the variables  chico  and  harpo,
 but it prefaces their declarations with extern to show that the variables
are defined externally in some other file. Once this is done, any function
in FILE2.C can refer to  chico  and  harpo  as if they are defined in the
same file.

  /* FILE2.C: Visibility in multiple source files. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  void yonder( void )
  {
     extern int chico, harpo;
     printf( "chico = %d, harpo = %d\n", chico, harpo );
  }

You can compile this program in one of two ways. In the QuickC environment,
choose Set Program List from the Make menu and add FILE1.C and FILE2.C to
the list. Then choose Build Program from the Make menu.

You can also enter this command from the DOS command line:

  qcl FILE1.C FILE2.C

In either case, the executable file is named FILE1.EXE. The program's
output,

  chico = 20, harpo = 30

shows that the  yonder  function in FILE2.C can access the variables defined
in FILE1.C.

Sometimes you may want an external variable to be visible only in the source
file where it's declared. The variable can be shared by functions in one
file, but it is hidden to all other files, thus minimizing the risk of
naming conflicts.

 The static keyword  can limit a variable's visibility to one source file.

To limit a variable's visibility to one file, precede the variable's
declaration with the keyword static. For example, if FILE1.C declared the
harpo  variable as static in this manner,

  static int harpo;

it would prevent FILE2.C from accessing  harpo  at all, even though FILE2.C
declares (with extern) that  harpo  is defined somewhere else.


Visibility of Functions

 Functions are normally visible in multiple source files.

Unlike variables, functions are external by default. That is, they are
normally visible to every file in a multi-file program. You'll notice that
in FILE1.C we declared the  yonder  function with the extern keyword. We did
this merely to improve readability; the keyword shows clearly that the
function is defined in some other file. If we removed the extern from the
declaration of  yonder  in FILE1.C, the program would work just as well as
before.

At times you may want to restrict the visibility of a function in a
multi-file program, making it visible in some files but not in others. By
"hiding" a function from other parts of a program, you can reduce the danger
of naming conflicts. For instance, if you write a library of functions to
sell commercially, you probably would hide all of the library's local
function names, to prevent conflicts with function names your customers
might create.

 The static keyword can  limit a function's visibility.

As with external variables, you limit a function's visibility using the
static keyword. A function declared as static is visible only in the source
file that declares it. If we add static to the header of the  yonder
function, for example,

  static void yonder( void )

the function could no longer be called from the FILE1.C file.


Lifetime

In addition to visibility, every variable also has a certain "lifetime"─that
is, the period during the program's execution when the variable exists.

External variables exist for the life of the program. Memory is allocated
for them when the program begins and remains until the program ends.

 An automatic variable  disappears when the function ends.

Local variables have shorter lifetimes. They come into being when the
function begins and disappear when the function ends. For this reason, a
local variable is said to be "automatic." The variable comes and goes
automatically, each time the function is called.

Automatic variables conserve memory in a couple of ways. First, since they
evaporate when the function ends, automatic variables don't consume memory
when not in use. Second, they are stored in the "stack" memory area, which
the program allocates at run time. So, automatic variables don't enlarge the
executable program.

The C language provides the auto keyword for declaring automatic variables.
However, this keyword is seldom used, since all local variables are
automatic unless you specify otherwise. In the following function, both  val
 and  example  are automatic variables:

  void sample( void )
  {
     int val;
     auto int example;
  }

The auto preceding the declaration of  example  has no practical effect. The
variable  example  is automatic even if you remove the auto from its
declaration.


Extending the Lives of Local Variables

Occasionally, you may want a local variable to retain its value between
function calls. The static keyword, introduced earlier as a means of
limiting the visibility of external variables, also performs this task.

 A static local variable  retains its value through  subsequent function
calls.

If you precede a local variable declaration with static, the variable exists
for the life of the program─the same lifetime as an external variable. The
variable still has local visibility, however.

The STATIC.C program below shows how to create and use a static local
variable. In STATIC.C, the value of the  methuselah  variable persists
through all calls to the  add_val  function, which adds values to
methuselah  and prints the variable's value.

  /* STATIC.C: Demonstrate static variables. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  void add_val( int value );

  main()
  {
     add_val( 1 );
     add_val( 5 );
     add_val( 20 );
  }

  void add_val( int value )
  {
     static int methuselah;
     if( value == 1 )
        methuselah = 0;
     methuselah = methuselah + value;
     printf( "methuselah = %d\n", methuselah );
  }

The  add_val  function in STATIC.C accepts one parameter and also declares a
static local variable named  methuselah. Each time  add_val  is called, it
adds the passed value to  methuselah.

The main function calls the  add_val  function three times, passing the
values 1, 5, and 20 to  add_val  as arguments. The program's output

  methuselah = 1
  methuselah = 6
  methuselah = 26

shows that the value of  methuselah  persists through all three function
calls.

If we remove the static keyword from the declaration of  methuselah, the
variable's value is not preserved between function calls. The value of
methuselah  is unpredictable the second and third times that  add_val  is
called.

Notice that extending a local variable's lifetime with static doesn't affect
its visibility. The  methuselah  variable keeps its value between function
calls, but you can't refer to the variable outside the  add_val  function.


Converting Data Types

It's usually best to avoid mixing data items of different types in the same
expression. You wouldn't normally add a character variable to a
floating-point variable, for instance. Some languages, such as QuickPascal,
generally treat type mixing as an error. However, the C language gives you
the freedom to mix data types when necessary.

For example, since the char and int types both can store whole numbers,
there may be times when you have a good reason to add a char value to an int
value. When you mix types, QuickC does not issue an error message. Instead,
the compiler converts both data items to the same type and then performs the
requested operation.

Type conversion can occur in one of two ways. The first way occurs
automatically when you combine different types in an expression. You can
also use special syntax to intentionally "cast" (convert) one type to
another. We'll discuss both methods in the following sections.

Knowing how C converts types will help you to find bugs that result from
unintended type clashes and to minimize errors when you deliberately mix
types.


Ranking of Data Types

For purposes of conversion, the C language ranks data types in the order
shown in Figure 5.1.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

The ranking illustrated in Figure 5.1 generally reflects the amount of
storage that each type requires. As you may remember from Chapter 4, "Data
Types," larger data types require more storage than smaller types. Thus, an
int, which requires two bytes of storage, outranks a char, which requires
one byte.

Within this ranking, an unsigned type outranks the corresponding signed
type. An unsigned char value is of higher rank than a signed char, and so
forth.


Promotions and Demotions

 A promotion is usually harmless.

A type conversion always involves two data items of different types.
Whenever possible, QuickC converts the lower-ranking (smaller) data item to
the higher-ranking (larger) type. This kind of conversion, called a
"promotion," is normally harmless. For example, since a two-byte int has
more than enough room to store a one-byte char, it's generally safe to
promote a char value to an int.

 A demotion usually causes a loss of data.

Sometimes, the compiler is forced to convert a higher-ranking value to a
lower-ranking type. This kind of conversion, called a "demotion," usually
causes loss of data. For example, the int value 32,000 is much too large to
be stored in a char type, which can't hold a number larger than 255. If you
assign the value 32,000 to a char variable, some data must be lost.

A demotion of an integer type truncates the higher-ranking type, throwing
away the data from high-order bytes that can't fit in the smaller-ranking
value. Some demotions of floating-point types round off a value rather than
truncate it.


Automatic Type Conversions

 C does an automatic  type conversion when you  mix different data types.

When a program statement mixes two different data types, QuickC performs an
automatic type conversion. The following code, for instance, adds the char
variable  a  to the int variable  b.

  char a = 5;
  int b = 32000;
  b = a + b;

In the statement

  b = a + b;

the addition operation to the right of the equal sign triggers an automatic
type conversion. QuickC promotes the char value to an int and then adds the
two int values.

If you're not sure whether QuickC is doing an automatic type conversion, set
Warning Level 2 or higher in the Compiler Flags dialog box. The compiler
generates the warning message

  C4051: data conversion

whenever an automatic conversion occurs. This monitoring helps you readily
identify unwanted conversions.

If you carelessly mix different types, you may create subtle errors. The
CONVERT.C program below has a deliberate error that shows what can happen
when types are mixed. It adds four variables and assigns their sum to a
fifth variable, causing three promotions and one demotion.

  /* CONVERT.C: Demonstrate type conversions. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     char c_val = 10;
     int i_val = 20;
     long l_val = 64000;
     float f_val = 3.1;
     int result;

     result = c_val + i_val + l_val + f_val;  /* Error! */

     printf( "%d\n", result );
  }

The CONVERT.C program adds the numbers 10, 20, 64000, and 3.1. Instead of
the correct result, 64033.10, the program prints

  -1503

Something definitely went wrong. The problem lies somewhere in the line

  result = c_val + i_val + l_val + f_val;

which triggers four automatic type conversions. We'll examine the
conversions in order.

The first conversion occurs when the char variable  c_val  is added to the
int variable  i_val:

  c_val + i_val

Since the variables are different types, QuickC automatically converts the
lower-ranking char value to the higher-ranking int type before adding them.
This promotion doesn't create any problems, since there's more than enough
room to store the one-byte char value in the two-byte int. The sum of this
addition is 30, another int value.

The next operation adds that partial sum to the long value of  l_val  (to
make the expression easier to read, we'll show the sum from the previous
addition):

  30 + l_val

This addition triggers another promotion. The compiler promotes the int
result of the first addition to a long value before adding it to  l_val,
which is long. Since the four-byte long type has more than enough room to
store a two-byte int, this promotion is also harmless.

Now the partial sum equals 64030. The last addition from CONVERT.C

  64030 + f_val

triggers another harmless conversion: the compiler converts the long result
of the previous addition to a float value before adding it to  f_val. Even
though floating-point and integer values are stored in different internal
formats, no data is lost when the long is converted to a float.

The result of these additions and conversions is the float value 64033.10,
which is correct. So where does the mistake occur?

The problem arises when CONVERT.C assigns the final sum to the wrong type of
variable. You'll recall that the line containing these operations begins
with the assignment result =.

Earlier in the program, we declared the variable  result  as an int. The
twobyte int variable created to store the result of these additions is too
small to contain the four-byte float sum that was finally produced.

The assignment forces QuickC to demote the larger float value to the smaller
int type. It's impossible to store such a large floating-point value in the
two bytes of an int, so the final result is incorrect.

Figure 5.2 shows the progression of automatic type conversions that the
CONVERT.C program produces.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

We can fix the conversion error by declaring the variable  result  as a
float, substituting

  float result;

for the earlier declaration. We'll also need to change the format string in
the printf function call to print a float value, as shown below:

  printf( "%6.2f\n", result );

Now CONVERT.C prints the expected value of 64033.10.


Manual Type Conversions through Casting

 A cast forces a value  to a particular type.

The C language also allows you to force a type conversion that would not
otherwise happen, a process known as "casting." Using casts, it is possible
to convert a data item to any C data type.

Sometimes you must use a cast to make the program work properly. When
calling the malloc library function, for instance, you should perform a cast
on the value that the function returns. (Chapter 12, "Dynamic Memory
Allocation," explains malloc and other memory-allocating functions.)

Casts can also make a program more readable. QuickC does most automatic type
conversions silently. So if you write a tricky bit of code that relies on
automatic conversions, you, or some other programmer, may not notice the
conversions later. To make such code more readable─and easier to debug─you
can add explicit type casts in places where silent conversions might go
unnoticed.

To cast a value to a different type, place the desired type name in
parentheses in front of the value. For instance, the statement

  f_val = (float)any_val;

casts the value of the variable  any_val  to type float before assigning it
to  f_val. Here the type name in parentheses,

  (float)

performs the cast. No matter what type  any_val  has, the cast converts that
type to float before assigning it to  f_val.

When you cast a variable, the cast affects the value the variable yields,
but not the variable itself. Suppose that  any_val  is an int variable with
the value 333. The above cast converts the value 333 to float format before
assigning it to  f_val. But  any_val  remains an int variable after the
cast.

Remember, you can detect automatic type conversions by setting Warning Level
2 or higher in QuickC and watching for the following warning:

  C4051: data conversion

You can then add explicit casts to eliminate the warning where the
conversions are desirable. (See "Automatic Type Conversions" above.)


Register Variables

 Register variables are stored in processor registers instead of addressable
memory.

You can use the register keyword in variable declarations to request that a
variable be stored in a processor register. Because processor registers can
be accessed more quickly than addressable memory locations, this storage can
make a program run faster. Programmers use register to speed access to
heavily used variables, such as counter variables in loops.

The register specifier is much less important than it used to be, now that
most C compilers, including QuickC, can perform optimizations (improvements)
during compilation. If you compile with the Optimizations option turned on,
QuickC automatically stores variables in registers when needed. So you
probably won't need to use register except in special cases.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
IMPORTANT

If you compile with Optimizations on, an explicit register declaration can
override register storage that QuickC would do automatically. Declaring one
variable with register might prevent QuickC from storing some other variable
in a register. In the worst case, this can make a program run slower.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

You can use register only with short integer types (char, int, and short
int). Other types─including aggregate types such as arrays─are too large to
fit in a register.

Only two registers are available for variable storage at any given time.
(They are DI and SI, for those who have programmed in assembly language.) If
you request more registers than are available, QuickC stores the extra
variables in addressable memory, as it does non-register variables.

The following declaration uses register to ask the compiler to store the int
variable  val  in a processor register:

  register int val;

You can ask the compiler to store more than one variable in a register. For
instance, the statement

  register int val, count;

declares  val  and  count  as register variables.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

Since registers are not addressable, you can't use the address-of (&)
operator to get the address of a variable declared with register. This rule
applies whether or not QuickC is actually able to store the variable in a
register. Thus, if you need to access a variable through a pointer, don't
declare that variable with register. See the section "Initializing a Pointer
Variable" in Chapter 8, "Pointers."
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Renaming Existing Types with typedef

The typedef keyword creates a new name for an existing data type. This is a
convenience feature that you can use to make programs more readable. For
instance, the declaration

  typedef int integer;

allows you to use  integer  as a synonym for int.

One more practical use of typedef is to substitute a short, descriptive name
for an aggregate type. For instance, the QuickC Presentation Graphics
library uses typedef to create descriptive names such as windowtype and
titletype for structures used in that library.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

The typedef keyword doesn't create a new data type. It merely allows you to
use a different name for a type that already exists.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

You can also use typedef to minimize portability problems. By using typedef
declarations for data types that are machine dependent, you need only change
the typedef declaration if you move the program to a different operating
system.


The Enumeration Type

The "enumeration type" specifies a set of named integer constants, similar
to the enumerated type in QuickPascal. In the C language, enumeration types
are declared with the enum keyword.

 Use enum to name a  set of integer constants.

The enum type is useful mainly for improving a program's readability. With
enum, you can use meaningful names for a set of constants whose purpose
might not otherwise be apparent.

Suppose you're writing a calendar program in which the constant 0 represents
Saturday, 1 represents Sunday, and so on. You might begin by declaring the
enumeration type  day  in the following manner:

  enum day
  {
     saturday, sunday, monday, tuesday,
     wednesday, thursday, friday
  };

Notice this declaration's similarity to a structure declaration. As with
structures, the type declaration creates a template that you can use to
declare variables of this type. (See the section "Declaring a Structure
Type" in Chapter 4, "Data Types.")

Unless you specify otherwise, the first value in an enumeration type equals
0 and others are numbered sequentially. In the enum type shown above,
saturday  equals 0,  sunday  equals 1, and so forth.

The values in an enumeration type need not be sequential, however. If you
want some other order, you can declare explicit values for each member of
the type. The following declaration, for example, assigns the names  zero,
freeze, and boil  to the constants 0, 32, and 220, respectively.

  enum temps
  {
     zero = 0,
     freeze = 32,
     boil = 220
  };

After declaring an enumeration type, you can create a variable of that type
and assign it a value from the type. The statement

  enum day today = wednesday;

declares the variable  today, assigning it the value  wednesday  from the
day  enumeration type.

After you assign its value, you can use the variable  today  as you would an
int variable. Although the variable is considered to have the enum type, it
is an ordinary int for all practical purposes.

Enumeration types aren't used very often, partly because you can achieve a
similar effect using the #define directive. (Chapter 7, "Preprocessor
Directives," explains #define in detail.) For example, the code

  #define SATURDAY 0
  #define SUNDAY 1
  #define MONDAY 2
  #define TUESDAY 3
  #define WEDNESDAY 4
     .
     .
     .
  int today = WEDNESDAY;

uses #define to create symbolic constants named  SATURDAY,  SUNDAY,  MONDAY,
 TUESDAY, and  WEDNESDAY, assigning them the values 0 through 4. The last
line in the example creates the int variable  today  and assigns it the
value of  WEDNESDAY. The result is identical to the statement shown earlier:


  enum day today = wednesday;

One advantage of using enum over #define directives is that it groups
related names in one place and can be more compact than a long series of
directives.

This concludes our main discussion of data types. The next chapter,
"Operators," examines the C language's rich set of operators, which allow
you to manipulate data in many different ways.






Chapter 6  Operators
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Compared with other languages, C is very compact, using fewer than 50
keywords. One reason C can get by with so few reserved words is its
abundance of powerful operators─well over 30.

Most C operators are easy to understand and remember. Even if you have never
seen a C program, you probably understand that the statement

  val = val * 5;

multiplies the variable  val  by 5 and assigns the result to  val.

Because the printable ASCII character set has only so many unique symbols, C
uses some ASCII symbols in more than one operator. For instance, the
asterisk (*) performs either a multiplication or pointer operation,
depending on context. Similarly, the ampersand (&) is part of three C
operators. Depending on context, the ampersand can obtain an address or
perform a logical or bitwise AND operation. Be careful not to confuse
operators that look similar but do different jobs.

This chapter describes the C operators, beginning with those that are common
to most languages, and then discussing those unique to C.


Introducing C's Operators

We'll start by discussing C operators that look and behave similarly to
operators in other languages. These include the following groups:


  ■   Arithmetic operators, which do operations such as addition and
      multiplication

  ■   Relational operators, which compare two values and give a true or
      false result

  ■   Assignment operators, which make one value equal to another



Arithmetic Operators

The C language's arithmetic operators closely resemble those in other
languages. Table 6.1 lists C's arithmetic operators.

Table 6.1  Arithmetic Operators

╓┌─────────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Operator                  Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
*                         Multiplication
/                         Division
%                         Modulus
+                         Addition
-                         Subtraction
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


The "modulus operator" (%) may be unfamiliar. It divides a value and gives
the remainder. For instance, the statement

  remainder = 20 % 3;

assigns the value 2 to the variable  remainder  (20 divided by 3 equals 6,
with a remainder of 2). If the division doesn't produce a remainder, the
modulus operator yields the value 0.


Relational Operators

"Relational operators" evaluate the relationship between two expressions,
giving a true result (the value 1) or a false result (the value 0). C has
six relational operators, which are listed in Table 6.2.

Table 6.2  Relational Operators

╓┌──────────────────────┌────────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Operator               Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Operator               Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
<                      Less than
<=                     Less than or equal
>                      Greater than
>=                     Greater than or equal
==                     Equal
!=                     Not equal
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


The "equality operator" (==), shown above, tests whether two expressions are
equal.

Don't confuse the equality operator with the assignment operator (=)
discussed in the next section. The assignment operator sets one value equal
to another, as we'll see shortly. (Chapter 10, "Programming Pitfalls,"
discusses this common programming error.)

The C language gives the value 1 for true and 0 for false but recognizes any
nonzero value as true. The following code fragment demonstrates this
difference:

  printf( "C generates %d for true\n", 2 == 2 );
  printf( "C generates %d for false\n", 2 == 4 );
  if( -33 )
     printf( "C recognizes any nonzero value as true\n" );

The output from this code,

  C generates 1 for true
  C generates 0 for false
  C recognizes any nonzero value as true

shows that the true expression ( 2 == 2 ) gives the value 1 and the false
expression ( 2 == 4 ) gives the value 0. The last output line shows that C
recognizes the nonzero value -33 as a true value.


Assignment Operators

The "assignment operator" (=) sets one value equal to another. The following
statement assigns the value of  sample  to  val:

  val = sample;

 You can combine an assignment with a bitwise  or arithmetic operation.

In a convenient shorthand, C allows you to combine the assignment operator
with any arithmetic or bitwise operator (see the "Arithmetic Operators" and
"Bitwise Operators" sections). For example, the statement

  val = val + sample;

can more conveniently be written

  val += sample;

Both statements add  val  to  sample  and then assign the result to  val.

Table 6.3 lists C's special assignment operators.

Table 6.3  Special Assignment Operators

╓┌───────────┌─────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Expression  Equivalent    Operation
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
x *= y       x = x * y    Multiplication
x /= y       x = x / y    Division
x %= y       x = x % y    Modulus
x += y       x = x + y    Addition
x -= y       x = x - y    Subtraction
x <<= y      x = x << y   Left shift
x >>= y      x = x >> y   Right shift
x &= y       x = x & y    AND
x ^= y       x = x ^ y    Exclusive OR
x |= y       x = x | y    Inclusive OR
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Note that the equal sign always follows the other operator. In the following
code,

  val ^= sample;
  val =^ sample;

the first statement is meaningful, but the second is a syntax error.


C's Unique Operators

The remaining sections in this chapter describe C operators that fall into
two categories: those that are unique to C and those that look or behave
differently in C than in other languages.


Increment and Decrement Operators

The C language's unique "increment" (++) and "decrement" (- -) operators are
very useful. They increase or decrease an expression by a value of 1.

Table 6.4  Increment and Decrement Operators

╓┌─────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Operator              Operation
Operator              Operation
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
++                    Increment expression by 1
- -                   Decrement expression by 1
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Thus, the two statements

  val = val + 1;
  val++;

are equivalent and so are these statements:

  val = val - 1;
  val--;

 You can use the ++ and - - operators before  or after an expression.

The ++ and - - operators can precede or follow an expression. Placed before
an expression, the operator changes the expression before the expression's
value is used. In this case, the operator is said to be a "prefix" operator.
Placed after an expression, the operator (known as a "postfix" operator)
changes the value of the expression after the expression's value is used.

In the DECRMENT.C program, shown below, the decrement operator is used both
as a prefix operator and a postfix operator.

  /* DECRMENT.C: Demonstrate prefix and postfix operators. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  main()
  {
     int val, sample = 3, proton = 3;
     val = sample--;
     printf( "val = %d  sample = %d\n", val, sample );
     val = --proton;
     printf( "val = %d  proton = %d\n", val, proton );
  }

Here is the output from DECRMENT.C:

  val = 3  sample = 2
  val = 2  proton = 2

In the first use of the decrement operator, the statement

  val = sample--;

assigns the value of  sample  (3) to the variable  val  and then decrements
sample  to the value 2. Contrast this with the statement

  val = --proton;

which first decrements  proton  to the value 2 and then assigns that value
to  val.


Bitwise Operators

The "bitwise operators," listed in Table 6.5, manipulate bits in data of the
integer type. These operators are often used in programs that must interact
with hardware.

Table 6.5  Bitwise Operators

╓┌─────────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Operator                  Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
~                         Complement
<<                        Left shift
>>                        Right shift
&                         AND
^                         Exclusive OR
|                         Inclusive OR
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


The ~ operator, known as the "one's complement," acts on only one value
(rather than on two, as do most operators). This operator changes every 1
bit in its operand to a 0 bit and vice versa.

The  and >> operators, known as the "shift operators," shift the left
operand by the value given in the right operand. These operators offer a
fast, convenient way to multiply or divide integers by a power of 2.

The & operator, known as the "bitwise AND," sets a bit to 1 if either of the
corresponding bits in its operands is 1, or to 0 if both corresponding bits
are 0. It is often used to "mask," or turn off, one or more bits in a value.


The ^ operator, known as the "bitwise exclusive OR," sets a bit to 1 if the
corresponding bits in its operands are different, or to 0 if they are the
same.

The  |  operator, known as the "bitwise inclusive OR," sets a bit to 1 if
either of the corresponding bits in its operands is 1, or to 0 if both
corresponding bits are 0. It is often used to turn on bits in a value.

Each of the bitwise operators is used in the BITWISE.C program, shown below.


  /* BITWISE.C: Demonstrate bitwise operators. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     printf( "255 & 15 = %d\n", 255 & 15 );
     printf( "255 | 15 = %d\n", 255 | 15 );
     printf( "255 ^ 15 = %d\n", 255 ^ 15 );
     printf( "2 << 2   = %d\n", 2 << 2 );
     printf( "16 >> 2  = %d\n", 16 >> 2 );
     printf( "~2       = %d\n", ~2 );
  }

The output from BITWISE.C,

  255 & 15 = 15
  255 | 15 = 255
  255 ^ 15 = 240
  2 << 2   = 8
  16 >> 2  = 4
  ~2  = -3

shows the results of the program's various bitwise operations.

The fourth and fifth output lines show you how to use shift operators to
multiply and divide by powers of 2. The program multiplies 2 by 4 by
shifting the value 2 twice to the left:

  2 << 2   = 8

Similarly, the program divides 16 by 4 by shifting the value 16 twice to the
right:

  16 >> 2  = 4


Logical Operators

C has three logical operators─AND, OR, and NOT─that allow you to test more
than one condition in a single expression. Table 6.6 lists C's logical
operators.

Table 6.6  Logical Operators

╓┌──────────────────────────┌────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Operator                   Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
!                          Logical NOT
&&                         Logical AND
| |                        Logical OR
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


The logical OR ( | | ) and AND (&&) operators are often used to combine
logical tests within a conditional statement. For example, the if statement


  if( val > 10 && sample < 10 )
     printf( "Oh joy!\n" );

prints  Oh joy!  if both conditions in the test expression are true (if  val
 is greater than 10 and  sample  is less than 10). Here, the relational
operators (> and ) have higher "precedence" than the logical AND operator
(&&), so the compiler evaluates them first. We discuss operator precedence
later in this chapter.

The logical NOT operator (!) reverses an expression's logical value. For
instance, if the variable  val  has the value 8, the expression  (val == 8)
is true but the expression  !(val == 8)  is false.

The NOT.C program below shows a common use of this operator.

  /* NOT.C: Demonstrate logical NOT operator. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
    int val = 0;
    if( !val )
       printf( "val is zero" );
  }

The expression  if( !val )  is equivalent to the expression  if( val == 0 ).
When used in this way, the logical NOT operator converts a 0 value to 1 and
any nonzero value to 0.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

Don't confuse the logical OR and AND operators with the bitwise OR and AND
operators discussed in the previous section. The bitwise operators use the
same ASCII symbols, but have only one character. For instance, logical AND
is &&, whereas bitwise AND is &.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Address Operators

The C language has two operators that work with memory addresses. Table 6.7
lists C's address operators.

Table 6.7  Address Operators

╓┌──────────────┌────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Operator       Operation
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Operator       Operation
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
&              Yield address of the operand
*              Yield value contained at the operand's address
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Both address operators are often used with pointers─variables that contain
the addresses of other variables. Chapter 8, "Pointers," and Chapter 9,
"Advanced Pointers," are devoted to explaining pointers, including the use
of these two operators with them. Since you must understand pointers in
order to understand these operators fully, we'll describe them briefly here
and elaborate on their use in Chapter 8.

The "address-of operator" (&) yields a constant equal to the machine address
of its operand. For instance, if the variable  val  contains the value 10,
and its storage is located at address 1508, the expression  val  yields the
value 10, while the expression  &val  yields the constant 1508.

Since the address-of operator yields a constant, you can't assign a value to
an expression that uses it. The statement

  &val = 20;

is illegal for the same reason that the statement

  1508 = 20;

won't pass muster.

The "indirection operator" (*) yields the value contained in the address
referenced by its operand. If you declare  ptr  as a pointer variable, the
expression

  *ptr

yields the contents of the address to which  ptr  points.


Conditional Operator

The "conditional operator" (? :) is made up of two symbols and requires
three expressions. It is similar to an if-else construct. If the first
expression evaluates as true, the first operand is assigned the value of the
second operand. If the first expression is false, the first operand is
assigned the value of the third operand.

The following statement gives the absolute value of the variable  val. The
variable is assigned its original value if it is nonnegative or is negated
if its original value is negative:

  val = (val >= 0 ) ? val : -val;

The statement is equivalent to the following if-else construct:

  if( val >= 0 )
     val = val;
  else
     val = -val;


The sizeof Operator

The "sizeof operator" yields the number of bytes contained in its operand,
which can be either a general data type or a specific variable. If you apply
sizeof to a type name in parentheses, as in the expression

  sizeof( int )

the operator yields the size of that data type in bytes. This example yields
the value 2, indicating that an int contains two bytes on DOS machines. You
can use this feature to determine the sizes of types that are implementation
dependent when transporting a program from one machine to another.

If you place sizeof in front of a variable name, the operator returns the
number of bytes in the variable. For instance, if you create the string

  char my_string[] = "Hello";

the expression

  sizeof my_string

yields the value 6, showing that the string contains 5 printing characters
and a null character.


Comma Operator

Preceding chapters have shown various ways to use the comma (,) in C
programming. For instance, commas can separate multiple function arguments
or variable declarations. In such cases the comma is not an operator in the
formal sense but merely punctuation, like the semicolon that ends a
statement.

 The comma is used as punctuation and as an operator in C.

In C, the comma can also perform as an operator. The commas that separate
multiple expressions determine the order in which the expressions are
evaluated, and the type and value of the result that is returned. The comma
operator causes expressions to be evaluated from left to right. The value
and type of the result are the value and type of the rightmost operand.

For example, the statement

  val = sample, sample = temp;

first assigns the value of  sample  to  val, then assigns the value of  temp
 to  sample.

The comma operator often appears in for statements, where it can separate
multiple initializing expressions or multiple modifying expressions. The
FORLOOP1.C program from Chapter 3, "Flow Control," demonstrates both uses.
Here is the for statement from that program:

  for( a = 256, b = 1; b < 512; a = a / 2, b = b * 2 )
     printf( "a = %d \tb = %d\n", a, b );

The statement initializes two variables ( a  and  b ) and contains two
modifying expressions ( a = a / 2  and  b = b * 2 ). Chapter 3 explains the
FORLOOP1.C program in detail.


Base Operator

The base operator (:>) associates a base expression with a based pointer.
Based-object support is a highly advanced feature included in QuickC 2.5 for
compatibility with Microsoft C version 6.0; please refer to your C 6.0
documentation for information about based objects.


Operator Precedence

Like all languages, C has precedence rules that control the order for
evaluating the elements in expressions containing more than one operator. If
you're familiar with precedence rules in other languages, you won't find any
surprises in C. Table 6.8 shows the "pecking order" established for C's
operators.

Three general rules control the order of evaluation:


  1.  When two operators have unequal precedence, the operator with higher
      precedence is evaluated first.

  2.  Operators with equal precedence are evaluated from left to right.

  3.  You can change the normal order of precedence by enclosing an
      expression in parentheses. The enclosed expression is then evaluated
      first. (If parentheses are nested, inner parentheses have higher
      precedence than outer ones.)


We'll demonstrate operator precedence with a simple example. Since the
multiplication operator (*) has higher precedence than the addition operator
(+), the statement

val = 2 + 3 * 4

assigns to val the value of 14 (or 2 + 12) rather than 20 (or 5 * 4). Since
parentheses have higher precedence than any operator, they can change the
normal precedence order. If you enclose the addition operation in
parentheses, as follows

val = (2 + 3) * 4

the addition is done first. Now the statement assigns to val  the value 20
(or 5 * 4).

Table 6.8 lists the C operators and their precedence values. The lines in
the table separate precedence levels. The highest precedence level is at the
top of the table.

Table 6.8  C Operators

╓┌───────────────────────┌────────────────────────────────────┌──────────────╖
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
( )                     Function call                        Left to right

[ ]                     Array element

.                       Structure or union
                        member

->                      Pointer to structure
                        member

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

- -                     Decrement                            Right to left

++                      Increment

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

:>                      Base operator                        Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

!                       Logical NOT                          Right to left

~                       One's complement

-                       Unary minus

+                       Unary plus
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
+                       Unary plus

&                       Address

*                       Indirection

sizeof                  Size in bytes

(type)                  Type cast [for example, (float) i]

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

*                       Multiply                             Left to right

/                       Divide

%                       Modulus (remainder)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

+                       Add                                  Left to right

-                       Subtract

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

<<                      Left shift                           Left to right

>>                      Right shift

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

<                       Less than                            Left to right

<=                      Less than or equal

>                       Greater than
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
>                       Greater than

>=                      Greater than or equal

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

==                      Equal                                Left to right

!=                      Not equal

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

&                       Bitwise AND                          Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

^                       Bitwise exclusive OR                 Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

|                       Bitwise OR                           Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

&&                      Logical AND                          Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

||                      Logical OR                           Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

? :                     Conditional                          Right to left

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

=                       Assignment                           Right to left
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
=                       Assignment                           Right to left

*=, /=, %=, +=, -=,     Compound assignment

<<=, >>=,  &=, ^=, |=

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

,                       Comma                                Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────








Chapter 7  Preprocessor Directives
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

This chapter describes preprocessor directives─commands that control the
QuickC compiler. It explains how to insert the contents of one source file
into another file, how to do text substitutions throughout a file, and how
to compile different parts of a file in different situations.

A "preprocessor directive" is a command to the QuickC compiler. Although
they appear in the same source file as executable statements, preprocessor
directives aren't statements in the formal sense. Unlike executable
statements, they are not translated into machine code. Instead, they tell
the compiler itself to take some action while it translates your source
program. For instance, an #include directive tells QuickC to insert another
file into the source file.

The term "preprocessor" refers to the time when these commands are carried
out. Like most language compilers, QuickC translates your source program in
several phases, the first of which is called the "preprocessor phase."
QuickC first "preprocesses" all the directives in your source program, then
processes the program's executable statements.

All preprocessor directives begin with a number sign (#), which must be the
first nonblank character in the line on which it appears. Since directives
aren't statements, they don't end with semicolons. You can't put other
statements or directives on the same line with a preprocessor directive,
except for a comment, which must appear to the right of the directive.

Because the compiler reads your source file sequentially, line by line, the
position of directives is important. A preprocessor directive only affects
statements that follow it in the source file.


The #include Directive

 The #include directive inserts another file in the source file.

The #include directive inserts the contents of another file into your source
file. The inserted file is called an include file or header file.

When the compiler encounters an #include, it searches for the file named in
the directive. This directive makes QuickC look for the standard include
file STDIO.H:

  #include <stdio.h>

If the designated file is found, the compiler inserts its contents at the
spot where the #include directive appears. Figure 7.1 illustrates a program
SAMPLE.C that includes the file STDIO.H.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

When QuickC compiles the SAMPLE.C program shown in Figure 7.1, it inserts
the contents of file STDIO.H into SAMPLE.C at the spot marked by the
#include directive.

Most include files contain commonly used declarations and definitions.
Standard include files, supplied with QuickC, contain declarations and
definitions for QuickC library routines. You can also write include files of
your own.

Standard include files end with the .H file extension (STDIO.H is an
example). You can use any extension for include files you create, but most
programmers stick with the .H extension.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

In some languages, it's common to put executable statements, as well as
declarations and definitions, in include files. This practice is legal but
not recommended in QuickC. Microsoft debugging tools such as the Microsoft
CodeView(R) debugger may not recognize executable statements in include
files.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

The #include directive doesn't support wild cards, so you can't insert a
group of related files with a single directive. Each #include directive
inserts only one file.

Include files can be nested. For instance, the source program SAMPLE.C might
include a file named INOUT.H. The INOUT.H file, in turn, might contain a
second #include directive that includes a file named KEYBOARD.H. Figure 7.2
illustrates this process.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Although it's rarely necessary to nest include files more than two or three
levels, nesting may continue up to 10 levels.


Specifying Include Files

There are two ways to tell QuickC where to search for an include file. You
may have noticed that the #include directive shown earlier encloses the file
name STDIO.H in angle brackets (<>). If you enclose the file name in angle
brackets, as in the directive

  #include <stdio.h>

the compiler searches the "standard directories" for the file.

In QuickC, the standard directories are one or more directories that you
define by a DOS environment variable named INCLUDE. An advantage of
specifying the standard directories is that QuickC can automatically search
more than one directory.

Alternatively, you can enclose the file name in double quotes, in the
following manner,

  #include "myfile.h"

to cause QuickC to start searching in the directory that contains the
current source file. If the target file isn't in that directory, the
compiler searches the standard directories.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

You can specify additional directories on the DOS command line when you
invoke QuickC with the QCL command. See Chapter 1, "Creating Executable
Programs," in the Microsoft QuickC Tool Kit.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


The #define and #undef Directives

The #define directive performs a text substitution in the source file. This
directive has two main uses: simple text replacement and creation of
function-like macros. It is also used with the #undef directive to control
conditional compilation, as we'll discuss later.


Simple Text Replacement

 The #define directive works  like the search and replace  function of a
word processor.

At the simplest level, the #define directive works much like the "search and
replace" function of a word processor, replacing one piece of text in the
source file with another piece of text. The #define directive is commonly
used to create a symbolic constant─a meaningful name for a "magic number"
whose meaning might not otherwise be apparent. This improves the program's
readability.

For instance, in the VOLUME.C program in Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C
Program," the directive

  #define PI 3.14

defines a symbolic constant named  PI. The directive causes QuickC to
replace every occurrence of the text  PI  in the VOLUME.C source program
with the text  3.14. For example, when the compiler encounters the program
line

  result = 4 * PI * result;

it expands the line to read

  result = 4 * 3.14 * result;

Besides making your program more readable, symbolic constants can streamline
its maintenance. For instance, say you later decide to use 3.14159265 rather
than 3.14 in VOLUME.C. All you need to change is one #define directive at
the beginning of the program.

The replacement text can be longer than the 3.14159265 we used above. A
replacement text can't be longer than 512 bytes in QuickC, but you'll
rarely, if ever, have to worry about this limit.


Function-Like Macros

 A function-like macro accepts arguments, like a function.

Some languages use the term "macro" when referring to replacement text. In
C, a macro can do more than simply replace text. It can also accept
arguments in much the same way that a function does. In this case the
replacement text is called a "function-like macro."

A well-designed macro can be every bit as useful as a function. In fact,
some C library routines are implemented as macros rather than C functions.

The MACRO.C program below has a macro that works like the abs library
function, returning the absolute value of any integer. The macro uses the
conditional operator (? :), which we explained in Chapter 6.

  /* MACRO.C: Demonstrate macros. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #define ABS(value)  ( (value) >= 0 ? (value) : -(value) )

  main()
  {
     int val = -20;
     printf( "result = %d\n", ABS(val) );
  }

The  ABS  macro behaves much like a function. You can "call" it by name,
passing it an argument you want to process. The macro is defined in the
following program line:

  #define ABS(value)  ( (value) >= 0 ? (value) : -(value) )

The parameter  value  appears four times in the macro─once in the macro name
 ABS  and three times in the replacement text that follows the name.

 Always enclose macro parameters in parentheses.

To avoid unwanted side effects, you should always enclose macro parameters
in parentheses. If the parameter passed to the  ABS  macro is an expression
containing operators, the lack of parentheses could cause
operator-precedence errors. See the section "Omitting Parentheses from Macro
Arguments" in Chapter 10, "Programming Pitfalls."

Function-like macros, like other #define directives, are expanded during the
preprocessor phase of compilation, before QuickC translates any executable
statements. When QuickC encounters the line

  printf( "result= %d\n", ABS(val) );

it expands it to read:

  printf( "result= %d\n", ( (val) >= 0 ? (val) : -(val) ) );

 Macros can improve readability.

A macro can improve a program's readability by describing the nature of an
operation while hiding its complex details. Most people find the first of
the two statements above easier to understand than the expanded version.

 Macros are faster than functions but can make  a program bigger.

Function-like macros are fast, too. Since a macro creates in-line code, it
doesn't have the overhead associated with a normal function call. On the
other hand, each use of a macro inserts the same code in your program,
whereas a function definition occurs only once. So while macros can be
faster than functions, they can also bloat the size of the executable file.



The #undef Directive

The "#undef directive" is related to #define. As the name suggests, #undef
removes ("undefines") a name that was created with #define. For instance, if
you create the symbolic constant  PI  with the #define directive,

  #define PI  3.14

you can then remove the name  PI  with the following #undef directive:

  #undef PI

You can use #define and #undef to create a name that has meaning in only
part of a source program. The next two sections explain why you might want
to do this.


Conditional Directives

 Conditional directives are useful for making different versions of a
program.

Conditional directives can make QuickC skip part of a source file. They are
used primarily to create different versions of a program. While developing a
program, for instance, you might want to include debugging code at some
times but not others. Or, if you plan to move a program to some other
machine, you can compile machine-specific sections of code only for a
certain machine.

The C-language conditional directives are listed below.

#if                               #endif
#else                             #ifdef
#elif                             #ifndef

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

The #ifdef and #ifndef directives are obsolete under the ANSI C standard;
see "The defined Operator" below.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

 The #if directive works  like the if statement.

The #if and #endif directives work like an if statement, allowing you to
compile a block of source code if a given condition is true. The #if
directive is followed by a constant expression, which the compiler tests at
compile time. If the expression is false, the compiler skips every line
between the #if and the next #endif.

The example below calls the  display  function only if the name  DEBUG  was
previously defined as 1 (with #define).

  #if DEBUG == 1
     display( debuginfo );
  #endif

Here, the "conditional block" is a single line (the  display  function
call). A conditional block can contain any number of valid C program lines,
including preprocessor directives as well as executable statements.

The test expression for a conditional directive can be almost any expression
that evaluates to a constant, with a few minor exceptions (the expression
can't use the sizeof operator, type casts, or the float and enum types).

 The #else directive works  like the else keyword.

The #else and #elif directives work like the else keyword and can perform
more complex conditional tests. For example, you could use code like that in
the following example to build different versions of a program for various
IBM PC computers, including different files for each computer.

  #if XT == 1
     #include "XT.H"
  #elif AT == 1
     #include "AT.H"
  #else
     #include "PS2.H"
  #endif

The code includes the file XT.H if the name  XT  is defined as 1 and it
includes the file AT.H if the name  AT  is defined as 1. If both  XT  and
AT  are undefined, the third conditional block executes, causing QuickC to
include the file PS2.H.

You can nest conditional directives in the same way as you would conditional
C language statements.


The defined Operator

 The defined operator  tests whether a name  has been defined.

The test expression of an #if or #elif directive can use the defined
operator to test whether a name has been defined. You can use this feature,
along with #define and #undef, to turn various parts of a program on and
off, compiling different parts under different conditions.

The defined operator is true if its argument has been defined and false
otherwise. A name is considered defined if it has been created with #define
(and not later removed with #undef).

The DEFINED.C program below prints  Hi  because the name  DEBUG  is defined
when the compiler encounters the #if defined directive.

  /* DEFINED.C: Demonstrate defined operator. */

  #define DEBUG 12345

  main()
  {
     #if defined( DEBUG )
        printf( "Hi\n" );
     #endif
  }

The defined operator tests only whether a name is defined, not whether it
has a certain value. Thus, the DEFINED.C program will print  Hi  no matter
what value is assigned  DEBUG. You could substitute the directive

  #define DEBUG 0

to define  DEBUG  as 0, or the directive

  #define DEBUG

to define  DEBUG  as having no value at all. Both directives define the name
 DEBUG, so the program would print  Hi  in both cases.

You can use the logical NOT operator (!) to reverse the logic of an #if
defined directive. (Logical operators are explained in Chapter 6.) The code


  #if !defined( DEBUG )
     printf( "Hi\n");
  #endif

prints  Hi  if  DEBUG  is not currently defined.

A plain #if directive treats undefined names a little differently than does
an #if defined directive. If a name is not currently defined, the #if
directive treats the name as having the value 0.

In the following code, the #if directive explicitly tests whether  DEBUG
equals 0.

  #undef DEBUG
  #if DEBUG == 0
     printf( "Hi\n" );
  #endif

The result is the same as that of the previous example.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

The defined operator is new under the ANSI C standard. You may see older
programs that use the older directives #ifdef and #ifndef for the same
purpose. These directives are obsolete, but QuickC version 2.5 supports them
for the sake of compatibility. The #ifdef directive is followed by a name
(not in parentheses) and works the same as #if with defined. If the given
name has been defined, #ifdef is true. The #ifndef directive is the opposite
of #ifdef. It is true if the given name is not currently defined.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Pragmas

  Pragmas are implementationspecific compiler commands.

Although portability is a hallmark of C, the language's creators recognized
that every C compiler will need to support some features unique to its host
machine. The "#pragma directive" offers a way for each C compiler to offer
machine-specific features while retaining overall compatibility with the C
language. Since pragmas are machine-specific by definition, they can be─and
usually are─different for every C compiler.

Pragmas have the same general syntax as preprocessor directives. The pragma
must begin with a number sign (#) and it can't share a line with other
directives or statements except a comment, which must appear to the right of
the pragma.

QuickC supports four pragmas: check_stack, check_pointer, message, and pack.
Each of these pragmas is described in online help.

Some pragmas take arguments, which come after the #pragma keyword. In the
following code, the message pragma displays different messages during
compilation depending on the outcome of an #if test:

  #if XT == 1
     #pragma message( "Building XT version" )
  #elif AT == 1
     #pragma message( "Building AT version" )
  #endif

The message displayed by the message pragma is visible only if you compile
from the DOS command line with the QCL command.






Chapter 8  Pointers
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

The next two chapters explain pointers─a large and important topic in C.
This chapter explains fundamental techniques: how to use pointers with
various data types and pass them to functions. In Chapter 9, "Advanced
Pointers," we'll explore more advanced pointer techniques, such as multiple
indirection.

If you have never used pointers before, you may want to read this chapter
now and then turn to Chapter 9 after you have had some practice using
pointers in your own programs.

 Don't panic!

There's a lot of new information in these two chapters. Don't be discouraged
if you don't grasp it all on a first reading. The idea behind a pointer is
simple, but some advanced pointer techniques are not so easy to follow at
first.


Using Pointers in C

Almost every real-world C program uses pointers in some way or another. Much
of the usefulness of pointers stems from the fact that in C all function
arguments are passed by value. Because a function only receives local copies
of such arguments, it can't change the original values that the arguments
represent. Pointers make this possible.

Here are some common uses of pointers:


  ■   Manipulating strings

  ■   Passing command-line arguments to a program at run time

  ■   Returning more than one value from a function

  ■   Accessing variables that wouldn't otherwise be visible to a function

  ■   Manipulating an array by moving pointers to its elements instead of
      using array subscripting

  ■   Accessing the address of a memory area that your program allocates at
      run time

  ■   Passing the address of one function to another function



Pointers to Simple Variables

 A pointer variable contains the address of a data object.

Although pointers have many different uses, it takes only a few words to say
what a pointer is. A "pointer" is a variable that contains the address of
some other data object─usually a variable. Because a pointer contains the
other variable's address, it is said to "point to" that variable.

This section uses the program POINTER.C to demonstrate the basic mechanics
of pointers─how to declare and initialize a pointer and use it to access a
simple variable:

  /* POINTER.C: Demonstrate pointer basics. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int val = 25;
     int *ptr;
     ptr = &val;
     printf( " val = %d\n", val );
     printf( "*ptr = %d\n\n", *ptr );
     printf( "&val = %u\n", &val );
     printf( " ptr = %d\n", ptr );
  }

Here is the output from POINTER.C:

  val = 25
  *ptr = 25

  &val = 5308
   ptr = 5308

(The third and fourth output lines show addresses. These may differ when you
run POINTER.C depending on factors such as available memory.)

POINTER.C creates a pointer variable named  ptr  and makes  ptr  point to an
int variable named  val. Then it prints the two values to show that  ptr
can access the value stored in  val. The program goes on to print the
address where  val  is stored and the address contained in  ptr, to show
they are the same.


Declaring a Pointer Variable

Like any variable, a pointer variable must be declared before it is used,
and its value can change in the course of a program. A pointer variable can
have any legal variable name. Here is the pointer declaration from
POINTER.C:

  int *ptr;

This declaration states the program has a pointer variable named  ptr  that
can point to a data object of the int type.

Notice the similarity to a simple variable declaration. As in other cases,
the declaration gives a type (int) and name ( ptr ) for the variable.

 Use the indirection  operator ( *) to declare  a pointer variable.

The indirection operator (*) in front of the name  ptr  shows this variable
is a pointer. This operator has two different uses in C. In declarations,
such as the one above, it simply means "this is a pointer." In other
contexts, as we'll elaborate throughout this chapter, it means
indirection─using the data object that a pointer points to.

 A pointer declaration shows what type of data object a pointer references.


A pointer doesn't have a type in the same sense as other variables. When you
declare a simple variable, the type specifier shows what type of value the
variable stores. When you declare a pointer variable, the type specifier
shows what type of data object the pointer points to.

Thus, in POINTER.C the declaration of the variable  val  indicates  val
stores a value of the type int,

  int val = 25;

while the declaration of the variable  ptr  indicates it points to a data
object of the type int:

  int *ptr;

To declare pointers to other types of variables, you can use whatever type
specifier is appropriate. These statements, for instance, declare pointers
to char and float variables:

  char *c_ptr, *ch;
  float *f_pointer;

Note that if you declare more than one pointer variable in the same line,
each name must be preceded by the indirection operator. The first line in
the previous example declares two pointer variables:  c_ptr  and  ch. Each
pointer can point to an object of the char type. If you omit the second
indirection operator from the first line,

  char *c_ptr, ch;

the line declares a pointer variable named  c_ptr  and an ordinary char
variable named  ch.

 A pointer declared with type void can point to any type of data object.

In most cases a pointer points to a particular type of object, such as an
int. You can also declare a pointer with type void, which allows it to point
to any type of object.

One use of void pointers is to write a general-purpose function, such as a
sort, that can operate on data of more than one type. Each time you use a
void pointer, you must perform an explicit type cast to show what type of
object it points to on that occasion.

Figure 8.1 shows the relationship between  val  and  ptr  in POINTER.C,
immediately after  ptr  has been declared. The figure shows that the
variable  val  is stored at memory location 5308, as in the output shown
above. Again, the actual address may differ when you run POINTER.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Figure 8.1 uses question marks to show that the contents of  ptr  are
undefined at this stage in the program. Like any other variable that has
been declared but not initialized, the contents of  ptr  are unknown. You
must take special care not to use pointers that have not been initialized,
since an uninitialized pointer might point anywhere in memory─including
sensitive operating-system addresses.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
WARNING

Because a pointer can potentially access any memory address, using an
uninitialized pointer can have drastic consequences.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


How Pointers Are Stored

Figure 8.1 also shows that while a pointer is a special kind of variable, it
is not a mysterious entity floating in limbo. A pointer is a true variable
whose contents are stored at a specific memory address.

In POINTER.C we don't care precisely where the pointer's contents are
stored─the compiler handles that detail for us, as it does so many others.
So Figure 8.1 does not include the address of the storage for  ptr. It does
show, however, that the pointer is stored in two bytes, the same amount of
memory needed to store an int value.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

The actual amount of memory needed to store a pointer variable depends on
the current "memory model." In the small memory model─the default for QuickC
version 2.5─a pointer is stored in two bytes. In some larger memory models,
a pointer is stored in four bytes. For purposes of discussion, this chapter
and the following chapter assume the small memory model. Appendix B,
"Working with QuickC Memory Models," in the Microsoft QuickC Tool Kit
discusses memory models.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Initializing a Pointer Variable

The next step in the POINTER.C program is to initialize the pointer variable
 ptr, making it point to some meaningful address in memory:

  ptr = &val;

The "address-of operator" (&) gives the address of the name it precedes. So
in plain English the above statement says, "assign the address of  val  to
ptr."

After its initialization, the variable  ptr  points to  val  in the sense
that it contains the address where  val  is stored.

The output from POINTER.C shows that  ptr  contains the address of  val.
First it prints the address of  val  using the address-of operator to
directly obtain the variable's address,

  &val = 5308

then it prints the contents of  ptr:

  ptr = 5308

The two values are identical. Figure 8.2 shows the relationship of  val  and
 ptr  at this stage in the POINTER.C program.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Initialization is especially important for pointers because, as noted
earlier, they have the potential to point anywhere in memory. If you forget
to initialize it, or make it point to the wrong place, a pointer can wreak
havoc with your program or even the operating system itself.

 The target of a pointer  must be present in  memory at run time.

The pointer in POINTER.C points to a simple int variable. As a general rule,
pointers can point to any data object that is present in memory at run time.
This category mainly includes objects for which the program allocates (sets
aside) memory. Memory can be allocated implicitly, by defining a variable or
function, or explicitly, by calling a memory-allocating library function
such as malloc.

A pointer can't point to program elements such as expressions or register
variables, which aren't present in addressable memory.

POINTER.C initializes the pointer  ptr  by assigning it an address constant
(the address of  val, obtained with the address-of operator). You can also
assign the value of one pointer to another, as shown here:

  ptr = ptr1;

If  ptr  and  ptr1  are both pointers, this statement assigns the address
contained in  ptr1  to  ptr.


Using a Pointer Variable

Once  ptr  points to  val, we have two ways to access the int value stored
in  val. The usual way is direct, using the name of  val:

  printf( " val = %d\n", val );

The second way to access  val  is indirect, using the pointer variable  ptr
and the indirection operator:

  printf( "*ptr = %d\n\n", *ptr );

Both of the preceding statements print the value of  val, confirming that
you can access the contents of  val  indirectly as well as directly. Once
ptr  points to  val  you can use  *ptr  anywhere that you would use  val.

 The indirection operator can obtain the value to which a pointer points.

Using the indirection operator to access the contents of  val  is the second
use of this operator (the first is in declaring pointer variables, as
explained earlier). When the asterisk appears in front of the name  ptr, the
expression states that you want to use the value the pointer points to, not
the value of  ptr  itself.

The second printf statement in POINTER.C uses the expression  *ptr  to
access the value stored in  val.

This use of a pointer is analogous to the PEEK function in QuickBASIC. You
can just as easily use  ptr  to change the data in  val, an operation that
somewhat resembles a QuickBASIC POKE statement.

For instance, if you add the following statements to the end of POINTER.C,

  *ptr = 3301;
  printf( "%d\n", val );

the program prints  3301.

Figure 8.3 shows the relationship between  ptr  and  val  after executing
the previous two statements.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

As Figure 8.3 shows, the value stored in  val  has changed from 25 to 3301.
The contents of  val  were changed indirectly, through the pointer  ptr.


Summary of Pointer Basics

In the preceding sections, you have seen how to do these operations:


  ■   Declare a pointer to a simple variable

  ■   Initialize a pointer, making it point to a variable

  ■   Use a pointer to get the value of a variable

  ■   Use a pointer to change the contents of a variable


It's important for you to be comfortable with these basic ideas before
reading about the more advanced uses of pointers. If you're not sure you
understand these concepts, you may want to experiment with the POINTER.C
program to reinforce what you know. For instance, you might add some new
variables of different types and create new pointers to access them.


Pointers to Arrays

Pointers and arrays are closely related in C─a major theme we'll elaborate
throughout the rest of this chapter and Chapter 9, "Advanced Pointers." This
section explains one of the simpler ways to use pointers with arrays.

A pointer to an array, or "array pointer," combines two powerful language
features─the pointer's ability to provide indirect access and the
convenience of accessing array elements through numerical subscripts.

 An array pointer can point to any element in a given array.

A pointer to an array is not much different than a pointer to a simple
variable. In both cases, the pointer can point only to a single object at
any given time. An array pointer, however, can reference any individual
element within an array (but just one at a time).

The program PARRAY.C shows how to access the elements of an int array
through a pointer:

  /* PARRAY.C: Demonstrate pointer to array. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  int i_array[] = { 25, 300, 2, 12 };

  main()
  {
     int *ptr;
     int count;
     ptr = &i_array[0];

  for( count = 0; count < 4 ; count++ )   {
        printf( "i_array[%d] = %d\n", count, *ptr );
        ptr++;
     }
  }

Here is the output from PARRAY.C:

  i_array[0] = 25
  i_array[1] = 300
  i_array[2] = 2
  i_array[3] = 12

The PARRAY.C program creates a four-element int array named  i_array. Then
it declares a pointer named  ptr  and uses  ptr  in a for loop to access
each of the elements in  i_array.

Notice the similarity between PARRAY.C and the previous example (POINTER.C).
The pointer is declared in the same way:

  int *ptr;

As noted before, this declaration states that  ptr  can point to any object
of the int type, which includes an element in an int array as well as a
simple int. The initialization of  ptr  looks similar, too:

  ptr = &i_array[0];

This statement assigns  ptr  the address of the first element of  i_array,
which is  i_array[0]. (There's a more compact way to initialize this
pointer, but we'll defer that discussion for a moment.) Figure 8.4 shows the
relationship between  ptr  and  i_array  immediately after  ptr  is
initialized.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Arrays and Pointer Arithmetic

Once a pointer points to an array, it can access any of the array's
elements. By adding or subtracting from the pointer's value (using "pointer
arithmetic") you can access any element in the array, just as you can access
it with array subscripts.

So in PARRAY.C, just as in POINTER.C, we can use  *ptr  to access the int
value that  ptr  references. The only difference is now  ptr  points to an
array element instead of a simple variable.

When the for loop in PARRAY.C executes the first time,  ptr  points to the
first element of  i_array, which is  i_array[0]. The second statement in the
loop body,

  ptr++;

increments the pointer. Now  ptr  points to the next element in  i_array,
which is  i_array[1]. Figure 8.5 shows the relationship of  ptr  and
i_array  after the first iteration of the for loop in PARRAY.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Figures 8.4 and 8.5 illustrate another important fact about pointers.
Pointer arithmetic is automatically scaled to the size of the object that a
pointer references. As explained above, incrementing  ptr  with the
statement

  ptr++;

 Pointer arithmetic is scaled to the size of  elements in an array.

moves the pointer forward to the next element in  i_array. Since each
element of an int array contains two bytes, this operation actually adds 2
to the address stored in  ptr, but you don't have to worry about that
detail. The compiler knows the size of the elements in the array and adjusts
the pointer accordingly.

Incrementing a pointer adds 1 if it points to a char array, 4 if it points
to a float array, and so on.

You can also decrement an array pointer. If  ptr  points to  i_array[2],
this statement moves the pointer back one element, to  i_array[1]:

  ptr--;

Although the previous expressions increment and decrement  ptr  by 1, you
can add or subtract any integer value from a pointer. For instance, the
following statement moves  ptr  forward three elements in  i_array:

  ptr += 3;

Be careful not to overrun the bounds of an array when accessing its elements
with a pointer. As noted in Chapter 4, "Data Types," the C language doesn't
check array subscripts. This rule applies equally when you access an array
with a pointer, which can potentially reference any address in memory.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
WARNING

The C language does not check array pointer references. If you increment or
decrement a pointer past the limits of an array, you can corrupt other parts
of your program or cause other unexpected results.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

It's your job to make sure an increment or decrement doesn't move a pointer
outside the memory where an array is stored. For instance, if you decrement
ptr  when it points to  i_array[0], it will point to whatever happens to be
stored in the int-size memory area below the element  i_array[0].

Most pointer arithmetic occurs in connection with arrays, where a numerical
index has obvious utility. It's not illegal to do pointer arithmetic on
nonarray pointers, but such operations normally serve no purpose. For
instance, if you increment a pointer to a simple variable, the pointer no
longer points to the variable and becomes useless.


Comparing Pointers

The special nature of a pointer variable─the fact that it contains an
address─ precludes most operations that are legal for other variables.
There's no such thing as a fractional memory address, for example. So it
wouldn't make sense to divide a pointer, or add a floating-point number to
it. The most common pointer operations are assignment, incrementing, and
decrementing, as described earlier. You can also compare one pointer to
another.

If a program allocates memory for a stack, for instance, you might create
two pointers that point to different parts of the stack. One pointer can
show where the stack begins and the other where it ends. To see how much of
the stack is in use, you can subtract the pointers. (A "stack" is a memory
area used for temporary storage.)

 You can compare pointer variables with relational operators or by
subtraction.

Pointer comparisons can be done with relational operators (such as  ) or by
subtracting one pointer from another. Of course, pointer comparisons are
meaningful only for pointers that point to the same data object or related
objects of the same type.


PARRAY.C Revisited

Before leaving the PARRAY.C program, we should note that most C programmers
would write it more compactly (PARRAY1.C):

  /* PARRAY1.C: Compact version of PARRAY.C. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  int i_array[] = { 25, 300, 2, 12 };

  main()
  {
     int count;
     int *ptr = i_array;
     for( count = 0; count < 4 ; count++ )
        printf( "i_array[%d] = %d\n", count, *ptr++ );
  }

 You can declare and initialize a pointer variable  in one statement.

The PARRAY1.C program uses several shorthand techniques you can expect to
see in C programs. Like other variables, pointers can be initialized at the
same time they are declared. The following statement in PARRAY1.C performs
both operations:

  int *ptr = i_array;

The statement above is equivalent to these statements:

  int *ptr;
  ptr = i_array;

You may have noticed another difference in the way  ptr  is initialized. The
PARRAY1.C program omits the address-of operator and array subscript that
PARRAY.C used to signify the address of the first element of  i_array.
Instead of

  &i_array[0]

the program uses

  i_array

 An array name is a pointer.

In fact, the two expressions are equivalent. In the C language, the name of
an array is actually a pointer. Any array name that doesn't have a subscript
is interpreted as a pointer to the base address of the array. (The "base
address" is the address of the array's first element.) We'll explore this
equivalence further in the following sections and in Chapter 9, "Advanced
Pointers."

Finally, PARRAY1.C uses the expression  *ptr++  to perform two jobs:
accessing the value  ptr  points to and incrementing  ptr. Note the order in
which the two operators in this expression take effect. The indirection
operator takes effect first, accessing the value of the array element that
ptr  currently points to. Then the increment operator (++) adds 1 to  ptr,
making it point to the next element in  i_array.


Pointers and Strings

 String pointers are handled like other array pointers.

Because a string is an array of characters, pointers to strings are handled
much like other array pointers. The program PSTRING.C is similar to the
examples that demonstrated array pointers (PARRAY.C and PARRAY1.C). It uses
a pointer to access a char array:

  /* PSTRING.C: Demonstrate pointer to a string. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int count;
     char name[] = "john";
     char *ptr = name;
     for( count = 0; count < 4; count++ )
     {
        printf( "name[%d]: %c\n", count, *ptr++ );
     }
  }

The PSTRING.C program steps through the  name  array, printing each
character in turn:

  name[0]: j
  name[1]: o
  name[2]: h
  name[3]: n

The notable difference between PARRAY.C and PSTRING.C is that PSTRING.C has
a char array instead of an int array. Again, incrementing an array pointer
moves the pointer to the next array element. So in PSTRING.C each iteration
of the for loop moves the pointer to the next char in the string.

The first time through the loop,  ptr  points to  name[0]. The second time
it points to  name[1], and so on.

As mentioned in Chapter 4, "Data Types," one difference between strings and
noncharacter arrays is that strings end with a null character. The string in
PSTRING.C actually contains five characters: four letters and a null
character. We can exploit this fact to simplify the program, as we do below
in PSTRING.C.

  /* PSTRING1.C: Look for null at string's end.  */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     char name[] = "john";
     char *ptr = name;
     while( *ptr )
        printf( "*ptr = %c\n", *ptr++ );
  }

Here is the output from PSTRING1.C:

  *ptr = j
  *ptr = o
  *ptr = h
  *ptr = n

Like PSTRING.C, the PSTRING1.C program steps through the array one character
at a time. However, it replaces the for loop with a simpler while loop. The
test expression in the while loop,

  while( *ptr )

is evaluated as true until  ptr  points to the null character that
terminates the string. It's a more compact way of writing this expression:

  while( *ptr != 0 )

 Any operation done with array subscripts can also be done with pointer
notation.

This is an ideal time to elaborate on the relationship between arrays and
pointers. Any operation you can do with conventional array notation
(subscripts) can also be done with pointers. This is possible because an
array name, as we noted earlier, is itself a pointer.

To illustrate, the PSTRING2.C program uses only array notation:

  /* PSTRING2.C: Demonstrate strings and array notation. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <string.h>

  main()
  {
     int count;
     char name[] = "john";
     for( count = 0; count < strlen( name ); count++ )
        printf( "name[%d]: %c\n", count, name[count] );
  }

PSTRING2.C gives the same output as PSTRING.C. In this program, the
expression

  name[count]

uses  count  as in an index to the  name  array.

PSTRING3.C is the same program written with pointer notation:

  /* PSTRING3.C: Strings and pointer notation.  */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <string.h>

  main()
  {
     int count;
     char name[] = "john";
     for( count = 0; count < strlen( name ); count++ )
        printf( "*(name+%d) = %c\n", count,*(name+count) );
  }

Here is the output from PSTRING3.C:

  *(name+0) = j
  *(name+1) = o
  *(name+2) = h
  *(name+3) = n

Notice how PSTRING3.C replaces the expression

  name[count]

with the expression:

  *(name+count)

Both expressions use the variable  count  as an offset from the base address
of the array. The parentheses in the second expression are important. They
are necessary because the indirection operator takes effect before the
addition operator. If you omit the parentheses, as in

  *name+count

the expression has the same effect as

  (*name)+count

which adds the value of  count  to the object  name  references.

In summary, the examples in this section show three alternative ways to
access a character inside a string. In the printf statements in the
examples, these expressions are equivalent:

  *ptr

  name[count]

  *(name+count)

Many C programmers prefer pointer notation to array notation because
pointers are faster for some operations. In other cases─including the one
above─the choice is entirely one of taste. There's more to say about the
relationship between pointers and arrays. We'll return to this topic later
in this chapter and in Chapter 9, "Advanced Pointers."


Passing Pointers to Functions

 A function that receives  pointers can access  variables that are local  to
other functions.

One of the most common uses of pointers is to pass them as arguments to
functions. Functions that receive variables as parameters get local copies
of those variables, not the originals. In contrast, functions that receive
pointers to variables gain access to the original variables associated with
the pointers. This allows the functions to


  ■   Return more than one value

  ■   Read and change values in variables─including arrays and
      structures─that otherwise aren't visible to the function


The first item listed above relates to the return statement. As we noted in
Chapter 2, "Functions," a function can return only one value through return.
How-ever, it's not difficult to imagine a useful function─a sort, for
instance─that would return more than one value. Pointers offer an elegant
solution.

The second item involves visibility. Most variables in C programs are local
to the functions where they are defined, and a function normally can't
access local variables in other functions. There are times, however, when
you want a function to have access to a local variable defined elsewhere in
the program. By passing the function a pointer to the local variable, you
can give it access to the variable  itself.

The PFUNC.C program illustrates both ideas. It has a function that returns
more than one value and uses pointers to alter variables that aren't visible
within the function:

  /* PFUNC.C: Pass pointers to a function. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  void swap( int *ptr1, int *ptr2 );

  main()
  {
     int first = 1, second = 3;
     int *ptr = &second;
     printf( "first: %d  second: %d\n", first, *ptr );
     swap( &first, ptr );
     printf( "first: %d  second: %d\n", first, *ptr );
  }

  void swap( int *ptr1, int *ptr2 )
  {
     int temp;
     temp = *ptr1;
     *ptr1 = *ptr2;
     *ptr2 = temp;
  }

Here is the output from PFUNC.C:

  first: 1  second: 3
  first: 3  second: 1

  Pointers can eliminate the need for external variables.

The PFUNC.C program swaps the values of two int variables named  first  and
second, using a function named  swap. Since the exchange involves two
values, the  swap  function can't use return to communicate its results.
More-over, the variables  first  and  second  are defined only in the main
function, and as good C programmers, we want to exchange their values
without making them externally visible.

The prototype for the  swap  function shows that  swap  expects to receive
two pointers to int variables:

  void swap( int *ptr1, int *ptr2 );

Notice the use of void in the prototype and function definition. The void
specifier shows that the  swap  function doesn't return any value through a
return statement. Instead, swap  returns its results indirectly, through the
action of pointers.

The variables we want to exchange are defined only in main:

  int first = 1, second = 3;

No other function in the program can access these variables directly by
using the variable names  first  and  second. We must pass these variables
as arguments; but since the C language passes arguments by value, we need to
pass pointers to the variables.

The main function calls  swap  with the following statement:

  swap( &first, ptr );

This statement shows two different ways to pass a pointer to a function. The
first argument in the function call,

  &first

passes the address of first as a constant, using the address-of operator.
The second argument,

  ptr

passes the address of  second  with a pointer variable. Earlier in PFUNC.C
we declared  ptr  as a pointer to an int and assigned it the address of
second:

  int *ptr = &second;

Both arguments pass the same kind of data─the address of a local variable─to
the function. We'll return to this idea after we see how the rest of PFUNC.C
works.

When the  swap  function executes, it creates two int pointers named  ptr1
and  ptr2  and assigns the passed addresses to them:

  void swap( int *ptr1, int *ptr2 )

Since there's a one-to-one correspondence between arguments and parameters,
the pointer  ptr1  receives the address of  first  and  ptr2  receives the
address of  second. The  swap  function exchanges the values of  first  and
second, using the two pointers and a temporary int variable named  temp:

  int temp;
  temp = *ptr1;
  *ptr1 = *ptr2;
  *ptr2 = temp;

Within the  swap  function, PFUNC.C uses the indirection operator to access
the values that  ptr1  and  ptr2  reference. The expression  *ptr1  accesses
the value stored in  first. Likewise, the expression  *ptr2  accesses the
value stored in  second.

Through the addresses contained in the pointers, the  swap  function can
indirectly access variables that are local to the main function.


Passing Address Constants Versus Passing Pointer Variables

Now that you know how the  swap  function works, we can elaborate on the two
methods that PFUNC.C uses to pass the address of  first  and  second  to
swap.

 When you pass a pointer  to a function, the function actually receives an
address.

Earlier, we said the  swap  function expects to receive two pointers as
parameters. While it's common to say pointers in this context, it would be
more accurate to say the function expects addresses, since that's what it
actually receives.

To work correctly,  swap  only needs the addresses of two variables. Once it
has the addresses, it assigns them to its own local pointers and proceeds to
do its work─modifying the original variables at long distance, as it were.
The  swap  function doesn't care whether you pass the addresses as constants
or pointer variables, since it receives the same kind of value in either
case. The address is all the function needs to change the value of a
variable defined elsewhere.

The first argument in the function call to  swap  shows a straightforward
way to pass an address. Inside the main function of PFUNC.C, the expression
&first  equals the address of  first. When you pass this argument to  swap,
the function clearly receives an address.

The second argument is an address, too. Since main assigns the address of
second  to the pointer variable  ptr, the expression  ptr  equals the
address of second. When you pass this argument to  swap, the function also
receives an address. (Remember, the value contained in a pointer variable is
an address.)

Some beginning programmers get confused by functions that expect to receive
pointers, thinking they must always pass pointer variables to such
functions. As PFUNC.C shows, if the function expects an address you can
simply pass the address as a constant, using the address-of operator.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

When a function expects to receive an address as a parameter, you can pass
either an address constant or a pointer variable, whichever is more
suitable.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Why, then, would you ever go to the trouble of passing a pointer variable to
this kind of function? In a real program, the function that calls  swap
might well use pointers to process  first  and  second  for some other
purpose. In such a case you might prefer to use pointers in the function
call, too.


Arrays of Pointers

Pointers, like other variables, can be stored in arrays. This feature allows
you to create a variety of useful data structures.

 In an array of pointers, each array element is  a pointer variable.

If you find an array of pointers hard to picture, begin with the idea that
an array is a group of variables of the same type. An "array of pointers" is
also a group of variables, but instead of simple variables, it contains a
group of pointer variables.

Each element in an array of pointers, then, is a pointer that contains an
address. Like other array elements, each element can be accessed with a
numerical subscript.

Pointer arrays are often used to speed up sorts. The QCSORT.C program shows
the basic idea behind such a sort:

  /* QCSORT.C: Demonstrate sorting array of pointers. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #define SIZE 4

  void sort( int size, double *p[] );
  void show( int size, double *p[], double dd[] );

  main()
  {
     int x;
     double d[] = { 3.333, 1.111, 2.222, 4.444 };
     double *d_ptr[SIZE];
     for( x = 0; x < SIZE; x++ )
        d_ptr[x] = &d[x];
     show( SIZE, d_ptr, d );
     sort( SIZE, d_ptr );
     show( SIZE, d_ptr, d );
  }

  void sort( int size, double *p[] )
  {
     int x, x1;
     double *temp;
     for( x = 0; x < size - 1; x++ )
        for( x1 = x + 1; x1 < size; x1++ )
        {
           if( *p[x] > *p[x1] )
           {
              temp = p[x1];
              p[x1] = p[x];
              p[x] = temp;
           }
        }
  }

  void show( int size, double *p[], double dd[] )
  {
     int x;
     printf( "------------------------" );
     printf( "------------------------\n" );
     for( x = 0; x < size; x++ )
     {
        printf( "*d_ptr[%d] = %1.3f   ", x, *p[x]);
        printf( "d_ptr[%d] = %u ", x, p[x]);
        printf( "  d[%d] = %1.3f\n", x, dd[x] );
     }
  }

Here is the output from QCSORT.C:

  ------------------------------------------------
  *d_ptr[0] = 3.333   d_ptr[0] = 66   d[0] = 3.333
  *d_ptr[1] = 1.111   d_ptr[1] = 74   d[1] = 1.111
  *d_ptr[2] = 2.222   d_ptr[2] = 82   d[2] = 2.222
  *d_ptr[3] = 4.444   d_ptr[3] = 90   d[3] = 4.444
  ------------------------------------------------
  *d_ptr[0] = 1.111   d_ptr[0] = 74   d[0] = 3.333
  *d_ptr[1] = 2.222   d_ptr[1] = 82   d[1] = 1.111
  *d_ptr[2] = 3.333   d_ptr[2] = 66   d[2] = 2.222
  *d_ptr[3] = 4.444   d_ptr[3] = 90   d[3] = 4.444

Since the purpose of QCSORT.C is to demonstrate pointers, not sorting
methods, it uses a simple bubble sort. This method isn't efficient but has
the advantage of being short and easy to follow.

The QCSORT.C program creates a double array named  d  and an array of
pointers named  d_ptr. Each array has four elements. To illustrate the sort,
the elements of  d  are initialized out of order.

The goal of QCSORT.C is to display a sorted list of the values in  d. You
could do this by sorting the elements of  d  itself, but that solution is
not efficient. Every double value contains eight bytes, and sorting a large
number of double values requires that you move a lot of memory.

Instead of moving the double values themselves, QCSORT.C creates an array of
pointers that point to the elements of the  d  array, then sorts the
pointers. This saves time because a pointer is stored in only two bytes.
Figure 8.6 shows the relationship between the  d  and  d_ptr  arrays
immediately after both are initialized.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

At the stage shown in Figure 8.6, the pointers in the  d_ptr  array have
been initialized to point to the double elements in the  d  array. (The
array element  d_ptr[0]  points to  d[0],  d_ptr[1]  points to  d[1], and so
on.) The function  show  displays three sets of data:


  ■   The value each pointer references

  ■   The address assigned to each pointer

  ■   The value of each element in the  d  array


After calling the  show  function, QCSORT.C calls the  sort  function, which
sorts the pointers in  d_ptr.

The declaration of  sort  contains something new. In the declaration

  void sort( int size, double *p[] );

the expression  *p[]  shows that the  sort  function expects to receive a
pointer to an array of pointers. When the program calls  sort, it passes the
size of the array to be sorted (first argument) and a pointer to the array
of pointers (second argument):

  sort( SIZE, d_ptr );

Now the  sort  function has all the information it needs to sort the
pointers in the  d_ptr  array, making each pointer point to the correct
element in the  d  array.

After the sort is complete, QCSORT.C calls  show  again to display the
results of the sort. Now that the pointers have been sorted, they can be
used to display a sorted list of double values. Figure 8.7 shows the
relationship between the  d  and  d_ptr  arrays after the sort is complete.


(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Of course, the array in QCSORT.C is so small that the time savings from
using pointers is negligible. In a real program, however, which might sort
thousands of values instead of four, the difference between moving eight
bytes and two bytes can be dramatic. The advantage of sorting pointers is
even greater when sorting large data objects such as strings or structures.


  The elements in a  pointer array can point  to any type of data.

The QCSORT.C example section uses a fairly simple array of pointers. But you
can use such arrays to create quite complex data structures. The basic form
of the array is always the same─it is a group of pointer variables, each
pointer accessible through a subscript─but the pointers in an array can
point to any kind of data object. You can have an array of pointers to
structures, an array of pointers to strings, and so on. The only difference
is in what the pointers reference.

Don't confuse an array of pointers with a pointer to an array. A pointer to
an array (or "array pointer") is a single pointer variable that points to an
array element. The single pointer can access any element of the array, but
only one pointer is involved.

In contrast, an array of pointers is a group of related pointer variables
stored in an array. Each element in the array is a pointer, and you can
access individual pointers with the array name and subscript. Each pointer
in the array points, in turn, to some other object.


A Pause for Reflection

If this is your first exposure to pointers, you may want to reflect on what
you have learned before reading the next chapter. This chapter has explained
the basic uses of pointers, and you can write a great many useful programs
using only these techniques. If you're not comfortable with all these ideas,
you may want to experiment with them before reading more about pointers.

The next chapter, "Advanced Pointers," examines further uses of pointers,
including multiple indirection and pointers to structures.






Chapter 9  Advanced Pointers
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

The preceding chapter, "Pointers," explained the basics of using pointers─
how to declare and initialize pointer variables and use them to access basic
data types. This chapter explores more advanced pointer techniques,
including multiple indirection, pointers to structures, and pointers to
functions.


Pointers to Pointers

In Chapter 8, "Pointers," we stated a pointer can point to any kind of
variable. Since a pointer is a variable, you can make it the target of
another pointer, creating a pointer to a pointer. This concept is useful in
itself and is also important for understanding the equivalence of array
notation and pointer notation, which is explained in the next section.

The program PTRPTR.C demonstrates a pointer to a pointer insimple terms:

  /* PTRPTR.C: Demonstrate a pointer to a pointer. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int val = 501;
     int *ptr = &val;
     int **ptr_ptr = &ptr;
     printf( "val = %d\n", **ptr_ptr );
  }

Here is the output from PTRPTR.C:

  val = 501

The first two statements in PTRPTR.C should look familiar by now. They
create an int variable named  val  and an int pointer named  ptr. The third
line, however, requires some explanation:

  int **ptr_ptr = &ptr;

This statement uses double indirection to create a variable named  ptr_ptr,
which is a pointer to a pointer. This pointer is assigned the address of the
first pointer,  ptr. The pointer  ptr  references  val, and the pointer
ptr_ptr  references  ptr. Figure 9.1 illustrates the relationship between
ptr  and  ptr_ptr.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Once we have initialized both pointers, we can use  ptr_ptr  to access  val:


  **ptr_ptr

 The double indirection operator ( ** ) is used with a pointer to a pointer.


The double indirection operator (**) in front of  ptr_ptr  tells two things
about ptr_ptr: that  ptr_ptr  is itself a pointer and it points to a second
pointer. Both asterisks are needed to access the contents of  val. If you
use only one, as in

  *ptr_ptr

then  ptr_ptr  accesses the contents of  ptr, which is the address of  val.
This statement, for instance, prints the address stored in  ptr:

  printf( "ptr = %u", *ptr_ptr );

Using pointers to pointers is known as "multiple indirection." One pointer
points to a second pointer, which in turn accesses a third data object. In
theory, there's no limit to how far you can take multiple indirection. You
can create pointers to pointers, pointers to pointers to pointers, and so
on. However, there's rarely any practical reason to carry indirection beyond
two levels (a pointer to a pointer).


Equivalence of Array and Pointer Notation

In previous sections we noted, more or less in passing, two important facts
about arrays and pointers:


  1.  An array name is actually a pointer.

  2.  Array notation (subscripts) and pointer notation are interchangeable.


These ideas are significant enough to warrant an explicit demonstration.
Let's rewrite the QCSORT.C program using pointer notation:

  /* QCSORT1.C: Demonstrate sort with pointer notation. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #define SIZE 4

  void sort( int size, double **p );
  void show( int size, double **p, double dd[] );

  main()
  {
     int x;
     double d[] = { 3.333, 1.111, 2.222, 4.444 };
     double *d_ptr[SIZE];
     for( x = 0; x < SIZE; x++ )
        d_ptr[x] = &d[x];
     show( SIZE, d_ptr, d );
     sort( SIZE, d_ptr );
     show( SIZE, d_ptr, d );
  }

  void sort( int size, double **p )
  {
     int x, x1;
     double *temp;
     for( x = 0; x < size - 1; x++ )
        for( x1 = x + 1; x1 < size; x1++ )
        {
           if( **(p+x) > **(p+x1) )
           {
              temp = *(p+x1);
              *(p+x1) = *(p+x);
              *(p+x) = temp;
           }
        }
  }

  void show( int size, double **p, double dd[] )
  {
     int x;
     printf( "------------------------" );
     printf( "------------------------\n" );
     for( x = 0; x < size; x++ )
     {
        printf( "*d_ptr[%d] = %1.3f   ", x, **(p+x) );
        printf( "d_ptr[%d] = %u ", x, *(p+x) );
        printf( "  d[%d] = %1.3f\n", x, dd[x] );
     }
  }

The QCSORT1.C program works like its predecessor, QCSORT.C. (It sorts an
array of pointers that point to elements in an int array.) The only
difference is QCSORT1.C uses pointer notation instead of array notation.

Let's look at how the change affects the  sort  function, beginning with its
prototype. In the previous program, QCSORT.C, the prototype

  void sort( int size, double *p[] );

uses array notation to show we'll pass the name of an array of pointers to
sort. Since an array name is a pointer, we can rewrite the prototype using
pointer notation, as in QCSORT1.C:

  void sort( int size, double **p );

The  sort  function definition is rewritten in the same way. Here is the
definition of  sort  in the original program (QCSORT.C):

  void sort( int size, double *p[] )
  {
     int x, x1;
     double *temp;
     for( x = 0; x < size - 1; x++ )
        for( x1 = x + 1; x1 < size; x1++ )
        {
           if( *p[x] > *p[x1] )
           {
           temp = p[x1];
           p[x1] = p[x];
           p[x] = temp;
           }
        }
  }

The same function using pointers looks like this in QCSORT1.C:

  void sort( int size, double **p )
  {
     int x, x1;
     double *temp;
     for( x = 0; x < size - 1; x++ )
        for( x1 = x + 1; x1 < size; x1++ )
        {
           if( **(p+x) > **(p+x1) )
           {
              temp = *(p+x1);
              *(p+x1) = *(p+x);
              *(p+x) = temp;
           }
        }
  }

Within the  sort  function, the variable  p  is a pointer to a pointer. When
we use a single asterisk, as in,

  *(p+x1)

we access the contents of the  x1  pointer, which is an address. When we
place a double asterisk in front of an address value, as in,

  **(p+x)

we access the contents of this address.

Using pointer notation in place of array notation, QCSORT1.C achieves the
same result as QCSORT.C. In many cases─including this one─it doesn't really
matter which notation you use. If you're still more comfortable with array
notation, you may prefer to use it sometimes. Since many C programs use
pointers to manipulate arrays, however, it's worth taking the time to learn
pointer notation, too.


Getting Command-Line Arguments

  Command-line arguments are passed to programs through argv, an array of
pointers.

Arrays of pointers have one very common use─accessing command-line
arguments. When a C program begins execution, DOS passes two arguments to
it. The first argument, normally called  argc, is an int variable that
indicates the number of command-line arguments. The second, normally called
argv, is a pointer to an array of strings. Each string in the array contains
one of the command-line arguments.

Even if you don't plan to use  argc  and  argv  in your programs, you can
expect to see them often in other C programs, so it's useful to know how
they're used. The ARGV.C program uses  argc  and  argv.

  /* ARGV.C: Demonstrate accessing command-line arguments. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  void show_args( char *argument );

  int main( int argc, char *argv[] )
  {
     int count;
     for( count=0; count < argc; count++ )
        show_args( argv[count] );
     return 0;
  }

  void show_args( char *argument )
  {
     printf( "%s\n", argument );
  }

To make ARGV.C produce output, you must give it some command-line arguments.
(If you run ARGV.C in the QuickC environment, select Run/Debug from the
Options menu and type the command-line arguments at the Command Line
prompt.) The program prints each argument on the screen.

If you use this command line, for instance,

  argv harpo chico groucho zeppo

then ARGV.C gives this output:

  C:\SOURCES\ARGV.EXE
  harpo
  chico
  groucho
  zeppo

The first argument may have surprised you. In DOS versions 3.0 and higher,
the first string in the  argv  array ( argv[0] ) contains the drive
specification and full pathname to the program that is executing. The drive
and path you see will depend on how your system is configured. In the
example the ARGV.EXE program is located in the SOURCES directory of drive C.


Thus, the value of  argc  actually is one greater than the number of
command-line arguments, and the first argument typed on the command line is
the second string in the array ( argv[1] ). If you type the arguments shown
above, the value of  argc  is 5 and  argv[1]  contains the argument  harpo.



Null Pointers

We can use the ARGV.C program to illustrate another handy property of
pointers: null pointers. Consider this modification (ARGV1.C):

  /* ARGV1.C: Demonstrate null pointers. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  void show_args( char *argument );

  int main( int argc, char **argv )
  {
     while( *argv )
        show_args( *(argv++) );
     return 0;
  }

  void show_args( char *argument )
  {
     printf( "%s\n", argument );
  }

The ARGV1.C program gives the same output as the previous program but it
uses a while loop instead of a for loop. The test expression in this loop,

  while( *argv )

is equivalent to this test expression:

  while( *argv != 0 )

The loop in ARGV1.C continues until it finds a "null pointer," a pointer
that contains 0. In this case, the null pointer means we have reached the
end of the array: no more strings are available.

 Null pointers can be used to show success or failure and as markers in a
series.

Many C library functions use null pointers to signal the success or failure
of an operation that returns a pointer. For instance, the library function
malloc normally returns a pointer to the beginning address of the memory
area it allocates. If no memory is available, malloc returns a null pointer
to show the operation failed. Similarly, the fopen function usually returns
a pointer to a FILE structure, but returns a null pointer when it fails.

Null pointers can also be used to mark the end of a list of pointers, such
as the  argv  array or a linked list.


Pointers to Structures

 A structure pointer can access any member of a structure.

A pointer to a structure, or "structure pointer," is conceptually similar to
an array pointer. Just as an array pointer can point to any element in an
array, a structure pointer can reference any member in a structure. The
major difference is one of notation.

In case you're not yet an expert on structure notation, let's review it very
briefly. First recall that each element in an array has the same type, so
you refer to individual array elements with subscripts:

  i_array[3]

Because members of a structure can have different types, you can't use
numerical subscripts to refer to them based on their order. Instead, each
structure member has a symbolic name. You refer to a member with a structure
name and member name, separating the two names with the member-of operator
(.):

  jones.name

The notation for structure pointers follows the same pattern, with only two
differences. You must


  1.  Replace the structure name with the name of the pointer

  2.  Replace the member-of operator with a two-character operator called
      the "pointer-member" operator (->)


The pointer-member operator is formed by a dash and a right-angle bracket.
The following name uses the pointer-member operator:

  jones_ptr->name

Here  jones_ptr  is the name of a pointer to a structure, and  name  is a
member of the structure that  jones_ptr  points to.

The EMPLOY1.C program is a revision of the EMPLOYEE.C program that
demonstrates structures in Chapter 4, "Data Types." This program illustrates
how to manipulate a structure through a pointer:

  /* EMPLOY1.C: Demonstrate structure pointers. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  struct employee
  {
     char name[10];
     int months;
     float wage;
  };

  void display( struct employee *e_ptr  );

  main()
  {
     struct employee jones =
     {
        "Jones, J",
        77,
        13.68
     };

     display( &jones );
  }

  void display( struct employee *e_ptr )
  {
     printf( "Name: %s\n", e_ptr->name );
     printf( "Months of service: %d\n", e_ptr->months );
     printf( "Hourly wage: %6.2f\n", e_ptr->wage );
  }

 Structure pointers allow  functions to access  structures that are local
to other functions.

The EMPLOY1.C program gives the same output as the earlier version. But
instead of passing the entire structure to the  display  function, this
program passes a structure pointer. This method conserves memory, since the
display  function doesn't create a local copy of the structure. It also
allows  display  to change members in the original structure, which is local
to the main function.

The header of the  display  function shows that the function expects to
receive a structure pointer:

  void display( struct employee *e_ptr  )

The expression in parentheses specifies what type of value the function
expects. This expression is a bit complex, so let's look at each part
individually. The expression  *e_ptr  indicates the function expects to
receive a pointer, which it names  e_ptr. It is preceded by

  struct employee

which states what type of pointer  e_ptr  is. The struct keyword indicates
e_ptr  is a pointer to a structure, and the tag  employee  specifies the
structure type.

The next item of interest in EMPLOY1.C is the function call that passes the
structure pointer:

  display( &jones );

This statement uses the address-of operator to pass the address of the
jones  structure to the  display  function. The address-of operator is not
optional. Since we want the function to access the original structure─not a
local copy─we must pass the structure's address.

When the  display  function executes, it creates a pointer variable named
e_ptr  and assigns to it the address passed in the function call. Now the
display  function can refer to any member of the structure indirectly
through the pointer  e_ptr. Within the  display  function, the statement

  printf( "%s\n", e_ptr->name );

has the same effect that the statement

  printf( "%s\n", jones.name );

has in the main function. Figure 9.2 illustrates the relationship between
the structure pointer and structure members in EMPLOY1.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Just to confirm that the  display  function can access the original
structure in EMPLOY1.C, try adding this statement to the end of the  display
 function:

  strcpy( e_ptr->name, "King, M" );

and this statement to the end of the main function:

  printf( "%s\n", jones.name );

These changes cause EMPLOY1.C to print:

  King, M

Acting indirectly through a structure pointer, the  display  function was
able to change a structure defined elsewhere in the program.


Pointers to Functions

At the beginning of the previous chapter we stated that a pointer can point
to any object present in memory at run time. Since functions themselves are
located in memory, you can assign the address of a function to a pointer,
creating a "function pointer."

 A function pointer makes it possible to pass a function as a function
argument.

Function pointers provide a way─in fact, the only practical way─to pass a
function as an argument to another function. This permits the second
function to call the first function indirectly through the pointer.

While function pointers may sound rather obscure, they have some common
practical uses:


  ■   Some QuickC run-time library functions, such as qsort, expect to
      receive a pointer to a user-defined function in your program. (Online
      help includes an example program that uses qsort.)

  ■   Function pointers are used extensively in Windows and OS/2
      Presentation Manager programs.

  ■   Using an array of function pointers, you can create a "dispatch
      table." A dispatch table is a list of related functions that can be
      called based on some choice made at run time. It is similar to an ON
      GOSUB statement in BASIC or a call table in assembly language.


The syntax for function pointers is a bit complex, so let's start with a
simple example. The FUNCPTR.C program creates a pointer to our old friend,
printf, and calls printf through the pointer:

  /* FUNCPTR.C: Demonstrate function pointers. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int (*func_ptr) ();
     func_ptr = printf;
     (*func_ptr) ( "Curiouser and curiouser...\n" );
  }

Here is the output from FUNCPTR.C:

  Curiouser and curiouser...

This line from FUNCPTR.C declares  func_ptr  as a pointer to a function:

  int (*func_ptr) ();

The declaration of a function pointer must use the same type specifier as
the function it references. If the function returns a float value, the
pointer uses type float, and so on. Since the printf function returns an int
value showing how many characters it displays, the declaration of  func_ptr
uses the type int.

 A function-pointer declaration must have two pairs of parentheses.

Function-pointer declarations may look complex, but all the parentheses are
essential. The empty parentheses at the end of the declaration are needed to
show the pointer points to a function.

The parentheses enclosing the function name itself are mandatory, too.
Notice what happens if you omit them:

  void *func_ptr(); /* Error! Not a function pointer. */

Instead of declaring a pointer to a function, this statement declares a
function that returns a pointer─not at all what we want in FUNCPTR.C.

The next program line initializes the function pointer, assigning it the
address of the printf function:

  func_ptr = printf;

This line has two important features. First, notice the name printf isn't
followed by parentheses, as it would be when you call printf directly. We
want to obtain the address of printf, not call it.

Second, note that it's not necessary to place the address-of operator before
the name printf. Because  func_ptr  was declared as a function pointer, the
compiler knows it should use the address of printf here. If you like,
however, you can add the address-of operator to make the statement a little
more readable:

  func_ptr = &printf;

The next line calls the printf function indirectly through the pointer
func_ptr:

  (*func_ptr) ( "Curiouser and curiouser...\n" );

Note the similarity between this statement and a normal call to printf. It's
equivalent to this line:

  printf( "Curiouser and curiouser...\n" );

To call printf indirectly through  func_ptr, you supply the same arguments
as when you call printf directly.


Passing Function Pointers as Arguments

 Function pointers are usually passed as function arguments.

Like other pointers, function pointers can be passed as arguments to
functions. Normally, in fact, this is the only reason to use a function
pointer.

The FUNCPTR.C program in the previous section is easy to follow but not very
practical. In a real program, you wouldn't go to the trouble of creating a
function pointer just to call printf from the main function.

The FUNCPTR1.C program demonstrates how to pass a function pointer as an
argument. It has a function named  gimme_func  that expects to be passed a
function pointer:

  /* FUNCPTR1.C: Passing function pointers as arguments. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  void gimme_func( void (*func_ptr) () );

  main()
  {
     gimme_func( puts );
     gimme_func( printf );
  }

  void gimme_func( void (*func_ptr) () )
  {
     (*func_ptr) ( "Ausgezeichnet!" );
  }

Here is the output from FUNCPTR1.C:

  Ausgezeichnet!
  Ausgezeichnet!

In the interests of brevity, the function  gimme_func  does a very simple
job. It expects to receive a pointer to a function that can display a string
and uses that pointer to print the string. The first call to  gimme_func
passes a pointer to the library function puts, and the second passes a
pointer to printf.

Since the declaration of  gimme_func  states it takes a pointer to a
function, the address-of operator is optional in a call to  gimme_func. The
following statements are equivalent:

  gimme_func( puts );
  gimme_func( &puts );


A Parting Word on Pointers

If you have read the previous two chapters from beginning to end, you may be
suffering from a mild─or perhaps not so mild─case of information overload.
Pointers have so many different uses that it's difficult to learn everything
about them at once.

Don't be discouraged if some uses of pointers still aren't clear to you. The
latter parts of this chapter cover some rather esoteric techniques, which
you probably won't use often. When needed, however, these techniques offer
some very powerful capabilities.

Like other programming concepts, pointers are best learned through practice,
so use them at every sensible opportunity. Remember, you don't need to know
everything about pointers in order to do something with them. The more you
use pointers in everyday programming, the sooner all the pieces of the
puzzle will fall into place.






Chapter 10  Programming Pitfalls
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

In C, as in every language, it's rare for any program to work perfectly the
first time. An important part of knowing a language is recognizing what not
to do and why certain problems occur.

This chapter describes common C programming pitfalls and how to avoid them.
It is organized under broad topics, such as "Pointer Problems," with a
category for miscellaneous problems at the end. The description of each
error gives a code example, explains why the error occurs, and offers a
solution.


Operator Problems

The most common operator problems involve operators unique to C. Others
involve questions of precedence, which can cause problems in any language.


Confusing Assignment and Equality Operators

A common error is to confuse the assignment operator (=) with the equality
operator (==). The mistake often occurs in decision-making statements:

  int val = 555;
  if( val = 20 ) /* Error! */
     printf( "val equals 20\n" );

The above code prints  val equals 20  even though it's clear  val  doesn't
equal 20 when the if statement begins. Instead of testing whether  x  equals
20, the expression  val = 20  assigns the value 20 to  val.

Remember, the single equal sign (=) performs an assignment in C. This
particular assignment results in a nonzero value, so the if test is
evaluated as true, causing the printf statement to execute.

To correct the problem, use the double equal sign (==) to test equality:

  if( x == 20 )
     printf( "x equals 20\n" );

Once you're in the habit of using the equality operator, you might make the
opposite mistake of using two equal signs where you should use only one:

  main()
  {
     int val;
     for( val == 0; val < 5; val++ )  /* Error! */
        printf( "val = %d\n", val );
  }

Here the error appears in the initializing expression of the for statement.
It's the reverse of what happened in the first example. Instead of assigning
the value 0 to  val, the expression  val == 0  evaluates whether or not  val
 equals 0. The expression doesn't change the value of  val  at all. Since
val  is an uninitialized variable, the for loop is unpredictable.


Confusing Operator Precedence

Peculiar things can happen if you ignore operator precedence:

  main()
  {
     int ch;
     while( ch = getch() != '\r' )
        printf( "%d\n", ch );
  }

Instead of assigning the result of the getch library-function call to  ch,
the above code assigns the value 0 to  ch  when you press the ENTER key and
the value 1 when you press any other key. (The values 1 and 0 represent true
and false.)

The error occurs because the inequality operator (!=) has higher precedence
than the assignment operator (=). The expression

  ch = getch() != '\r'

is the same as

  ch = (getch() != '\r')

Both expressions compare the result of the getch call to the character
constant \r. The result of that comparison is then assigned to  ch.

For the program to work correctly, these operations must happen in the
reverse order. The result of the function call must be assigned to the
variable before the variable is compared to the constant. We can solve the
problem by adding parentheses:

  main()
  {
     int ch;
     while( (ch = getch()) != '\r')
      printf( "%d\n", ch );
  }

Parentheses have the highest precedence of any operator, so the expression

  (ch = getch()) != '\r'

works correctly. It assigns the result of the getch call to  ch  before
comparing  ch  to the constant.

The list of precedence-related errors is almost endless. Fortunately, QuickC
makes it unnecessary to memorize precedence rules. To view a complete table
of operator precedences, see Appendix A, "C Language Guide," and online help
in the QuickC environment.

 Use parentheses  to avoid operator  precedence problems.

When in doubt, use extra parentheses to make the order of operations
absolutely clear. Extra parentheses don't degrade performance, and they can
improve readability as well as minimize precedence problems.


Confusing Structure-Member Operators

Two different operators are used to access the members of a structure. Use
the structure-member operator (.) to access a structure member directly, and
the pointer-member operator (->) to access a structure member indirectly
through a pointer.

For instance, you may create a pointer to a structure of the  employee
type,

  struct employee *p_ptr;

and initialize the pointer to point to the  jones  structure:

  p_ptr = &jones;

If you use the structure-member operator to access a structure member
through the pointer,

  p_ptr.months = 78; /* Error! */

QuickC issues this error message:

  C2040: '.' requires struct/union name

Use the pointer-member operator to access a structure member through a
pointer:

  p_ptr->months = 78;


Array Problems

The most common errors associated with arrays involve indexing errors. The
problems described in this section all concern indexing errors of one form
or another.


Array Indexing Errors

 The first C array subscript is 0.

If you're used to a language that has different subscripting rules, it's
easy to forget that the first subscript of a C array is 0 and the last
subscript is 1 less than the number used to declare the array. Here's an
example:

  int i_array[4] = { 3, 55, 600, 12 };
  main()
  {
     int count;
     for( count = 1; count < 5; count++ )  /* Error! */
        printf( "i_array[%d] = %d\n", i_array[count] );
  }

The for loop in the above program starts at  i_array[1]  and ends at
i_array[4]. It should begin with the first element,  i_array[0]  and end at
the last, i_array[3]. The following corrects the error.

  for( count = 0; count < 4; count++ )
     printf( "i_array[%d] = %d\n", i_array[count] );


Omitting an Array Subscript in Multidimensional Arrays

 Enclose each subscript  in its own set of brackets.

Programmers who know QuickBASIC, QuickPascal, or FORTRAN may be tempted to
place more than one array subscript in the same pair of brackets. In C, each
subscript of a multidimensional array is enclosed in its own pair of
brackets:

  int i_array[2][2] = { { 12, 2 }, { 6, 55 } };
  main()
  {
     printf( "%d\n", i_array[ 0, 1 ] ); /* Error! */
  }

In the preceding example, the expression

  i_array[ 0, 1 ]

does not access element 0,1 of  i_array . Here is the correct way to refer
to that array element:

  i_array[0][1]

Interestingly, the deviant array reference doesn't cause a syntax error. As
mentioned in Chapter 6, "Operators," it's legal to separate multiple
expressions with a comma operator, and the final value of such a series is
the value of the rightmost expression in the group. Thus, the expression

  i_array[ 0, 1 ]

is equivalent to this one:

  i_array[ 1 ];

Both expressions give an address, not the value of an array element.


Overrunning Array Boundaries

Since C doesn't check array subscripts for validity, you must keep track of
array boundaries on your own. For instance, if you initialize a
five-character array,

  char sample[] = "ABCD";

and refer to a nonexistent array element,

  sample[9] = 'X';

QuickC doesn't signal an error, although the second statement overwrites
memory outside the array. It stores a character in element 9 of an array
that contains only 5 elements.

The same problem can occur when accessing an array through a pointer:

  char sample[] = "ABCD";
  char *ptr = sample;
  *--ptr = 'X';  /* Error! */

The code overwrites the byte in memory below the array. To avoid such
problems, confine all array operations within the range used to declare the
array.


String Problems

Strings are handled a little differently in C than most languages─a fact
that can cause problems. The following errors are common to programs that
use strings.


Confusing Character Constants and Character Strings

Remember the difference between a character constant, which has one byte,
and a character string, which is a series of characters ending with a null
character:

  char ch = 'Y';
  if( ch == "Y" )  /* Error! */
     printf( "The ayes have it..." );

The example above mistakenly compares the char variable  ch  to a
twocharacter string ( "Y" ) instead of a single character constant ( 'Y' ).
Since the comparison is false, the printf statement never executes─no matter
what  ch  equals.

The if statement needs to use single quotes. This code correctly tests
whether  ch  equals the character  'Y':

  char ch = 'Y';
  if( ch == 'Y' )
     printf( "The ayes have it..." );


Forgetting the Null Character That Terminates Strings

Remember that strings end with a null character in C. If you declare this
five-character array,

  char sample[5];

the compiler allocates five bytes of memory for the array. If you try to
store the string "Hello"  in the array like this,

  strcpy( sample, "Hello" );

you'll overrun the array's bounds. The string "Hello"  contains six
characters (five letters and a null character), so it's one byte too big to
fit in the  sample  array. The strcpy overwrites one byte of memory outside
the array's storage.

It's easy to make this error when allocating memory for a string, too:

  char str[] = "Hello";
  char *ptr;
  ptr = malloc( strlen( str ) ); /* Error! */
  if( ptr == NULL )
     exit( 1 );
  else
     strcpy( ptr, str );

This time the error occurs in the call to the malloc function, which
allocates memory to a pointer prior to a string copy. The strlen function
returns the length of a string not including the null character that ends
the string. Since the amount of memory allocated is one byte too small, the
strcpy operation overwrites memory, just as in the previous example.

To avoid the problem, add 1 to the value returned by strlen:

  ptr = malloc( strlen( str ) + 1 );


Forgetting to Allocate Memory for a String

If you declare a string as a pointer, don't forget to allocate memory for
it. This example tries to create a char pointer named  ptr  and initialize
it with a string:

  main()
  {
     char *ptr;
     strcpy( ptr, "Ashby" );  /* Error! */
  }

The pointer declaration  char *ptr;  creates a pointer variable but nothing
else. It allocates enough memory for the pointer to store an address but
doesn't allocate any memory to store the object to which  ptr  will point.
The strcpy operation in the next line overwrites memory by copying the
string into an area not used by the program.

One way to allocate memory is by declaring a char array large enough to hold
the string:

  main()
  {
     char c_array[10];
     strcpy( c_array, "Randleman" );
  }

You can also call the malloc library function to allocate memory at run
time:

  #define BUFFER_SIZE 30
  #include <malloc.h>

  main()
  {
     char *ptr;
     if( ptr = (char *) malloc( BUFFER_SIZE ) )
     {
        strcpy( ptr, "Duvall" );
        printf( ptr );
        free( ptr );
     }
  }


Pointer Problems

Every experienced C programmer has a collection of favorite pointer-induced
bugs. Pointer errors can wreak havoc because pointers can change the
contents of any addressable memory location. If a pointer writes to an
unexpected address, the results can be disastrous.


Using the Wrong Address Operator to Initialize a Pointer

If you're still learning about pointers, it's easy to forget which address
operator to use when initializing a pointer variable. For example, you might
want to create a pointer to a simple int variable:

  int val = 25;
  int *ptr;
  ptr = val; /* Error! */

The code above doesn't initialize  ptr  correctly. Instead of assigning to
ptr  the address of  val, the statement

  ptr = val;

tries to assign  ptr  the contents of  val, causing an error message:

  warning C4047: '=' : different levels of indirection

Because  val  is an int variable, its contents can't form a meaningful
address for ptr. You must use the address-of operator to initialize  ptr:

  ptr = &val;

Here's another pointer initialization error:

  int val = 25;
  int *ptr;
  *ptr = &val; /* Error! */

The last line doesn't initialize  ptr  to point to the variable  val. The
expression to the left of the equal sign,  *ptr, stands for the object  ptr
points to. Instead of assigning  ptr  the address of  val, the line tries to
assign the address of  val  to the place where  ptr  points. Because  ptr
has never been initialized, the assignment triggers a run-time error:

  run-time error R6001
  -null pointer assignment

Here is the correct way to initialize this pointer:

  ptr = &val;


Declaring a Pointer with the Wrong Type

You should make sure the type used to declare a pointer matches the type of
data object it points to:

  main()
  {
     int *ptr;
     .
     .
     .
     float val = 3.333333;
     ptr = val;  /* Error! */
     printf( "val = %f\n", *ptr );
  }

The program declares  ptr  as a pointer to an int. Later on, forgetting what
type we used when declaring  ptr, we assign it the address of the
floating-point variable  val.

 Declaring a pointer with the wrong type can cause unwanted type
conversions.

Since C allows you to assign any address to a pointer, the assignment
doesn't cause an error. But accessing  val  through  ptr  creates problems.
Because  ptr  is declared as a pointer to an int, the compiler does a type
conversion on the float it points to, converting the float value to an int.
The output is garbage:

  val = 11242989923343410000000000000000000000000000000000000
  000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.000000

The following program cures the error by declaring  ptr  as a pointer to a
float data type:

  main()
  {
     float *ptr;
     float val = 3.333333;
     ptr = &val;
     printf( "%f\n", *ptr );
  }

Now it gives the correct output:

  val = 3.333333


Using Dangling Pointers

A "dangling pointer" is one that points to a memory area no longer in use by
your program. Dangling pointers, like uninitialized pointers, can be very
dangerous to use.

For instance, say you allocate a block of memory with the malloc library
function:

  #define BUFSIZE 1000
  char *ptr;
  if( ptr = (char *) malloc( BUFSIZE ) )
     /* do something */ ;

After the memory block has been allocated with malloc, the pointer  ptr
points to a valid data object. Once you're done using allocated memory, you
normally return it to the heap:

  free( ptr );

After you free the memory it points to,  ptr  is a dangling pointer. It
still points to a valid machine address, but that address is no longer in
use by the program. You shouldn't use the pointer at this stage, just as you
shouldn't use it before it has been initialized.

Dangling pointers can also be created by a function that returns a pointer
to a local variable:

  int *boo_boo( void )
  {
     int object;
     .
     .
     .
     return &object; /* Error! */
  }

The  boo_boo  function returns the address of the local variable  object,
forgetting the storage for  object  is no longer part of the program after
the function ends.

Here's a variant of the previous example involving a string pointer:

  char *boo_boo( void )
  {
     char *c_ptr;
     c_ptr = "Hello";
     .
     .
     .
     return c_ptr; /* Error! */
  }

Since the string constant  "Hello"  is local to the function, it evaporates
when the function ends, leaving the pointer  c_ptr  dangling.


Library-Function Problems

Once you've learned enough about C to write practical programs, you can
begin to explore the rich function library supplied with QuickC. This
section outlines a few common problems related to using library functions.
Again, you can use online help to get information about specific library
functions.


Failing to Check Return Values from Library Functions

 Always check library function return values.

Almost all library functions return some value─either the result of
processing or an error code showing success or failure. You should always
check libraryfunction return values, even if you're confident of the result.


This rule is critical when calling a library function such as malloc, which
allocates memory at run time:

  char *ptr;
  ptr = (char *) malloc( BUFSIZE );  /* Error! */

If the call to malloc fails, the pointer  ptr  is assigned a null (0) value.
Using  ptr  under these circumstances can overwrite unexpected memory
addresses or cause a run-time error. The following code checks the return
value from malloc:

  #define NULL 0
  #define BUFSIZE 32768
     .
     .
     .
  char *ptr;
  if( (ptr = (char *) malloc( BUFSIZE ) ) != NULL )
  {
     printf( "Copacetic.\n" );
     /* Do something useful... */
  }
  else
     printf( "Not enough memory!\n" );


Duplicating Library-Function Names

There are so many functions in the QuickC run-time library that it's
sometimes difficult to avoid duplicating function names. For instance, if
you write a function that reads data from a buffer, the name  read  may
strike you as short and descriptive.

The only problem is that read is the name of a QuickC library function. A
program that defines its own  read  function may work correctly at first,
but if you later include the header file that declares the read library
function,

  #include <io.h>

then redefinition errors occur. You can't use the same name for two
different functions. The solution here is to rename the user-defined
function.

 Use online help to check  for function-name conflicts.

QuickC's online help lets you check for such name conflicts on the spot. Put
the cursor on the function name you wish to use, then press F1. If the name
is already used for a library function, online help displays information
about the function. If the name isn't in online help, it's not used in the
QuickC function library and is a safe choice.

Unless you're writing your own library functions, it's a good rule to avoid
declaring names that begin with an underscore ( _ ), since many of the
system-defined names in QuickC start with that character. (Non-ANSI library
functions begin with a single underscore. Predefined identifiers such as
TIME start with two underscores, and routines internal to the C run-time
library can begin with either one or two underscores.)


Forgetting to Include Header Files for Library Functions

Because they contain needed function prototypes, it's important to include
the correct header files when using QuickC library functions:

  main()
  {
     double val = sqrt( (double) 10 );
     printf( "square root of 10 = %le\n", val );
  }

The program above calls the library function sqrt, which calculates a square
root. Most of the program is correct. When passing the value 10 to sqrt, it
casts the argument as a double, the type sqrt expects. The return value from
sqrt is assigned to a double variable, too.

Unfortunately, the program still gives the wrong output. The square root of
10 is not 171 (1.710000e+002 in exponential notation):

  square root of 10 = 1.710000e+002

 Function prototypes can prevent unexpected type conversions.

Because the program has no prototype for the sqrt function, sqrt has the int
return type by default. The value returned by sqrt undergoes an unexpected
type conversion─from type double to int─and becomes garbage.

This problem is easily solved. Simply include the standard header file that
contains the prototype for sqrt:

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <math.h>
  main()
  {
     double val = sqrt( (double) 10 );
     printf( "square root of 10 = %le\n", val );
  }

Now the program works correctly:

  square root of 10 = 3.162278e+000

If you're not sure which header file a library function needs, take
advantage of QuickC's online help. (Put the cursor on the function name and
press F1.) If the function needs a header file, the file name appears in an
#include directive above the function prototype.


Omitting the Address-Of Operator When Calling scanf

Don't forget to put the address-of operator in front of arguments when using
the scanf library function (the scanf function accesses keyboard input; see
Chapter 11, "Input and Output"):

  main()
  {
     int val;
     printf( "Type a number: " );
     scanf( "%d", val ); /* Error! */
     printf( "%d", val );
  }

When the program calls scanf, it omits the address-of operator that should
precede the second argument:

  scanf( "%d", val );  /* Error! */

The scanf function expects to be passed a pointer to a variable (in this
case, a pointer to  val ) so it can assign an input value to the variable.
But because the address-of operator is missing, the program passes the value
of  val, not its address.

Instead of storing an input value in  val  as intended, scanf uses the
uninitialized value of  val  as a pointer and assigns the input value to an
unpredictable address. As a result,  val  remains uninitialized and the
program overwrites memory elsewhere─two very undesirable events.

Here is the correct way to call scanf in this program:

  scanf( "%d", &val );


Macro Problems

Function-like macros─macro definitions that take arguments─share many of the
advantages of functions. They can cause unwanted side effects, however, if
you fail to put parentheses around their arguments or carelessly supply an
argument that uses an increment or decrement operator.


Omitting Parentheses from Macro Arguments

A macro definition that doesn't enclose its arguments in parentheses can
create precedence problems:

  #include <stdio.h>

  #define FOURX(arg)  ( arg * 4 )

  main()
  {
     int val;
     val = FOURX( 2 + 3 );
     printf( "val = %d\n", val );
  }

The  FOURX  macro in the program multiplies its argument by 4. The macro
works fine if you pass it a single value, as in

  val = FOURX( 2 );

but returns the wrong result if you pass it this expression:

  val = FOURX( 2 + 3 );

QuickC expands the above line to this line:

  val = 2 + 3 * 4;

 Use parentheses to  avoid precedence  problems in macros.

Because the multiplication operator has higher precedence than the addition
operator, this line assigns  val  the value 14 (or 2 + 12) rather than the
correct value 20 (or 5 * 4).

You can avoid the problem by enclosing the macro argument in parentheses
each time it appears in the macro definition:

  #include <stdio.h>

  #define FOURX(arg)  ( (arg) * 4 )

  main()
  {
     int val;
     val = FOURX(2 + 3);
     printf( "val = %d\n", val );
  }

Now the program expands this line

  val = FOURX(2 + 3);

into this one:

  val = (2 + 3) * 4;

The extra parentheses assure that the addition is performed before the
multiplication, giving the desired result.


Using Increment and Decrement Operators in Macro Arguments

If a function-like macro evaluates an argument more than once, you should
avoid passing it an expression that contains an increment or decrement
operator:

  #include <stdio.h>
  #define ABS(value)  ( (value) >= 0 ? (value) : -(value) )

  main()
  {
     int array[4] = {3, -20, -555, 6};
     int *ptr = array;
     int val, count;
     for( count = 0; count < 4; count++ )
     {
        val = ABS(*ptr++); /* Error! */
        printf( "abs of array[%d] = %d\n", count, val );
     }
  }

The program uses the  ABS  macro that was used to explain macros in Chapter
7, "Preprocessor Directives." The macro returns the absolute value of the
argument you pass to it.

The goal in this program is to display the absolute value of every element
in  array. It uses a for loop to step through the array and a pointer named
ptr  to access each array element in turn. Instead of the output you would
expect,

  abs of array[0] = 3
  abs of array[1] = 20
  abs of array[2] = 555
  abs of array[3] = 6

the program gives this output:

  abs of array[0] = -20
  abs of array[1] = -6
  abs of array[2] = 8307
  abs of array[3] = 24864

(The last two array values may differ if you run the program. They are the
contents of memory not used by the program.)

The error occurs in this line,

  val = ABS(*ptr++); /* Error! */

which QuickC expands as shown here:

  val = ( (*ptr++) >= 0 ? (*ptr++) : -(*ptr++) ); /* Error! */

Because it uses the conditional operator, the  ABS  macro always evaluates
its argument at least twice. This isn't a problem when the argument is a
constant or simple variable. In the example, however, the argument is the
expression  *ptr++. Each time the macro evaluates this expression, the
increment operator takes effect, causing  ptr  to point to the next element
of  array.

The first time the program invokes the macro,  ptr  points to the first
array element,  array[0]. Since this element contains a nonnegative value
(3) the macro evaluates the argument twice. The first evaluation takes the
value that  ptr  points to and then increments  ptr. Now  ptr  points to the
second element,  array[1]. The second evaluation takes the value of
array[1]  and increments  ptr  again.

The first macro invocation not only returns an incorrect value (-20, the
value of  array[1] ). It also leaves  ptr  pointing to the third array
element, making the results of later invocations unpredictable. (The pointer
eventually moves past the last element of  array  and points to unknown
data.)

To avoid the problem, don't use the increment or decrement operators in
arguments you pass to a macro. This revision removes the error by
incrementing ptr  in the for statement instead of the macro invocation:

  #include <stdio.h>
  #define ABS(value)  ( (value) >= 0 ? (value) : -(value) )

  main()
  {
     int array[4] = {3, -20, -555, 6};
     int *ptr = array;
     int val, count;
     for( count = 0; count < 4; count++, ptr++ )
     {
        val = ABS(*ptr);
        printf( "abs of array[%d] = %d\n", count, val );
     }
  }

This advice applies generally to QuickC library routines as well as macros
you write. Remember, some run-time library routines are implemented as
macros rather than C functions. If you're not sure whether a library routine
is actually a macro, look it up in online help.


Miscellaneous Problems

This section describes C programming problems that don't fit into any
convenient category.


Mismatching if and else Statements

In nested if statements, each else is associated with the closest preceding
if statement that does not have an else. Although indentation can make
nested constructs more readable, it has no syntactical effect:

  if( val > 5 )
     if( count == 10 )
        val = sample;
  else
     val = 0;

The indentation suggests that the else associates with the first if. In
fact, the else is part of the second if, as shown more clearly here:

  if( val > 5 )
     if( count == 10 )
        val = sample;
     else
        val = 0;

The else is part of the second if statement─the closest preceding if that
doesn't have a matching else. To tie the else to the first if, you must use
braces:

  if( val > 5 )
  {
     if( count == 10 )
        val = sample;
  }
  else
     val = 0;

 Indentation makes  programs easier to read, but  is ignored by the
compiler.

Now the else belongs with the outermost if. Remember, indentation is
meaningful only to humans. The compiler relies strictly on punctuation when
it translates the source file.


Misplacing Semicolons

Misplaced semicolons can cause subtle bugs:

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int count;
     for( count = 0; count < 500; count++ ); /* Error! */
     {
        printf( "count = %d\n", count );
        printf( "And the beat goes on...\n" );
     }
  }

You might expect the program to print the value of  count  500 times, but
this is all it prints:

  count = 500
  And the beat goes on...

The culprit is the extra semicolon immediately after the parentheses of the
for statement. Its effect is more evident if we reformat the statement:

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int count;
     for( count = 0; count < 500; count++ )
        ; /* Null statement */
     {
        printf( "count = %d\n", count );
        printf( "And the beat goes on...\n" );
     }
  }

Instead of printing the value of  count  500 times, the program executes the
null statement (;) 500 times. Null statements are perfectly legal in C, so
the compiler has no way to tell this is a mistake.

Since the null statement is interpreted as the loop body, the printf
statements inside curly braces are interpreted as a statement block and
executed once. Statement blocks usually appear as part of a loop, function
definition, or decision- making statement, but it's legal to enclose any
series of statements in braces.

The program works as intended if you remove the extra semicolon:

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int count;
     for( count = 0; count < 500; count++ )
     {
        printf( "count = %d\n", count );
        printf( "And the beat goes on...\n" );
     }
  }

Here's another one. If you know QuickPascal, you might be tempted to put a
semicolon after the parentheses of a function definition:

  void func( void );

  void func( void ); /* Error! No semicolon here. */
  {
     printf( "C is not Pascal\n" );
  }

The function header causes a syntax error. While a function declaration
requires a semicolon after its parentheses, a function definition does not.
This code corrects the error:

  void func( void );

  void func( void )
  {
     printf( "C is not Pascal\n" );
  }


Omitting Double Backslashes in DOS Path Specifications

Because C uses the backslash (\) as an escape character, it's easy to create
garbled path specifications:

  fp = fopen( "c:\temp\bodkin.txt", "w" );

At first glance, the path specification in the string

  "c:\temp\bodkin.txt"

looks good because that's how you would type it on the DOS command line. In
a quoted string, however, the backslash is interpreted as an escape
character. In this string the sequences \t and \b are interpreted as the tab
and backspace character, respectively, garbling the path and file name. Even
if the indicated file exists, this call to fopen is sure to fail.

In a quoted string the escape sequence for a backslash character is a double
backslash (\\). This statement solves the problem:

  fp = fopen( "c:\\temp\\bodkin.txt", "w" );


Omitting break Statements from a switch Statement

Don't forget to include break statements when using the switch statement:

  switch( ch )
  {
     case 'e':
        printf( "Bye bye\n" );
        break;
     case 'l':
        printf( "Loading the file\n" );
        load_file( fp );
        break;

  case 's':
        printf( "Saving the file\n" );
        write_file( fp );  /* Error! Missing break. */
     case 'd':
        printf( "Deleting the file\n" );
        kill_file( fp );
        break;
     default:
        break;
  }

In this code a break statement is missing from the statements following the
third case label (the statements that print  Saving the file ). After those
statements execute, execution falls through to the next case label, deleting
the newly saved file.

To avoid this problem, place a break at the end of every case item:

  case 's':
     printf( "Saving the file.\n" );
     write_file( fp );
     break;

It's legal, of course, to write a program in which execution deliberately
falls through from one case label to the next. In such cases you may want to
add a comment to prevent confusion.


Mixing Signed and Unsigned Values

If you explicitly compare two values of different types, the compiler
normally catches the error. Some type mismatches aren't easy to spot,
however, even for humans:

  #define CHARVAL '\xff'

  main()
  {
     unsigned char uc;
     uc = CHARVAL;
     if( uc == CHARVAL )
        printf( "Eureka!" );
     else
        printf( "Oops..." );
  }

The program prints  Oops...  which probably wasn't expected. The comparison
between  CHARVAL  and  uc  is false even though both are clearly char
values.

The answer lies in the way the compiler converts signed and unsigned char
values into int values for internal use. The #define directive,

  #define CHARVAL '\xff'

defines  CHARVAL  as the constant 0xff. Since no sign is specified, the
compiler treats the constant as a signed char value by default. When it
converts the char to an int for internal use, as it does all character
values, the compiler extends the value's sign. The result is an int with the
value 0xffff.

The variable  uc  undergoes the same internal conversion, with an important
difference. Since  uc  is explicitly declared as unsigned, its value is
converted to an int value of 0x00ff.

When the two int values are compared, the result is false (0xffff does not
equal 0x00ff). One solution is to explicitly cast  CHARVAL  to the desired
type:

  #define CHARVAL (unsigned char)'\xff'

Now the compiler compares two unsigned char values, giving the desired
result. Another solution is to make  CHARVAL  an int instead of a char
constant:

  #define CHARVAL 0xff

Both solutions give the desired result, although the second is slightly less
efficient. It creates word-size, rather than byte-size, machine-code
instructions.






PART II  Using C
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Part 2 of C for Yourself  is called "Using C" and should be read after you
are familiar with basic C concepts. It covers practical topics that make it
possible for you to write real programs. The features discussed in these
chapters are provided in the QuickC run-time library, which, as you may
recall from Part 1, is not part of the C language itself.

While Part 1 was designed to be read sequentially, Part 2 is topical. So you
don't need to read its chapters in any particular order. If you are new to
C, however, it is recommended that you begin with Chapter 11, "Input and
Output," which describes how to read and write data, and process files.
Similarly, if you're not familiar with QuickC graphics, you should read
Chapters 13-15 in order.






Chapter 11  Input and Output
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

The first part of this book explored the fundamentals of the C language. In
the second part (starting with this chapter), the topics include more
complex and powerful functions: accessing disk files, creating
high-resolution graphics, creating graphs, manipulating fonts, and adding
assembly-language routines to your C programs.

Program examples in previous chapters used printf to print to the screen. In
this chapter, we'll cover printf in more detail, moving on to other I/O
functions such as fprintf, which prints to a file, instead of to the screen.


This chapter covers three broad topics: keyboard and screen input/output
(I/O), reading and writing standard disk files, and low-level disk access.
It also introduces several common string-handling functions.


Input and Output Streams

Books about C often refer to "input streams" and "output streams." A stream
is a sequence of bytes flowing into the program (input) or flowing out
(output). The data might have originally come from the keyboard, a modem, a
disk file, or some other peripheral device. The outgoing data might be sent
out to the screen, a modem, or a disk file.

Thus, when you see a phrase such as "opening a stream," it means opening a
line of communication to the disk drive or to some other peripheral.

 Peripherals and files are called "streams" in C.

The five streams always open and available for input or output are shown in
Table 11.1.

Table 11.1  Standard I/O Streams

╓┌───────────────┌───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Name            Stream
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
stdin           Standard input (keyboard)
stdout          Standard output (screen)
stderr          Standard error channel (screen)
stdprn          Standard printer (parallel port)
stdaux          Standard auxiliary device (serial port)
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



Screen and Keyboard I/O

Imagine an application program that doesn't ever send output to the screen
or accept input from the keyboard. It's possible to write such a program,
but it's unlikely you'd ever want to.

In most situations, you need to display various kinds of data on the screen
and to accept input from the keyboard. "Manipulating and Printing Strings"
introduces the functions commonly used to communicate back and forth.


Manipulating and Printing Strings

  Always pass at least one  string to the printf function.

Previous chapters have used the printf function to display results on the
screen. By now you should be accustomed to how it works. There's one rule
you must always follow when using printf: pass it at least one format
string, which may be a literal string or a pointer to a string. The string
may or may not include format specifiers, which are defined below.

The printf function always prints to the stdout device. Unless the output
has been redirected, the standard output device is the screen.

The following program illustrates some typical ways to manipulate strings
and to print them:

  /* PRTSTR.C: Print strings. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <string.h>

  main()
  {
     char aline[80], more[80];
     char *strptr;

     /* aline = "Another line."; */
     /* Note: This causes a compiler error */

     strcpy( aline, "Another line." );
     strcpy( more, aline );
     strptr = aline;
     strcat( aline, "dog" );
     printf( "A line of text." );
     printf( aline );
     printf( more );
     printf( strptr );
  }

The declarations come first:

  char aline[80], more[80];
  char *strptr;

The variables  aline  and  more  are arrays of characters. In this program,
they act as strings. Although these arrays have 80 characters each (numbered
0-79), the maximum string length is 79 characters, because strings must end
with a null character. The variable  strptr  is a pointer to a string.

If you've previously programmed in BASIC, you might expect to use the equal
sign to assign a value to a string variable. The program won't compile if
you remove the comment symbols from the following line:

  /* aline = "Another line."; */

Faced with this line, QuickC prints the error message:

  2106: '=' : Left operand must be lvalue

(an "lvalue" is a value allowed on the left side of an equal sign).

 Use the strcpy function─ not the equal sign─ to copy a string.

You can use the equal sign to assign a value to a numeric variable. When
you're using strings, however, you almost always use the library function
strcpy, which copies a string to a character array from either a string
constant or another array:

  strcpy( aline, "Another line." );
  strcpy( more, aline );

The strcpy function makes an exact copy of a string. The first argument is
the address of the destination string. The second is the address of the
source string. The first strcpy above copies " Another line."  to the  aline
 string. The second copies  aline  to  more.

Note that the first argument must be the address of an array, but the second
is either a string constant (enclosed in quotation marks) or the address of
a character array.

The 80-character arrays have more than enough room for the 13 characters of
"Another line."  and a null character. In your own programs, you should be
aware of the declared size of an array and avoid overrunning the bounds of
the array. See Chapter 10, "Programming Pitfalls," for more information
about this programming mistake.

It is possible to assign the address of a string to a pointer:

  strptr = aline;

Notice that both  strptr  and  aline  point to the same string. There's one
object in memory, but it has two different names. If  aline  changes, the
same change occurs in the string referenced by  strptr, because they're the
same string. Below, the word "dog"  is added to the end of the string
aline:

  strcat( aline, "dog" );

The strcat function concatenates one string to the end of a second string.
In the line above, both  aline  and the string referenced by  strptr  have
been changed from  "Another line."  to  "Another line.dog".

Now four printf statements execute:

  printf( "A line of text." );
  printf( aline );
  printf( more );
  printf( strptr );

The screen should look like this:

  A line of text.Another line.dogAnother line.Another line.dog

To the first printf we passed a string constant. To the other three we
passed names of strings. Concatenating  aline  and  "dog"  also affected the
string referenced by  strptr, because they both point to the same string in
memory. The contents of  more  weren't affected, however, because the strcpy
function makes a complete and unique copy of the source string at the memory
location referenced by  more.

Unfortunately, the strings ran together. As we saw in Chapter 1, "Anatomy of
a C Program," printf is unlike QuickBASIC's PRINT command or Pascal's
Writeln procedure in one respect: it does not automatically move the cursor
to the beginning of the next line. You need to include the newline character
(\n), which is one of a series of available escape codes discussed in
Chapter 4, "Data Types." The program below includes a few examples of escape
codes, each of which begins with the backslash character:

  /* PRTESC.C: Print escape characters \",\n, and \t. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <string.h>

  main()
  {
     char b[80];
     int i,j;

     strcpy( b, "and seven years ago\n" );
     printf( "\"Four score\n" );
     printf( b );
     printf( "\tone tab\n\t\ttwo tabs\n\t\t\tthree tabs\n" );
     i = sizeof( b );
     j = strlen( b );
     printf( "Size is %d\nLength is %d.\n", i, j );
  }

If you compile and run the PRTESC.C program, the following text prints on
the screen:

  "Four score
  and seven years ago
   one tab
    two tabs
     three tabs
  Size is 80
  Length is 20.

To print a newline character in a string, type a backslash and the letter n
(\n). For a quotation mark, use \". For tabs, use \t. Escape sequences can
appear anywhere within a string:

  printf( "\tone tab\n\t\ttwo tabs\n\t\t\tthree tabs\n" );

You'll find complete lists of escape characters in Appendix A, "C Language
Guide," and in online help.


Finding the Size

The last call to printf in PRTESC.C provides two pieces of information: the
size of the character array and the length of the string inside the array.

The variable  b  was declared to be an 80-character array, but the string
inside b  contains only 20 characters; it holds 19 letters plus one newline
character. Although typing \n takes two characters, it's stored in memory as
one character─ the ASCII value 10. As we'll see later in this chapter, the
newline character is sometimes expanded to two characters (a carriage return
and a linefeed) when it is written to disk. But while it's in memory, it's a
single character.

 The sizeof operator examines array size; the strlen function returns the
length of a string.

There are two methods available to find the size of arrays and strings. The
sizeof operator returns the size (in bytes) of an identifier or type. The
string-handling function strlen counts the number of characters in a string,
up to but not including the null that marks the end of the string:

  i = sizeof( b );
  j = strlen( b );
  printf( "Size is %d\nLength is %d.\n", i, j );

The final line of the program PRTESC.C prints out two integer values, which
follow the format string. When printf evaluates the format string, it
substitutes the two values for the %d specifiers:

  Size is 80
  Length is 20

The sizeof operator is part of the C language. In this example, it evaluates
to the value 80, which is the size of the array. The strlen function is a
library function for measuring strings (up to, but not including the null at
the end). It returns a 20 because that's the length of the string.


Printing Numeric Values

 The printf format string  may hold one or more  format specifiers.

We've seen how printf requires at least one string (or a pointer to a
string). To print variables and values, place a comma and the name of the
variable or value after the format string. Then, within the format string,
include a format specification. See Table 11.2.

Table 11.2  Common Format Specifications

╓┌─────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Specification         Format
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
%c                    Print a character
%d                    Print a decimal integer
%f                    Print a floating-point number
Specification         Format
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
%f                    Print a floating-point number
%i                    Print a decimal integer (same as %d)
%s                    Print a string
%u                    Print an unsigned integer
%x                    Print in hexadecimal format
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


The percent sign (%) always marks the beginning of a format specification.
The letters c, d, f, i, s, u, and x are called the "type." Between the
percent sign and the type, you may include optional specifications for
flags, width, or precision values.

At the very least, you must include the type, as in the program below:

  /* NFORMAT.C: Print numbers and a string. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <string.h>

  main()
  {
     int    a = -765,
            b = 1,
            c = 44000,
            d = 33;
     float  e = 1.33E8,
            f = -0.1234567,
            g = 12345.6789,
            h = 1.0;
     char   i[80];

     strcpy( i, "word 1, word 2, word 3, word 4, word 5" );

     printf( "Unformatted:\n%d %d %d %d\n", a, b, c, d );
     printf( "%f %f %f %f\n", e, f, g, h );
     printf( "%s\n", i );
  }

The output looks like this:

  Unformatted:
  -765 1 -21536 33
  133000000.000000 -0.123457 12345.678711 1.000000
  word 1, word 2, word 3, word 4, word 5

If you carefully compare NFORMAT.C with its output, you'll notice some
unexpected results. For example, the variable  c, which was initialized to
44000, has somehow changed to -21536.

The %d format specification applies to signed integers in the range -32768
to +32767. The value of  c  (44000) is outside that range, but still within
the realm of unsigned integers, which can hold values up to +65535. The
proper format specification would be %u (where  u  represents the unsigned
type).

Two of the floating-point values have changed, too. The %f specification
defaults to 6 digits of precision to the right of the decimal point. The
value of  f  (.1234567) is therefore rounded off to a precision of 6 digits:
.123457. Also, the limitations of floating-point accuracy transform the
value of  g  from 12345.6789 to 12345.678711. If you modify the program,
changing the  float  declarations to  double, the second problem disappears.
The variable  g  prints correctly as 12345.67.

Between the% and the type character, you may include two numbers separated
by a period. The first number is called the "width;" the second is the
"precision." The width and precision affect integers, floating-point
numbers, and strings in different ways. For example, we could specify a
width of 2 and precision of 3 for each of the above variables:

  printf( "\nWidth 2, Precision 3:\n" );
  printf( "%2.3d %2.3d %2.3u %2.3d\n", a, b, c, d );
  printf( "%2.3f %2.3f %2.3f %2.3f\n", e, f, g, h );
  printf( "%2.3s\n", i );

(Note that the variable  c  has a format specifier of  %2.3u  instead of
%2.3d.) The screen displays the following lines:

  Width 2, Precision 3:
  -765 001 44000 033
  133000000.000 -0.123 12345.679 1.000
  wor

For integers, the precision of 3 causes at least 3 digits to print, preceded
by leading zeros. For floating-point numbers, the precision of 3 truncates
fractions to 3 digits to the right of the decimal point. For strings, the
precision of 3 causes only 3 characters to print. The string output is
truncated to the right. Numbers are never truncated, however.

We can change the width to 8 and the precision to 1:

  printf( "\nWidth 8, Precision 1:\n" );
  printf( "%8.1d %8.1d %8.1u %8.1d\n", a, b, c, d );
  printf( "%8.1e %8.1f %8.1f %8.1f\n", e, f, g, h );
  printf( "%8.1s\n", i );

We made an additional modification by printing the variable  e  as an %e
type instead of an %f type. This prints the value of  e  (1.33E8) in
exponential format:

  Width 8, Precision 1:
      -765        1    44000       33
  1.3e+008     -0.1  12345.7      1.0
         w

The width controls the printing area: all 3 variable types are printed in
fields 8 characters wide. The precision of 1 affects different data types in
different ways: the integers print at least 1 digit; the floating-point
numbers print only the first number to the right of the decimal point; and
the string prints as the first character only. Each value prints flush right
in its field.

Between the % and the width, you may also insert a flag. The plus flag (+),
for example, forces numbers to print with a leading sign:

  printf( "\nForced signs, Width 10, Precision 2:\n" );
  printf( "%+10.2d %+10.2d %+10.2u %+10.2d\n", a, b, c, d );
  printf( "%+10.2e %+10.2f %+10.2f %+10.2f\n", e, f, g, h );
  printf( "%+10.2s\n", i );

Note that the plus flag has no effect on strings or on unsigned integers:

  Forced signs, Width 10, Precision 2:
        -765        +01      44000        +33
  +1.33e+008      -0.12  +12345.68      +1.00
          wo

Another flag is the number 0, which forces leading zeros to print within the
limits of the width. If you only specify the width, the system default is
used for the precision. You can use the type %x to represent hexadecimal; it
displays the letters a-f in lowercase. If you prefer uppercase, you can use
%X instead.

  printf( "\nHexadecimal, Forced Zeros, Width 6:\n" );
  printf( "%06x %06x %06x %06x\n", a, b, c, d );

The printf statements above display these lines:

  Hexadecimal, Forced Zeros, Width 6:
  00fd03 000001 00abe0 000021

For strings, the width and precision specifiers describe the field width and
the number of characters printed. Note the minus sign in the final line,
which forces the truncated string to print from the left:

  printf( "\nWidth 40, Precision 10:\n" );
  printf( "%40.10s\n", i );

  printf( "\nWidth 40, Precision 20:\n" );
  printf( "%40.20s\n", i );

  printf( "\nFlush left, Width 40, Precision 20:\n" );
  printf( "%-40.20s\n", i );

The lines are displayed on the screen as follows:

  Width 40, Precision 10:
                                word 1, wo

  Width 40, Precision 20:
                      word 1, word 2, word

  Flush left, Width 40, Precision 20:
  word 1, word 2, word


Using scanf for Keyboard Input

   Pass a variable address to scanf, not a variable value.

While printf is the most widely used output function, scanf is the most
popular for input. The arguments and format strings passed to scanf resemble
the arguments for printf, except for one requirement: the scanf function
always takes pointers. You never pass a variable value to scanf, you always
pass the variable address so that scanf can store data in the memory
location that contains the input variable.

The first argument for scanf is always a format string. Additional arguments
include the addresses of variables to which values will be assigned.

The program below demonstrates several ways to use scanf and various other
I/O functions:

  /* INPUT.C: Read keyboard. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>
  #include <ctype.h>

  main()
  {
     int num;
     char c;
     char name[80];
     float rb;

     puts( "** Type \"Name:\" and your name" );
     scanf( "Name: %40s", name );
     printf( "** You typed this:\n%s", name );
     puts( "\n\n** Try again, with the gets function." );
     fflush( stdin );
     gets( name );
     printf( "** You typed this:\n%s\n", name );

     printf( "\n** Now type an integer.\n" );
     scanf( "%i", &num );
     sprintf( name, "** You typed this number: %i\n", num );
     puts( name );

     fflush( stdin );
     printf( "** Enter a floating-point value.\n" );
     scanf( "%f", &rb );
     printf( "** The answer is %f or %e\n", rb, rb );

     printf( "** Continue? Y or N\n" );
     do
     {
        c = getch();
        c = tolower( c );
     } while( c != 'y' && c != 'n' );
  }

First, the puts function prints a string that requests input from the user.
Then scanf reads the input:

  puts( "** Type \"Name:\" and your name" );
  scanf( "Name: %40s", name );

Unfortunately, the use of scanf for string input creates some difficulties.
For one thing, you're forced to type  Name:  before typing the rest of the
string. (If you don't type  Name:, scanf won't put a value into the  name
variable.)

A second problem is that scanf reads the input stream until it finds a
white-space character: a SPACE, TAB, or ENTER.

The prompt below appears on the screen:

  ** Type "Name:" and your name

You might type this (you must begin the line with "Name:" ):

  Name: F. Scott Fitzgerald

The next line takes effect:

  printf( "** You typed this:\n%s", name );

Which prints the following line:

  ** You typed this:
  F.

The string passed to the scanf function told it to expect  "Name:"  and then
to read a string, storing it in the  name  variable.

Since the scanf function reads strings until it finds a white-space
character, the value of  name  is "  F." In addition, the words  Scott
Fitzgerald  are waiting in the input stream. To clear any stream, use the
fflush function:

  puts( "\n\n** Now try it again, with the gets function." );
  fflush( stdin );
  gets( name );

To clear the buffer associated with a stream (including disk files), call
fflush, passing the pointer to the file or stream. In the example above,
stdin  is the standard input device, the keyboard.

The puts function acts like a limited version of printf. It prints a string
to the standard output device, but can't insert formatted variable values.
You pass it a string constant or the name of a string. Also, it always adds
a newline to the end of the string it prints.

 It is usually preferable to  use gets when working  with string input.

The gets function receives an entire line from the standard input device and
places the line in an array of characters. It does not include the newline
character typed by the user. It does, however, add a null to the end of the
line, to make the series of characters into a string. When you're working
with string input, gets is generally preferable to scanf.

For numeric values, scanf is the function of choice:

  printf( "\n** Now type an integer.\n" );
  scanf( "%i", &num );
  sprintf( name, "** You typed the number: %i\n", num );
  puts( name );

The format string %i forces scanf to treat the input as an integer. The
second argument is the address of the variable  num.

The letter s in sprintf marks it as a string function. (There is also a
sscanf function that handles strings, but we won't discuss it here.) Instead
of printing the format string to the screen, as printf would do, sprintf
prints the results to another string. Note that scanf requires the address
of  num, but sprintf uses its value.

The next scanf in program INPUT.C treats the input as a floating-point
number:

  scanf( "%f", &rb );
  printf( "** The answer is %f or %e\n", rb, rb );

If you enter -555.12, the computer responds:

  ** The answer is -555.119995 or -5.551200e+002

Finally, the program uses getch to receive a character from the input
stream:

  printf( "** Continue? Y or N\n" );

     do
     {
        c = getch();
        c = tolower( c );
     } while( c != 'y' && c != 'n' );

The getch function returns a character. That value, in turn, is passed to
tolower, which converts any uppercase characters to lowercase (in case the
CAPS LOCK key is on). Then, the byte is assigned to the variable  c. The do
loop continues processing characters until you press  y  or  n. The program
then ends. This simple example ends no matter which key (  y  or  n ) you
press. A real program would take some action based on the value returned by
the getch function.


Standard Disk I/O

If you can read input from the keyboard and write output to the screen,
you'll find standard disk files relatively easy to manipulate. There are
three rules to remember:


  1.  You can't do anything with a disk file until you open it. The act of
      opening a file gives you a FILE pointer through which you can access
      the file.

  2.  While the file is open, you can use most of the screen and keyboard
      I/O functions if you precede them with the letter f (fprintf instead
      of printf, for example). The file-handling functions work the same as
      their counterparts, but you must add the FILE pointer.

  3.  When you're finished with a file, it's good programming practice to
      close it. When exit ends the execution of a program, all previously
      open files are closed (if you'd rather leave them open, use _exit
      instead of exit).



Creating and Writing to a Text File

The WRFILE.C program opens a text file, writes a string to it, and closes
the file.

  /* WRFILE.C: Create and write to a disk file. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     FILE *fp;

     if( (fp = fopen( "c:\\testfile.asc","w" )) != NULL )
     {
        fputs( "Example string", fp );
        fputc( '\n', fp );
        fclose( fp );
     }
     else
        printf( "error message\n" );
  }

You must include the standard I/O header file ( #include <stdio.h> )
whenever you plan to call input or output functions. It contains essential
definitions and prototypes that you need.

The only variable in this program is  fp  which is declared as a pointer to
a FILE. FILE is defined in STDIO.H as a structure of _iobuf type, but we
don't need to know the specifics. We will refer to the variable  fp  as a
"FILE pointer."

The first statement combines several operations in one line:

  if( (fp = fopen( "c:\\testfile.asc", "w" )) != NULL )

The fopen function opens a file. It expects two parameters, both of which
are literal strings or pointers to strings. You provide the name of the file
to be opened and the type (read, write, or append). The six types of files
are listed in Table 11.3.

Table 11.3  Disk File Types

╓┌─────────────────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────╖
Type                              Action
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Type                              Action
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
r                                 Open an existing file for reading.

w                                 Create and open a file for writing. Any
                                  existing file is replaced. If the file
                                  doesn't exist, a new file is created.

a                                 Open a file for appending. Data is added
                                  to the end of an existing file or
                                  a new file is created.

r+                                Open an existing file for reading and
                                  writing.

w+                                Create and open a file for reading and
                                  writing. An existing file is replaced.

a+                                Open a file for reading and appending.
                                  Data is added to the end of an
                                  existing file or a new file is created.
Type                              Action
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
                                  existing file or a new file is created.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



In WRFILE.C, the file called  c:\testfile.asc  is opened for writing with
type "w"  (a string, not the character  'w'  in single quotes). We plan to
write to it.

Notice that the file-name string as it appears in the fopen statement
contains two backslashes: "c:\\testfile.asc". If you tried to use the string
"c:\testfile. asc", which looks correct, the character sequence  \t  would
be incorrectly interpreted as a tab character. C automatically converts the
two backslashes in the string to a single backslash.


Getting a FILE Pointer

The fopen function returns the address of a FILE. This value is assigned to
fp, which is the FILE pointer used in all subsequent file operations.

If something goes wrong─if the disk is full or not in the drive or
write-protected or whatever─fopen doesn't return a FILE pointer. When fopen
fails, it returns a null value.

What we're looking for is any FILE pointer that's not null:

  if( (fp = fopen( "c:\\testfile.asc","w" )) != NULL )


Writing to the File

As we saw earlier, puts displays a string on the screen. Add an f to it and
the result is fputs, which works similarly. It sends the string to a
specified stream (a file) instead of to the standard output device:

  fputs( "Example string", fp );

The function fputs takes two parameters: a pointer to the string and the
FILE pointer. In this and other I/O functions, you refer to the file by name
only once (when you use fopen). Thereafter, you use its FILE pointer.

The fputs function writes the entire string to the file but does not include
the null that marks the end of the string. Nor does it write a newline
character─unless the string already contains a newline.

The fputc function writes a character to a file. In the following line, the
newline character is sent to the file:

  fputc( '\n', fp );


Closing the File

When the writing is done, fclose closes the file:

  fclose( fp );

Conceptually, you can imagine that file I/O functions such as fputs and
fputc write directly to the disk file. In reality, they're storing strings
and characters in an intermediate area (called a "memory buffer"). When the
buffer fills up, the entire chunk of memory is sent to the file. The process
of emptying the buffer is called "flushing." You may forcibly flush the
buffer with the fflush and fclose functions. If you do not close the file
before exiting the program, the buffer is not flushed and you may lose data
that might remain there.

The else clause in WRFILE.C should execute only if something has gone wrong
with the fopen function:

  else
     printf( "error message\n" );

This line executes if an error occurs when fopen tries to create the file.
Handling errors is covered in more detail later in this chapter.


Reading a Text File in Binary Mode

The WRFILE.C program that created and wrote to a file was fairly simple.
Here's an equally simple program to read the file just created:

  /* RDFILE.C: Read a file and print characters to the screen. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  main()
  {
     int c;
     FILE *fp;

     if( fp = fopen( "c:\\testfile.asc", "rb" ) )
     {
        while( (c = fgetc( fp )) != EOF )
           printf( " %c\t%d\n", c, c );
        printf( "\nEnd of file marker: %d", c );
        fclose( fp );
     }
     else
        printf( "Error in opening file\n" );
  }

Although we plan to read the characters as eight-bit entities, the variable
c  should be declared as an int instead of a char. All of the incoming
characters will be bytes the size of a char, except one.

When the file has been read from beginning to end, the end-of-file (EOF)
marker appears on the stream. Within QuickC, an integer value of -1 (0xFFFF)
represents EOF. To correctly identify this value, the variable  c  must be
an integer.


Opening a File for Binary Reading

In the line below, the fopen function attempts to open a file. The first
argument is the file name; the second is the type and mode, both of which
may be literal strings or pointers to strings:

  if( fp = fopen( "c:\\testfile.asc", "rb" ) )

The single backslash character used in path specifications must once again
be represented by two backslashes. The file type is r for read-only. The
additional b character forces the file to be read in binary mode instead of
text mode. The differences between binary and text files are discussed later
in this chapter.

The fopen function returns a pointer to a FILE. If fopen fails, it returns a
NULL pointer.

Finally, the if expression tests for a null value. The original WRFILE.C
program included the  != NULL  test for inequality. Within the test
expression of an if or a while, a 0 value is always false and any other
value is considered true. In other words, should  fp  receive a valid
nonzero address from fopen, the program continues. If something goes wrong,
the remaining lines don't execute and the program drops through to the else.


Note that the expression above uses an assignment operator (=), not an
equality operator (==). The value returned by fopen is always assigned to
fp ; they aren't being compared to each other. Then the if expression tests
that value for truth or falsity.


Getting a Character

The key to the next line in RDFILE.C is the fgetc function, to which you
pass a FILE pointer. It returns the next character from the given file:

  while( (c = fgetc( fp )) != EOF )

The character is assigned to the integer variable  c. As long as the
character doesn't equal EOF, the while loop continues.

The end-of-file marker equals -1, but it's preferable to use the symbolic
constant EOF. If the program is transported to another computer, you might
find EOF has another value. Using the symbolic constant allows you to
maintain compatibility between computers and operating systems.

For the same reason, it's preferable to test for NULL instead of assuming
that NULL will always equal 0.


Viewing the File

Since there's only one line inside the while loop, it's not necessary to
enclose it in curly braces. The variable  c  contains the character read
from the file. It then can be printed:

  printf( " %c\t%d\n", c, c );

The characters from the file print twice, once as a character (%c) and once
as a decimal number (%d), separated by a tab stop. This printf statement
repeats until fgetc (inside the while loop) finds no more characters in the
file.


Binary and Text Files

Normally, you wouldn't write a file in text mode and then read it in binary
mode. As a general rule, you pick whichever mode is more appropriate (text
mode for text or binary mode for data) and stick with it.

A somewhat baffling thing happened in the example above, however. The
WRFILE.C program wrote "Example string"  to a disk file and then added a
newline character. That should be a total of 15 characters. But if you
examine the directory, you'll see the file uses 16 bytes.

Where did the extra byte come from?


Testing Text Mode

If you ran the RDFILE.C program, you probably noticed two characters
followed the line: a carriage return (ASCII 13) and a linefeed (ASCII 10).
If you make the following change to the program, the output of RDFILE.C is
different:

  if( (fp = fopen( "c:\\testfile.asc","rt" )) != NULL )

The only modification is that the second string is "rt"  instead of "rb".
The t represents text mode; the b is binary mode. If you don't specify a
mode, the fopen function defaults to text mode.

The list below shows the output of the two programs.

╓┌────────────────────────────────┌──────────────────────────────────────────╖
RDFILE.C  (binary mode)          RDFILE.C  (text mode)
RDFILE.C  (binary mode)          RDFILE.C  (text mode)
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
E69                              E69
x120                             x120
a97                              a97
m109                             m109
p112                             p112
l108                             l108
e101                             e101
32                               32
s115                             s115
t116                             t116
r114                             r114
i105                             i105
n110                             n110
g103                             g103
13                               10
10                               End-of-file marker: -1
End-of-file marker: -1
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


In binary mode there seems to be two characters after the string. In text
mode there's only one.


Ends-of-Lines, Ends-of-Files

The two modes─binary and text─treat end-of-line (EOL) characters and
end-of-file (EOF) characters in different ways.

In DOS, a line of text ends with a carriage return (CR) and a linefeed (LF),
which appear above as ASCII 13 plus ASCII 10. In the UNIX operating system,
which has close ties to the C language, a single ASCII 10 (the newline
character) marks the end of a line.

The once-popular CP/M operating system signals the end of files with a
CTRL+Z character (ASCII 26, 0x1A)─a tradition that carried forward to DOS.
This is not the case with UNIX (and C), which don't use a unique EOF
character.


Text Mode Translations

It's important to understand the differences between text mode and binary
mode when writing and reading disk files. No translations are made in binary
mode. In text mode, however, the end-of-line and end-of-file characters are
translated.

When you read a file in text mode and a CR-LF combination appears in the
stream, the two characters are translated to one newline character. The
opposite translation occurs when you write a file in text mode: each CR-LF
combination is translated to one newline character. In other words, the
newline is represented by two characters on disk and one character in
memory. These translations do not occur when you read and write a file in
binary mode.

When you read a file in text mode and a CTRL+Z (0x1A) character appears in
the stream, the character is interpreted as the end-of-file character.
However, when you're in text mode and you close a file to which you've been
writing, a CTRL+Z is not placed in the file as the last character. In binary
mode, the CTRL+Z character has no special meaning (it is not interpreted as
the end-of-file character).

The difference between text mode and binary mode is relatively minor when
you're handling strings, but it's important when you're writing numeric
values to disk files.


Text Format for Numeric Variables

Many programs, of course, use numeric as well as character data. When you
wish to save numbers, you have two choices: text mode or binary mode. The
SVTEXT.C program below illustrates the less desirable way of creating files
for numeric variables.

  /* SVTEXT.C: Save integer variables as text. */

  #include <stdio.h>

  int list[] = { 53, -23456, 50, 500, 5000, -99 };
  extern int errno;
  char fname[] = "numtext";
  char temp[81];

  main()
  {
     FILE *fptr;
     int i;

     if( (fptr = fopen( "numtext","wt" )) != NULL )
     {
        for( i=0; i<6; i++ )
           fprintf( fptr, "Item %d: %6d \n", i, list[i] );
        fclose( fptr );
     }
     else
        printf( "Error: Couldn't create file.\n" );

     if( (fptr = fopen( "badname", "rt" )) != NULL )
     {
        /* do nothing */
     }
     else
     {
        printf( "Error number: %d\n\t", errno );
        perror( "Couldn't open file BADNAME\n\t" );
     }

     if( (fptr = fopen( fname, "rt" )) != NULL )
     {
        list[0] = 0;
        fscanf( fptr, "Item %d: %d \n", &i, &list[0] );
        printf( "Values read from file:\t %d %d\n", i, list[0] );
        fgets( temp, 80, fptr );
        printf( "String from file: \t%s\n", temp );
        while( (i = fgetc( fptr )) != '\n' )
           printf( "char: %c \t ASCII: %d \n", i, i );
        rewind( fptr );
        printf( "Rewind to start -->\t%s", fgets( temp, 80, fptr ) );
        fclose( fptr );
     }
     else      printf( "Trouble opening %s \n", fname );
  }

The SVTEXT.C program does three things:


  1.  First, it creates a text file called NUMTEXT. If you TYPE NUMTEXT from
      the DOS prompt or load the NUMTEXT file into a word processor, it
      looks like this:

      Item 0:     53
      Item 1: -23456
      Item 2:     50
      Item 3:    500
      Item 4:   5000
      Item 5:    -99


  2.  Next, SVTEXT.C deliberately attempts to open a nonexistent file called
      BADNAME, to cause a disk error. This section serves no purpose except
      to illustrate error handling.

  3.  Finally, it reads parts of NUMTEXT, using several file-input
      functions.



Opening the File for Writing

By now, the fopen function should look familiar to you. The only change in
the block below is the "wt"  mode. The fopen function returns a NULL if any
errors occur, so the block after the if should execute if fopen succeeds.

  if( (fptr = fopen( "numtext","wt" )) != NULL )
  {
     for( i=0; i<6; i++ )
        fprintf( fptr, "Item %d: %6d \n", i, list[i] );
     fclose( fptr );
  }
  else
     printf( "Error: Couldn't create file.\n" );

The for loop counts from 0 to 5, printing 6 strings to the file. The fprintf
function works the same as printf with one change. You must place the FILE
pointer before the format string.


Error Handling

To illustrate what happens when something goes wrong, the next line creates
a disk error (as long as you don't have a file called BADNAME in your
working directory).

  if( (fptr = fopen( "badname", "rt" )) != NULL )

The if block is empty, because we expect the program to drop through to the
else clause that handles errors:

  else
  {
     printf( "Error number: %d\n\t", errno );
     perror( "Couldn't open file BADNAME\n\t" );
  }

The else block shows two ways you can deal with errors. Note that the errno
variable, which was declared as an external integer, has never been assigned
a value. QuickC automatically puts error numbers into errno. In this
program, the error number is printed to the screen. In your own programs,
you might wish to branch to various error-handling routines, based on the
value in the system variable errno. For a list of values for errno, see the
individual online help entries for file-handling functions.

It's important to remember that the standard output device is the screen and
that printf sends messages to stdout. However, if you redirect output to a
disk file, using a command line such as  SVTEXT > MYFILE, the printf
statement prints the error message to MYFILE. In most cases, you'd prefer to
see the error message on the screen.

The second, and better, way to handle I/O errors is the perror function,
which prints two strings: one that you pass to it and one that spells out─in
English─the error message. This message goes to the standard error stream
(stderr), which is always the screen, regardless of whether you've
redirected output or not. For this reason, perror is preferable to printf
for printing error messages.

The error messages should look like this on your screen:

  Error number: 2
     Couldn't open file BADNAME
     : No such file or directory


Reading Text with fscanf

The final fopen in SVTEXT.C opens the file created earlier:

  if( (fptr = fopen( fname, "rt" )) != NULL )

Note that we passed the name of a string rather than a literal string.

Below, fscanf reads in two numeric variables from the first string in the
file. Note that it works the same as scanf, but you add the FILE pointer as
the first argument:

  fscanf( fptr, "Item %d: %d \n", &i, &list[0] );
  printf( "Values read from file:\t %d %d\n", i, list[0] );


Reading Text with fgets and fgetc

At this point, the first line in the file has been read and converted to two
integer values. The file is straight text, so you can treat the second line
as a string:

  fgets( temp, 80, fptr );
  printf( "String from file: \t%s\n", temp );

The fgets function requires three arguments: a pointer to a string, the
maximum number of characters to read, and the FILE pointer. The function
stops reading characters when it encounters a newline character or when it
reaches the maximum number of characters or the end of the file.

If you prefer, you can input the characters one by one:

  while( (i = fgetc( fptr )) != '\n' )
     printf( "char: %c \t ASCII: %d \n", i, i );

The printf inside the while loop prints each character as a character (%c)
and also as a decimal value (%d). The while loop continues reading
characters until it finds the end of the line.


Back to the Beginning

The rewind function resets the position pointer to the beginning of the
file. In the program line below, the first line from the file is printed:

  rewind( fptr );
  printf( "Rewind to start -->\t%s", fgets( temp, 80, fptr ) );

The screen output looks like this:

  Error number: 2
          Couldn't open file BADNAME
          : No such file or directory
  Values read from file:         0 53
  String from file:         Item 1: -23456

  char: I          ASCII: 73
  char: t          ASCII: 116
  char: e          ASCII: 101
  char: m          ASCII: 109
  char:            ASCII: 32
  char: 2          ASCII: 50
  char: :          ASCII: 58
  char:            ASCII: 32
  char:            ASCII: 32
  char:            ASCII: 32
  char:            ASCII: 32
  char:            ASCII: 32
  char: 5          ASCII: 53
  char: 0          ASCII: 48
  char:            ASCII: 32
  Rewind to start -->        Item 0:     53

 It is inefficient to store  numeric data in text format.

There seem to be quite a few white-space characters in the text file. Text
files are great for text, but they store numeric values in a wasteful way.
Binary format offers several advantages.


Using Binary Format

When you're processing strings of ASCII characters and writing them to disk
files, it matters little whether you use text mode or binary mode, as long
as you're consistent. The advantage of text mode is that it translates
newlines to the carriage-return-line-feed combination, making it possible to
use the DOS TYPE command to view the file.

When you're processing numeric values (integers and floating-point numbers),
however, you may wish to save your variables in binary mode files, in binary
format, for the following reasons:


  ■   Binary format almost always saves disk space. In text mode, the number
      12345.678 would require eight bytes for the ASCII numerals, one byte
      for the decimal point, and one or more bytes for a separator between
      variables. In binary format, a floating-point number uses four bytes,
      regardless of its value. Short integers use only two bytes.

  ■   Binary format generally saves computer time. When you use fprintf to
      print a numeric value to disk, the computer must translate the
      internal binary representation to a series of characters. Likewise,
      when fscanf reads characters into memory, the ASCII values must be
      translated to the internal binary format. In binary format, none of
      these translations takes place.

  ■   Binary format preserves the precision of floating-point numbers. The
      translation from binary to decimal ASCII and back to binary affects
      the precision of the value.

  ■   A binary save of arrays or structures is fast. It's not necessary to
      read through an array of 100 items and print each one to the disk
      file. Instead, you call the fwrite function (discussed below) once,
      passing it the size of the array to be saved.

      NOTE  Binary mode is separate from binary format. The modes (binary
      and text) are parameters you pass to the fopen function. They affect
      the translation of newlines and the placing of EOF markers. The
      formats (binary and text) are ways of representing numeric values. An
      integer in binary format always occupies two bytes on disk. An integer
      in text format uses a variable number of bytes: it might contain one
      character (5) or six (-10186).



Opening a Binary File

The SVBIN.C program below creates two binary mode files with the variables
saved in binary format:

  /* SVBIN.C: Save integer variables in binary format. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #define ASIZE 10

  main()
  {
     FILE *ap;
     int zebra[ASIZE], acopy[ASIZE], bcopy[ASIZE];
     int i;

     for( i = 0; i < ASIZE; i++ )
        zebra[i] = 7700 + i;

     if( (ap = fopen( "binfile", "wb" )) != NULL )
     {
        fwrite( zebra, sizeof(zebra), 1, ap );
        fclose( ap );
     }
     else
        perror( "Write error" );

     if( (ap = fopen( "morebin", "wb" )) != NULL )
     {
        fwrite( &zebra[0], sizeof(zebra[0]), ASIZE, ap );
        fclose( ap );
     }
     else
        perror( "Write error" );

     if( (ap = fopen( "binfile", "rb" )) != NULL )
     {
        printf( "Hexadecimal values in binfile:\n" );
        while( (i = fgetc( ap )) != EOF )
           printf( "%02X ", i );
        rewind( ap );
        fread( acopy, sizeof(acopy), 1, ap );
        rewind( ap );
        fread( &bcopy[0], sizeof( bcopy[0] ), ASIZE, ap);
        for( i=0; i<ASIZE; i++ )
           printf( "\nItem %d = %d\t%d", i, acopy[i], bcopy[i] );
        fclose( ap );

     }
     else
        perror( "Read error" );

  }

Focus your attention on the  zebra  array. It contains 10 integers, because
the array size  ASIZE  was defined as 10. First, some values are stored in
zebra  (in a moment, we'll see why 7700-7709 are significant):

  for( i = 0; i < ASIZE; i++ )
     zebra[i] = 7700 + i;

Next, we open a file and use fwrite to write the entire array to disk:

  if( (ap = fopen( "binfile", "wb" )) != NULL )
  {
     fwrite( zebra, sizeof(zebra), 1, ap );
     fclose( ap );
  }


Writing an Array in One Line

The fwrite function requires four pieces of information:


  1.  The address of the item (a variable, array, or structure)

  2.  The size of the item in bytes

  3.  The number of items to be written

  4.  The FILE pointer for a previously opened binary mode file


In this example, the first argument,  zebra  is an array and, as you may
remember from Chapter 8, "Pointers," the name of an array is the address of
the array.

To provide the second argument for fwrite, SVBIN.C uses the sizeof operator,
which returns the number of bytes a variable requires. Because  zebra  is an
array of 10 integers and integers use 2 bytes each, the size of  zebra
should be 20. If you view a directory of your disk after running this
program, you'll notice that the file BINFILE is exactly 20 bytes long.

The third argument tells fwrite how many items to write to the file. We have
1 array, so this parameter is 1.

The fourth argument is the FILE pointer returned by fopen.

There's another way to copy the 20 bytes of  zebra  to the file. After
writing to BINFILE, the program uses the fopen function to create a second
file called MOREBIN. The following fwrite line writes 10 integers instead of
1 array:

  fwrite( &zebra[0], sizeof(zebra[0]), ASIZE, ap );

The second and third arguments have changed. Instead of passing the size of
the array (20) and writing 1 copy of the array, we're accessing the size of
1 element (2 bytes) and writing 10 of them (using the symbolic constant
ASIZE). The contents of this disk file should match, byte for byte, the
contents of BINFILE.


Examining the Binary Contents

Finally, we look at what's inside the file BINFILE. It is opened for reading
as a binary file:

  if( (ap = fopen( "binfile", "rb" )) != NULL )

A short while loop reads the bytes from BINFILE and displays them in
hexadecimal notation:

  printf( "Hexadecimal values in binfile:\n" );
  while( (i = fgetc( ap )) != EOF )
     printf( "%02X ", i );

After running SVBIN.C, the screen displays these values:

  14 1E 15 1E 16 1E 17 1E 18 1E
  19 1E 1A 1E 1B 1E 1C 1E 1D 1E

The low byte precedes the high byte, so the first two bytes represent the
number 0x1E14, which is 7700 in decimal. The next two bytes equal 7701, and
so on.

A curious thing happens when you run SVBIN.C and then try to treat the
20-byte file as text. If you TYPE BINFILE from the DOS command line, the
file appears as gibberish (of course), and you see only 12 of the 20
characters on the screen. Where did the other characters go? Recall the
previous discussion of binary and text files. In DOS, a CTRL+Z (0x1A) marks
the end of a text file. And in the midst of our binary file is one of those
EOF characters. It's not acting as an EOF; it's part of the number 0x1E1A.
But if you ever open this file in text mode, you'll be unable to read past
the twelfth byte.


Retrieving the Values from Disk

Most of the time, you won't want to read a binary file one byte at a time.
Instead, you call fread, which reads a disk file and stores the values in a
variable, an array, or a structure. The fread function complements fwrite.
It takes four parameters:


  1.  The address of the variable

  2.  The size of the variable in bytes

  3.  The number of values to read

  4.  The FILE pointer that references a binary file opened for reading


Here's one way to read values into an array:

  rewind( ap );
  fread( acopy, sizeof( acopy ), 1, ap );

The rewind command is necessary because we've already read through the file
once. The  acopy  and  bcopy  arrays are the same size as our original
zebra array. To fill an array with this technique, pass the address, the
size of the entire array, a number 1, and the FILE pointer.

A second way to fill an array is to pass the size of a single element and
the number of elements you want to read:

  rewind( ap );
  fread( &bcopy[0], sizeof( bcopy[0] ), ASIZE, ap );

In the first example of fread, we pass the information that the array  acopy
 is 20 bytes long and we want to read it once. In the second example, we
pass the size of an integer (2 bytes) and ask for 10 of them. In either
case, 20 bytes are transferred.

Just to make sure both arrays are equal, we can print them out:

  for( i = 0; i < ASIZE; i++ )
  printf( "\nItem %d = %d\t%d", i, acopy[i], bcopy[i] );
  fclose( ap );

The screen displays the values 7700 through 7709, which survived the trek
from  zebra  to BINFILE and back again. These values were stored in the
zebra  array, written to a binary file, then read back into the  acopy  and
bcopy  arrays.


Low-Level Input and Output

The file-handling routines such as fopen, fprintf, and fclose are called
"standard" because they're defined in the ANSI standard. Code that uses the
standard routines will generally be portable from one machine to another.

In addition to the standard file-handling functions, the QuickC library
includes some low-level I/O functions, which allow more direct access to
disk files.

The low-level I/O routines (also called "system-level") are generally not
portable. They work in DOS and OS/2, but they may not work elsewhere.
They're also a little more difficult to use. Instead of declaring a pointer
to a FILE structure, you must allocate your own buffer and manage transfer
of the bytes yourself. You move values into the buffer, then send the
contents of the buffer to disk.

 Low-level routines can be  more efficient, but they  usually aren't
portable.

Low-level routines have some advantages, though. One is that you have more
control over the machine. Another is that low-level I/O can be faster than
standard I/O, if you know what you're doing. The choice is up to you:
portability versus efficiency. You should choose one or the other; it's not
a good idea to mix standard and system-level routines.


Low-Level Reading and Writing

The program RWFILE.C illustrates some of the low-level, file-handling
commands. It creates a file, writes to it, and closes it. Then the file is
opened for reading and the contents of the file are displayed on the screen.


  /* RWFILE.C: Read and write a file. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <string.h>
  #include <fcntl.h>
  #include <sys\types.h>
  #include <sys\stat.h>
  #include <io.h>

  #define BUFF 512

  main()
  {
     char inbuffer[BUFF];
     char outbuffer[BUFF];
     int infile, outfile, length, num;

     strcpy( outbuffer, "Happy Birthday." );
     length = strlen( outbuffer );
     length++;

     if( (outfile = open( "testfile.bin",
        O_CREAT | O_WRONLY | O_BINARY,  S_IWRITE )) != -1 )
     {
        if( (num = write( outfile, outbuffer, length )) == -1 )
           perror( "Error in writing" );
        printf( "\nBytes written to file: %d\n", num );
        close( outfile );
     }
     else
        perror( "Error opening outfile" );

  if( (infile = open( "testfile.bin", O_RDONLY | O_BINARY )) != -1  )
     {
        while( length = read( infile, inbuffer, BUFF ) )
           printf( "%d bytes received so far.\n", length );
        close( infile );
        printf( "%s\n", inbuffer );
     }
     else
        perror( "Error opening infile" );
  }

Several header files must be included:

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <fcntl.h>
  #include <sys\types.h>
  #include <sys\stat.h>
  #include <io.h>

The symbolic constant  BUFF  is defined as 512. This value is used
immediately in the declaration of two buffers:

  char inbuffer[BUFF];
  char outbuffer[BUFF];

Note that we don't need FILE structures anywhere in the program. The
standard I/O routines automatically allocated space for a buffer. Since
we're operating closer to the DOS level, we must allocate our own buffers,
instead of relying on the system. If you set the buffer size to a
sufficiently large value, QuickC will run out of stack space. When this
happens, you may either make the buffers global variables or use the malloc
function to allocate an additional chunk of memory.

The open function takes three parameters:

  if( (outfile = open( "testfile.bin",
     O_CREAT | O_WRONLY | O_BINARY, S_IWRITE )) != -1 )

The first parameter is the file name. The second is a sequence of "oflags"
that are combined with the OR operator. The oflags determine which type of
file will be opened: it will be created ( O_CREAT ), it will be write-only (
O_WRONLY ), and it will be a binary─not a text─file ( O_BINARY ). When you
create a new file, you must include the third parameter:  S_IWRITE.

The open function returns a file handle, which is assigned to the integer
variable  outfile. Note that this is an integer, not a pointer to a FILE
structure. If anything goes wrong, a value of -1 is returned by open, and we
should test for this.

Table 11.4 summarizes the differences between fopen and open.

Table 11.4  Standard vs. Low-Level

╓┌─────────┌──────────────────────────┌─────────────────┌────────────────────╖
Function  Error Parameters           Returns           Condition
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fopen     File name,  type           Pointer to FILE   NULL
          (r, w, a), and mode
          (t, b)

open      File name, oflags          File handle       -1
                                     (integer)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────




Low-Level Writing

The write function takes three parameters:


  1.  The file handle returned by open

  2.  The address of the buffer

  3.  The number of bytes to write


You, the programmer, are responsible for filling up the buffer. The write
function returns the number of bytes actually written to the file.

  if( (num = write( outfile, outbuffer, length )) == -1 )
     perror( "Error in writing" );
  printf( "\nBytes written to file: %d\n", num );
  close( outfile );


Low-Level Reading

Next, we open the file for reading. Again, the oflags are required:

  if( (infile = open( "testfile.bin", O_RDONLY | O_BINARY )) != -1 )
  {
     while( length = read( infile, inbuffer, BUFF ) )
        printf( "%d bytes received so far.\n", length );
     close( infile );
     printf( "%s\n", inbuffer );
  }

The read function takes three parameters:


  1.  The file handle

  2.  The address of the buffer

  3.  The size of the buffer


The value returned is the number of bytes read. The while loop continues as
long as there are characters in the stream. In a real application, you'll
have to handle the bytes stored in the buffer.

The low-level file functions are unbuffered. When you call write, the bytes
are written directly to the disk file. The standard file function fwrite
doesn't write data to disk; it writes to a buffer. The buffer is transferred
to disk when the buffer fills up, when the fflush function is called, or
when the file is closed. As a gen-eral rule, you should not mix buffered and
unbuffered routines. Use the standard routines or the low-level routines,
but not both.

This chapter started with keyboard input and screen output and led into
discussions of file I/O. The following chapters cover in greater depth
assembly language routines and some specialized types of screen output,
including high-resolution graphics, fonts, and presentation graphics.






Chapter 12  Dynamic Memory Allocation
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

A program that allocates memory "dynamically" (as it runs) can respond
flexibly to a user's needs, creating new data structures when the need
arises and discarding them when their job is done.

As you read this chapter you'll learn how to allocate memory with the malloc
library function and free memory with the free function. We'll also look at
two related functions, calloc and realloc.

Memory allocation requires the use of pointers. If you're not familiar with
pointers, read Chapter 8, "Pointers," before tackling this chapter.


Why Allocate?

 The malloc family of library functions can allocate memory during run time.


The malloc (memory allocate) family of library functions enables you to
allocate blocks of memory dynamically. The capability to create new data
structures on the fly lets you tailor a program's behavior precisely to the
user's needs.

For simple programs, such as the examples in Part 1, memory allocation is
largely automatic. When you declare variables, as in the lines

  int count;
  char buffer[160];

QuickC allocates enough memory to store each variable (2 bytes for the first
variable and 160 for the second). This method works fine if you know each
vari-able's size in advance. Some program memory needs aren't easy to
predict, however.

To take a simple example, say you write an address-book program that stores
addresses in an array of structures. A novice programmer might begin by
declaring an array of, say, 100 structures, in the following manner,

  struct address list[100];

but this approach is needlessly limiting. If your list contains only a few
addresses, most of the memory in the array is wasted. And if you want to
enter more than 100 addresses, you're out of luck.

A better approach is to allocate memory for the array dynamically. This way,
the program can use only as much memory as needed for the current address
list. Each time you add an address, or delete one, the program can expand or
shrink the array as needed.


Memory Allocation Basics

We'll use a simple example program, COPYFILE.C, to demonstrate the basics of
dynamic memory allocation─how to allocate a memory block, access its
contents, and free the block when its purpose is served.

The COPYFILE.C program, shown below, dynamically allocates a buffer that it
uses to store file data.

  /* COPYFILE.C: Demonstrate malloc and free functions. */

  #include <stdio.h>     /* printf function and NULL */
  #include <io.h>        /* low-level I/O functions */
  #include <conio.h>     /* getch function */
  #include <sys\types.h> /* struct members used in stat.h */
  #include <sys\stat.h>  /* S_ constants */
  #include <fcntl.h>     /* O_ constants */
  #include <malloc.h>    /* malloc function */
  #include <errno.h>     /* errno global variable */

  int copyfile( char *source, char *destin );

  main( int argc, char *argv[] )
  {
     if( argc == 3 )
        if( copyfile( argv[1], argv[2] ) )
           printf( "Copy failed\n" );
        else
           printf( "Copy successful\n" );
     else
        printf( "  SYNTAX: COPYFILE <source> <target>\n" );

     return 0;
  }

  int copyfile( char *source, char *target )
  {
     char *buf;
     int hsource, htarget, ch;
     unsigned count = 50000;

     if( (hsource = open( source, O_BINARY | O_RDONLY )) == - 1 )
        return errno;
     htarget = open( target, O_BINARY | O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_EXCL,
                             S_IREAD | S_IWRITE );
     if( errno == EEXIST )
     {
        cputs( "Target exists. Overwrite? " );
        ch = getch();
        if( (ch == 'y') || (ch == 'Y') )
           htarget = open( target, O_BINARY | O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC,
                                   S_IREAD | S_IWRITE );
        printf( "\n" );
     }
     if( htarget == -1 )
        return errno;

     if( filelength( hsource ) < count )
        count = (int)filelength( hsource );

     buf = (char *)malloc( (size_t)count );

     if( buf == NULL )
     {
        count = _memmax();
        buf = (char *)malloc( (size_t)count );
        if( buf == NULL )
           return ENOMEM;
     }

     while( !eof( hsource ) )
     {
        if( (count = read( hsource, buf, count )) == -1 )
           return errno;
        if( (count = write( htarget, buf, count )) == - 1 )
           return errno;
     }

     close( hsource );
     close( htarget );
     free( buf );
     return 0;
  }

Before we look at how COPYFILE.C works, let's note what it does. Unlike the
DOS COPY command, the COPYFILE.C program asks for confirmation before
overwriting an existing file. The program expects to receive two file names
as command-line parameters: the name of the file to copy and the name of the
new file. For instance, the following command copies the file SAMPLE.EXE to
the new file EXAMPLE.EXE:

  copyfile sample.exe example.exe

If the target file already exists, COPYFILE.C displays:

  Target exists. Overwrite?

COPYFILE.C overwrites an existing file only if the user presses the Y key in
response.


Preparing to Allocate Memory

The COPYFILE.C program copies the source file in chunks, using an allocated
memory block as a buffer for file data. The following program lines are the
ones involved in allocating and freeing the memory block. (These are taken
from the program in order, but are not consecutive.)

  #include <malloc.h>    /* malloc function */
  char *buf;
  unsigned count = 50000;
  buf = (char *)malloc( (size_t)count );
  free( buf );

The first of these,

  #include <malloc.h>  /* malloc function */

includes the standard include file MALLOC.H, which contains declarations for
malloc and other memory-allocating functions.

The malloc function, which the program will call to allocate a memory block,
returns the address where the block begins. COPYFILE.C declares the pointer
variable  buf  to store this address:

  char *buf;

As you'll see shortly, the pointer  buf  will be initialized to point to the
allocated block. Once this is done, the program can access the block's
contents through the pointer.

The COPYFILE.C program declares another variable,  count, which is used to
tell malloc how much memory (in bytes) to allocate. The program initially
sets this value to 50,000:

  unsigned count = 50000;

If the source file is smaller than 50,000 bytes, COPYFILE.C later resets
count  to the smaller value.


Specifying the Size of the Allocated Block

Now we're ready to allocate the block. The statement

  buf = (char *)malloc( (size_t)count) );

in COPYFILE.C calls the malloc function, passing the value of  count  as an
argument. This argument indicates the size of the desired block in bytes. In
COPYFILE.C this value is 50,000 or the size of the source file, whichever is
smaller.

Look at the type cast preceding the function argument:

  (size_t)

The cast is performed for ANSI compatibility (malloc is part of the ANSI
standard). Under ANSI, malloc is declared as taking an argument of the type
size_t. To ensure the portability of your programs, the value passed to
malloc should be either declared or cast as type  size_t.


A Graphic Illustration

Figures 12.1 and 12.2 show how the COPYFILE.C program allocates a memory
block. The figures are simplified and are not drawn to scale. They represent
the program's "data segment," which is the memory area available for the
program's data storage.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

The details of data storage differ depending on the current "memory model,"
an advanced concept that goes beyond the scope of this book. For purposes of
discussion, this book assumes the small memory model, which is the default
for QuickC.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Figure 12.1 represents the program's data segment before COPYFILE.C
allocates a block of memory. The shaded area labeled "Declared data"
contains the program's declared variables and "stack," which is used for
temporary storage. The unshaded area labeled "Heap" contains the memory
available for allocation by COPYFILE.C.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Figure 12.2 shows COPYFILE.C immediately after the program calls the malloc
function to allocate a block of memory. The allocated block is taken from
heap memory and lies directly above the program. If COPYFILE.C allocated a
second memory block, that block would lie above the first, further
diminishing heap memory.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

While it's common to say the malloc function "creates" a memory block, that
terminology is a bit misleading. As Figures 12.1 and 12.2 show, malloc
simply gives your program control over memory that's already present.

 The malloc function does not initialize the  memory it allocates.

Since the allocated block has been present in memory all along, it may
contain random values or values left over from some previous use. The malloc
function doesn't initialize allocated memory. Substitute the calloc function
for malloc if you want to clear an allocated block before use. (See the
section "The calloc Function" below.)


Assigning the Address that malloc Returns

If the call to malloc succeeds, malloc returns the address of the memory
block it allocates. COPYFILE.C assigns that return value to the pointer
variable  buf  and then accesses the allocated block through  buf.

Before assigning the address that  malloc returns, COPYFILE.C performs a
type cast on the address

  (char *)

The type cast indicates which type of memory you are allocating. Prior to
the ANSI standard, malloc was declared as returning a pointer to type char,
so it was necessary to cast the return value when assigning the value to any
other pointer type.

Under ANSI, malloc returns a pointer to type void. Since a void pointer can
be converted to any pointer type, it's not strictly necessary to cast the
return from malloc. (If you omit the cast, QuickC does a silent type
conversion.) The type cast improves readability, however.


Checking the Return from malloc

If a call to malloc fails─usually because not enough memory is available─the
function returns a null pointer (defined as  NULL  in the standard include
file STDIO.H). You should always test this return value, even if you're
confident the allocation will succeed. If you ignore the return value and
access memory through a null pointer, your program may stop with a run-time
error or overwrite unpredictable memory addresses.

Thus, before attempting to use the allocated memory block, COPYFILE.C checks
to make sure the call to malloc succeeded:

  if( buf == NULL )
  {
  .
  .
  .
  }

The if statement tests whether the pointer  buf  has been set to  NULL,
which would signal failure. In that case, the program executes the code
within the braces of the if statement.

Sometimes there may be enough free memory to satisfy only part of your
memory request. Look at how COPYFILE.C handles this situation:

  buf = (char *)malloc( (size_t)count );

  if( buf == NULL )
  {
     count = _memmax();
     buf = (char *)malloc( (size_t)count );
     if( buf == NULL )
        return ENOMEM;
  }

If fewer than  count  bytes of memory are available, the initial call to
malloc returns  NULL, indicating failure. In that event, COPYFILE.C calls
the _memmax library routine to find how much memory is available and assigns
that value to the variable  count:

  count = _memmax();

Then COPYFILE.C calls malloc again, requesting a smaller amount of memory.
This request is bound to succeed unless no memory is available.


Accessing an Allocated Memory Block

Once you have allocated a block of memory, you can access it through its
pointer ( buf, in this example). COPYFILE.C uses its allocated block as a
file buffer, alternately reading in data from the source file, through the
statement

  if( (count = read( hsource, buf, count )) == -1 )
     return errno;

and writing it to the target file, through the statement

  if( (count = write( htarget, buf, count )) == - 1 )
     return errno;

The read and write function calls occur within if statements that compare
the function return values to -1, which would indicate failure.

COPYFILE.C treats its allocated block as a single chunk of memory. To access
individual data items in an allocated block, you can use either pointer or
array notation. Both of the following statements, for instance, refer to the
third byte in the block that  buf  points to:

  buf[2] = 'x';
  *(buf+2) = 'x';


Allocating Memory for Different Data Types

Since COPYFILE.C accesses its allocated block through a char pointer, the
program must treat the items in that block as char types. If you need to use
a different type of memory, simply change the pointer declaration and cast
the return from malloc accordingly. For instance, you could use the
following statements to allocate a block large enough to store 30 int
values:

  int *buf;

  buf = (int *)malloc( (size_t)sizeof( int ) * 30 );

Here, the sizeof operator eliminates the need to calculate how many bytes of
storage 30 integers require. The expression

  sizeof( int )

returns the size of an int type, which we then multiply by the desired
number of int items.

If the above call to malloc succeeds, you have, in effect, a 30-element
array of integers. And since pointer notation and array notation are
interchangeable, you can access any element of the array using the pointer
name and array notation. For instance, the expression

  ptr[2] = 50;

assigns the value 50 to the third element of the array. Note that this
statement accesses the third int element in the array, not the third byte.
Pointer references, as explained in Chapter 8, "Pointers," are always scaled
by the size of the type used to declare the pointer.

Allocating memory for structures is equally straightforward. Say that you
want to allocate memory to store 10 structures of the type  employee, which
is declared in the EMPLOYEE.C program in Chapter 4, "Data Types." The
EMPLOYEE.C program uses the following structure type:

  struct employee
  {
     char name[10];
     int months;
     float wage;
  };

You could use the statement

  struct employee *e_ptr;

to declare a pointer to an item of the  employee  type. Once you have a
suitable pointer, you could use the following statement to allocate enough
memory to store 10 structures of the same type:

  e_ptr = (struct employee *) malloc( (size_t)sizeof( struct employee ) * 10
  );

Here, the sizeof operator

  sizeof( struct employee )

returns the size of a structure of the  employee  type.

If the allocation succeeds, you have, in effect, an array of structures of
type employee. Using structure notation, you can access any structure member
in the block. The following statements, for instance, initialize the members
of the third structure in the array:

  strcpy( e_ptr[2].name, "Isaac, N." );
  e_ptr[2].months = 54;
  e_ptr[2].wage = (float) 12.21;


Deallocating Memory with the free Function

 The free function deallocates an allocated memory block.

When you have finished using an allocated memory block, you should free
(deallocate) the block with the free library function. The free function
takes one argument: the address of the block you wish to free. The
COPYFILE.C program frees its allocated block with the statement:

  free( buf );

It's your responsibility to pass a valid address to free. Unlike most
library functions, free doesn't return any value to indicate success or
failure. If you pass an invalid address, the memory block remains allocated
and can't be used for any other purpose.

Figure 12.3 shows COPYFILE.C after the program frees its allocated block.
The free function releases the block from the program's control, returning
it to the heap. The same memory is still present, of course. But since your
program no longer has control of that memory, you shouldn't attempt to use
it. (See "Using Dangling Pointers" in Chapter 10, "Programming Pitfalls,"
for more information on this point.)

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Specialized Memory-Allocating Functions

The C library contains two specialized versions of malloc that you may find
useful. The calloc function allocates memory for an array and sets the
block's contents to 0. The realloc function can expand or shrink an existing
memory block.


The calloc Function

The calloc (calculated allocate) function is especially useful for
allocating memory for an array. It works like malloc but takes two
arguments:


  ■   The number of data items for which you wish to allocate memory

  ■   The size of each data item


This scheme eliminates the need for you to calculate the number of bytes
needed to store the desired array. For instance, the statement

  ptr = (int *) calloc( (size_t)30, (size_t)sizeof( int ) );

allocates enough memory for a 30-element integer array, and

  e_ptr = (struct employee *) calloc( (size_t)30, sizeof( struct employee )
  );

allocates enough memory for a 30-element array of structures of type
employee.

 The calloc library function allocates memory and sets every byte in the
block to 0.

The calloc function also sets every byte in the requested block to 0. The
malloc function, as we noted earlier, doesn't change the contents of an
allocated block. If the block contained garbage values before allocation, it
contains garbage after allocation, too.


The realloc Function

Sometimes you may need to adjust the size of an allocated memory block. The
realloc (reallocate) function can expand or shrink an existing memory block.
The function takes two arguments:


  ■   The address of an existing allocated block

  ■   The size (in bytes) you want to give the block


 The realloc library function expands or shrinks an  existing allocated
block.

If enough memory is available to accommodate the resized block, realloc
allocates sufficient memory and copies as much of the existing block as the
new block will hold. If the new block is smaller than the original, data is
truncated.

For instance, if you had allocated a 30-element int array with the statement


  ptr = (int *) calloc( (size_t)30, (size_t)sizeof( int ) );

the following statement would expand the block to contain 20 extra elements,
for a total of 50:

  ptr = (int *)realloc( ptr, (size_t)sizeof( int ) * 50 );

The address you pass to realloc can be the address returned from a previous
call to any memory-allocation function: malloc, calloc, or realloc itself.

Like malloc, both calloc and realloc return a null address if they fail.
Remember to check the return value whenever you call a memory-allocating
function.


Keeping Out of Trouble

Here are a few rules to help you avoid trouble when allocating memory
dynamically:


  ■   Always check the return value when allocating memory.

  ■   Be careful not to index past the boundaries of an allocated memory
      block.

  ■   Free allocated memory as soon as you have finished using it.

  ■   Make sure that the address you pass to the free function is valid.

  ■   Don't use a pointer to an allocated block after freeing the block.


Most of these points were mentioned earlier, but the second deserves a
little elaboration. As you may recall from earlier chapters, the C language
doesn't check array subscripts or pointer references for validity. It's
important to remember this rule when using a pointer to access an allocated
block.

For instance, suppose that you allocate a 30-element integer array with the
statement

  ptr = (int *) malloc( (size_t)sizeof( int ) * 30 );

and then execute either of these statements:

  ptr[32] = 80;
  *(ptr+32) = 80;

Since the array has only 30 elements, both of the latter statements
overwrite memory outside the allocated memory block. The statements store
the value 80 in the address four bytes (two int elements) above the highest
element in the array.

While uncontrolled pointer operations always carry the potential for
disaster, they can create especially tricky program bugs if you write just
beyond an allocated memory block.

Near the beginning of each allocated block is a tiny "link" containing
information about the block. The memory-allocating functions use these links
to keep track of allocated memory, and the more blocks you have allocated,
the more important it is to keep all the links intact. If a bad pointer
reference overwrites a link, it can cause problems in an entirely unexpected
part of your program.






Chapter 13  Graphics
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

This chapter explains how to call graphics functions that set points, draw
lines, change colors, and draw shapes such as rectangles and circles. The
first section lists the three steps to using high-resolution graphics,
defines important graphics terms, and works through an example program step
by step, showing how to use the basic functions. The next sections explain
coordinate systems and show how to display graphics inside viewports and
windows.


Graphics Mode

There are three steps to displaying graphics in QuickC:


  1.  Use the _getvideoconfig function to determine which video adapter is
      installed. (See the section "Checking the Current Video Mode.")

  2.  Use the _setvideomode function to set the desired graphics mode for
      the installed video adapter. (See the section "Setting the Video
      Mode.")

  3.  Draw the graphics on the screen. (See the section "Writing a Graphics
      Program.")


There are several definitions you need to know before you can create
graphics programs. The following list explains the most useful terms:


  ■   The "x axis" determines the horizontal position on the screen. The
      "origin" (point 0, 0) is in the upper left corner. The maximum number
      of horizontal "pixels" (picture elements) varies from 320 to 640 to
      720, depending on the graphics card installed and the graphics mode in
      effect.

  ■   The "y axis" is the vertical position. The origin is the upper left
      corner. The number of vertical pixels ranges from 200 to 480.

  ■   Each graphics mode offers a "palette" from which you may choose the
      colors to be displayed. You may have access to 2, 4, 8, 16, or 256
      "color indexes," depending on the graphics card in the computer and
      the graphics mode in effect.

  ■   The CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) modes offer four fixed palettes
      containing predefined colors that may not be changed. In EGA (Enhanced
      Graphics Adapter), MCGA (Multicolor Graphics Array), and VGA (Video
      Graphics Array) graphics modes, you may change any of the color
      indexes by providing a color value that describes the mix of colors
      you wish to use.

  ■   A color index is always a short integer. A color value is always a
      long integer. When you're calling graphics functions that require
      color-related parameters, you should be aware of the difference
      between color indexes and color values.



Checking the Current Video Mode

Before or after entering graphics mode, you may inquire about the current
video configuration. This requires a special structure type called
videoconfig, which is defined in the GRAPH.H header file. You pass the
address of the structure to the function _getvideoconfig, which returns the
current video configuration information.

All graphics programs should include the graphics header file and declare a
structure of type videoconfig. The structure contains the following
elements:

  short numxpixels;   /*number of pixels on x axis*/
  short numypixels;   /*number of pixels on y axis*/
  short numtextcols;  /*number of text columns available*/
  short numtextrows;  /*number of text rows available*/
  short numcolors;    /*number of color indexes*/
  short bitsperpixel; /*number of bits per pixel*/
  short numvideopages;/*number of available video pages*/
  short mode;         /*current video mode*/
  short adapter;      /*active display adapter*/
  short monitor;      /*active display monitor*/
  short memory;       /*adapter video memory in K bytes*/

These variables within the videoconfig structure are initialized when you
call _getvideoconfig.


Setting the Video Mode

Before you can start drawing pictures on the screen, your program must tell
the graphics adapter to switch from video text mode to graphics mode. To do
this, call _setvideomode, passing it a single integer that tells it which
mode to display. The following constants are defined in the GRAPH.H file.
The dimensions are listed in pixels for graphics mode and in columns for
video text modes.

╓┌───────────────┌─────────────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────╖
Constant        Video Mode                    Mode Type/Hardware
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_DEFAULTMODE    Restores to original mode     Both/All

_ERESCOLOR      640 x  350, 4 or 16 color     Graphics/EGA

_ERESNOCOLOR    640 x  350, BW                Graphics/EGA
Constant        Video Mode                    Mode Type/Hardware
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_ERESNOCOLOR    640 x  350, BW                Graphics/EGA

_HERCMONO       720 x 348, BW for HGC         Graphics/HGC

_HRES16COLOR    640 x  200, 16 color          Graphics/EGA

_HRESBW         640 x  200, BW                Graphics/CGA

_MRES4COLOR     320 x  200, 4 color           Graphics/CGA

_MRES16COLOR    320 x  200, 16 color          Graphics/EGA

_MRES256COLOR   320 x  200, 256 color         Graphics/VGA/
                                              MCGA

_MRESNOCOLOR    320 x  200, 4 gray            Graphics/CGA

_ORESCOLOR      640 x  400, 1 of 16 colors    Graphics/
                                              Olivetti(R)
Constant        Video Mode                    Mode Type/Hardware
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
                                              Olivetti(R)

_TEXTBW40       40-column text, 16 gray       Text/CGA

_TEXTBW80       80-column text, 16 gray       Text/CGA

_TEXTC40        40-column text, 16/8 color    Text/CGA

_TEXTC80        80-column text, 16/8 color    Text/CGA

_TEXTMONO       80-column text, BW            Text/MDA

_VRES2COLOR     640 x  480, BW                Graphics/VGA/
                                              MCGA

_VRES16COLOR    640 x  480, 16 color          Graphics/VGA

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Constant        Video Mode                    Mode Type/Hardware
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



If _setvideomode returns a 0, it means the hardware does not support the
selected mode. You may continue to select alternate video modes until a
nonzero value is returned. If the hardware configuration doesn't support any
of the selected video modes, take the appropriate exit action.


Writing a Graphics Program

The SINE.C program below graphs a sine curve. The program illustrates how to
call many of the important graphics functions. The main function calls five
other functions, which are defined later in this chapter. To view the
complete program, use online help.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
WARNING

When you installed QuickC on your system, you may have chosen not to include
the graphics library. If this is the case, the programs in this chapter
won't compile unless you explicitly link the graphics library. See the
Microsoft QuickC Tool Kit for information about linking libraries.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


  /* SINE.C: Basic graphics commands. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <stdlib.h>
  #include <graph.h>
  #include <math.h>
  #include <conio.h>
  #define PI 3.14159

  void graphics_mode( void );
  void draw_lines( void );
  void sine_wave( void );
  void draw_shapes( void );
  void end_program( void );
  int newx( int );
  int newy( int );

  struct videoconfig myscreen;
  int maxx, maxy;
  unsigned char diagmask[8] =
  { 0x93, 0xC9, 0x64, 0xB2, 0x59, 0x2C, 0x96, 0x4B };
  unsigned char linemask[8] =
  { 0xFF, 0x00, 0x7F, 0xFE, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xCC };


  main()
  {
     graphics_mode();
     draw_lines();
     sine_wave();
     draw_shapes();
     end_program();
  }
  /*
  Definitions of functions go here
  */

The SINE.C program's output is shown in Figure 13.1.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Turning on Graphics Mode

Before you can display graphics, you must put the graphics adapter into a
graphics mode. The _setvideomode function performs this task. Before calling
_setvideomode, you must decide which graphics modes are acceptable for your
purposes. The first function in SINE.C is named  graphics_mode. It selects
the highest possible resolution available, based on the graphics card
currently in use.

Four header files are included in the SINE.C program:

  #include <stdio.h>

  #include <stdlib.h>

  #include <graph.h>

  #include <math.h>

Although the MATH.H file is not required for graphics programs, we include
it in the SINE.C program because it contains floating-point math functions
such as sin.

Later in the program we'll need to get information about the screen size, so
the videoconfig structure called  myscreen  is declared:

  struct videoconfig myscreen;

The functions called by main aren't in the standard library; they're defined
within SINE.C.

The first function is  graphics_mode, which turns on graphics capabilities:


  void graphics_mode( void )
  {
     _getvideoconfig( &myscreen );
     switch( myscreen.adapter )
     {
        case _CGA:
           _setvideomode( _HRESBW );
           break;
        case _OCGA:
           _setvideomode( _ORESCOLOR );
           break;
        case _EGA:
        case _OEGA:
           if( myscreen.monitor == _MONO )
              _setvideomode( _ERESNOCOLOR );
           else
              _setvideomode( _ERESCOLOR );
           break;
        case _VGA:
        case _OVGA:
        case _MCGA:
           _setvideomode( _VRES2COLOR );
           break;
        case _HGC:
           _setvideomode( _HERCMONO );
           break;
        default:
           printf( "This program requires a CGA, EGA, VGA, or Hercules
card\n" );
           exit( 0 );
     }
     _getvideoconfig( &myscreen );
     maxx = myscreen.numxpixels - 1;
     maxy = myscreen.numypixels - 1;
  }

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
NOTE

If you use a Hercules(R) adapter, you must run the MSHERC.COM program before
attempting to display any graphics. Always run MSHERC.COM before running
QuickC (do not run it from QuickC's DOS shell).
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

The function begins by calling _getvideoconfig, passing the address of the
videoconfig structure. Within the structure a member called adapter tells us
the type of adapter currently in use. With that knowledge, and a switch
statement, we can enter the appropriate graphics mode.

But how much screen do we have to work with? The screen might be 720 x 348,
640 x 480, 640 x 400, 640 x 350, or 640 x 200. Whenever you call
_setvideomode, you can ask for information about the currently displayed
screen with _getvideoconfig. Just pass it the address of the videoconfig
structure that was declared earlier:

  _getvideoconfig( &myscreen );
  maxx = myscreen.numxpixels - 1;
  maxy = myscreen.numypixels - 1;

Let's say your computer has an EGA card, which means that at this point,
_ERESNOCOLOR is in effect. The horizontal screen size is 640 pixels and
vertical screen size is 350. The two assignments above assign these values
to  maxx  and  maxy, less 1. The horizontal resolution might be 640, but the
pixels are numbered 0-639. Thus, the  maxx  variable─the highest available
pixel number─must be 1 less than the total number of pixels:

  myscreen.numxpixels - 1

Two short functions perform conversions from an imaginary 1000 x 1000 screen
to whatever graphics mode is in effect. From this point forward, the program
will assume it has 1000 pixels in each direction, passing the values to
newx  and  newy  for conversion to actual coordinates:

  int newx( int xcoord )
  {
     int nx;
     float tempx;
     tempx = ((float)maxx)/ 1000.0;
     tempx = ((float)xcoord) * tempx + 0.5;
     return( (int)tempx );
  }

  int newy( int ycoord )
  {
     int ny;
     float tempy;
     tempy = ((float)maxy)/ 1000.0;
     tempy = ((float)ycoord) * tempy + 0.5;
     return( (int)tempy );
  }


Drawing Rectangles and Lines

The next function called in SINE.C is  draw_lines. As the name implies, the
draw_lines  function draws several lines on the screen: a rectangle around
the outer edges of the screen and three horizontal lines that cut the screen
into quarters.

  void draw_lines( void )
  {
     _rectangle( _GBORDER, 0, 0, maxx, maxy );
     /* _setcliprgn( 20, 20, maxx - 20, maxy - 20 ); */
     _setvieworg( 0, newy( 500 ) );

     _moveto( 0, 0 );
     _lineto( newx( 1000 ), 0 );
     _setlinestyle( 0xAA3C );
     _moveto( 0, newy( -250) );
     _lineto( newx( 1000 ), newy( -250 ) );
     _setlinestyle( 0x8888 );
     _moveto( 0, newy( 250 ) );
     _lineto( newx( 1000 ), newy( 250 ) );
  }

The call to the _rectangle function has five arguments. The first argument
is the fill flag, which may be either _GBORDER or _GFILLINTERIOR. Choose
_GBORDER if you want a rectangle of four lines (a border only, in the
current line style). Or you can choose _GFILLINTERIOR if you want a solid
rectangle (filled in with the current color and fill pattern). We will
discuss how to choose the color and fill pattern later in this chapter.

The second and third arguments are the x and y coordinates of one corner of
the rectangle. The fourth and fifth arguments are the coordinates of the
opposite corner. Since the coordinates for the two corners are  ( 0, 0 ) and
( maxx, maxy ) , the call to _rectangle frames the screen.

  _rectangle( _GBORDER, 0, 0, maxx, maxy );

Drawing lines is a two-step process. Move to one location on the screen and
draw the line to another location, using the _moveto and _lineto functions:


  _setlinestyle( 0xAA3C );
  _moveto( 0, newy(-250) );
  _lineto( newx(1000), newy(-250) );

Use the _setlinestyle function to change from a solid line to a dashed line
by passing it one integer value. In the example above, the number 0xAA3C
causes the line to become the graphics equivalent of binary 1010 1010 0011
1100.

The _moveto function positions an imaginary pixel cursor at a spot on the
screen. Nothing visible appears on the screen. The _lineto function draws a
line. The negative value -250 might seem to be an impossible screen
coordinate. It would be, but the program has changed the viewport
organization of the screen with the _setvieworg function. The top half of
the screen now contains negative y coordinates, and the bottom half contains
positive y coordinates. Viewports are explained in more detail later in this
chapter.


Setting a Pixel

The next step in the SINE.C program is to draw the sine curve. This requires
the  sine_wave  function which is shown below. This function calculates
positions for two sine waves and plots them on the screen:

  void sine_wave( void )
  {
   int locx, locy;
    double i, rad;

   for( i = 0; i < 1000; i += 3 )
     {
        rad = -sin( (PI * (float) i) / 250.0 );
        locx = newx( (int) i );
        locy = newy( (int) (rad * 250.0) );
        _setpixel( locx, locy );
     }
  }

The only graphics function called is _setpixel, which takes two parameters,
an x and a y coordinate. The function turns on the pixel at that location.


Drawing Shapes

After the sine curve is drawn, the SINE.C program calls the  draw_shapes
function to draw two rectangles and two ellipses on the screen. The fill
mask alternates between _GBORDER and _GFILLINTERIOR:

  void draw_shapes( void )
  {
     _setlinestyle( 0xFFFF );
     _setfillmask( diagmask );
     _rectangle( _GBORDER, newx( 50 ), newy( -325 ), newx( 200 ), newy( -425
) );
     _rectangle(_GFILLINTERIOR,newx(550),newy(-325),newx(700),newy(-425));

     _setfillmask( linemask );
     _ellipse( _GBORDER, newx( 50 ), newy( 325 ), newx( 200 ), newy( 425 )
);
     _ellipse( _GFILLINTERIOR,newx( 550 ),newy( 325 ),newx( 700 ),newy( 425
) );
  }

Note that _setlinestyle resets the line pattern to solid. If you omit this
function (or comment it out), the first rectangle would be drawn with dashes
instead of a solid line.

The _ellipse function draws an ellipse on the screen. Its parameters
resemble the parameters for _rectangle. Both functions require a fill flag
and two corners of a "bounding rectangle." When the ellipse is drawn, four
points touch the edges of the bounding rectangle.

The _GFILLINTERIOR flag fills the shape with the current fill pattern. To
select a pattern, you must first use the _setfillmask function, passing the
address of an eight-byte array of unsigned characters. Earlier in the
program  diagmask  was defined as the shape shown in Table 13.1 below.

Table 13.1  Fill Patterns

╓┌─────────────────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────╖
Bit Pattern                       Value in diagmask
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼            diagmask[0] = 0x93
☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼            diagmask[1] = 0xC9
∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ∙  ∙            diagmask[2] = 0x64
☼  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ∙            diagmask[3] = 0xB2
∙  ☼  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼            diagmask[4] = 0x59
∙  ∙  ☼  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙            diagmask[5] = 0x2C
☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙            diagmask[6] = 0x96
∙  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ∙  ☼  ☼            diagmask[7] = 0x4B
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



Exiting Graphics Mode

The final function to be called by the SINE.C program is  end_program, which
waits for a key press and then sets the screen back to normal:

  void end_program( void )
  {
     getch();
     _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
  }


Using Color Graphics Modes

In this example, the program COLOR.C sets a mode with as many color choices
as possible for the available hardware:

  /* COLOR.C: Sets a medium resolution mode
     with maximum color choices. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <stdlib.h>
  #include <graph.h>
  #include <conio.h>
  struct videoconfig vc;

  main()
  {
     if( _setvideomode( _MRES256COLOR ) );
     else if( _setvideomode( _MRES16COLOR ) );
     else if( _setvideomode( _MRES4COLOR ) );
     else
     {
        printf( "Error: No color graphics capability\n" );
        exit( 0 );
     }

     _getvideoconfig( &vc );

     printf( "%d available colors\n", vc.numcolors );
     printf( "%d horizontal pixels\n", vc.numxpixels );
     printf( "%d vertical pixels\n", vc.numypixels );

     getch();
     _clearscreen( _GCLEARSCREEN );
     _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
  }

Although color graphics are an improvement over black and white, if you use
color you must make a compromise. When you request the maximum number of
colors, you sacrifice some resolution─a 320 x 200 screen instead of a higher
resolution. Thus, the COLORS.C program always creates a screen 320 pixels
wide and 200 pixels high. Note also the use of the function _clearscreen,
which clears the screen in any video mode (text or graphics).

To view every possible graphics mode, you can run the program GRAPHIC.C
shown below. Explanations of the various color graphics modes─CGA, EGA, and
VGA─follow.

  /* GRAPHIC.C: Display every graphics mode. */
  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <graph.h>
  #include <conio.h>

  struct videoconfig screen;
  int modes[12] =
  {
     _MRES4COLOR, _MRESNOCOLOR, _HRESBW, _HERCMONO,
     _MRES16COLOR, _HRES16COLOR, _ERESNOCOLOR, _ERESCOLOR,
     _VRES2COLOR, _VRES16COLOR, _MRES256COLOR, _ORESCOLOR
  };

  void print_menu( void );
  void show_mode( char );

  main()
  {
     char key;
     print_menu();
     while( (key = getch()) != 'x' )
        show_mode( key );
  }

  void print_menu( void )
  {
     _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
     _clearscreen( _GCLEARSCREEN );
     printf( "Please choose a graphics mode\nType 'x' to exit.\n\n" );
     printf( "0 _MRES4COLOR\n1 _MRESNOCOLOR\n2 _HRESBW\n" );
     printf( "3 _HERCMONO\n4 _MRES16COLOR\n5 _HRES16COLOR\n" );
     printf( "6 _ERESNOCOLOR\n7 _ERESCOLOR\n" );
     printf( "8 _VRES2COLOR\n9 _VRES16COLOR\na _MRES256COLOR\n" );
     printf( "b _ORESCOLOR\n" );
  }

  void show_mode( char which )
  {
     int nc, i;
     int height, width;
     int mode = which;

     if( mode < '0' || mode > '9' )
        if( mode == 'a' )
      mode = '9' + 1;
        else if( mode == 'b' )
      mode = '9' + 2;

  else
      return;

     if( _setvideomode( modes[mode - '0'] ) )
     {
        _getvideoconfig( &screen );
        nc = screen.numcolors;
        width = screen.numxpixels/nc;
        height = screen.numypixels/2;
        for( i = 0; i < nc; i++ )
        {
      _setcolor( i );
      _rectangle( _GFILLINTERIOR, i * width, 0, (i + 1) * width, height );
        }
     }
     else
     {
        printf( " \nVideo mode %c is not available.\n", which );
        printf( "Please press a key.\n" );
     }
     getch();
     _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
     print_menu();
  }


CGA Color Graphics Modes

The CGA color graphics modes _MRES4COLOR and _MRESNOCOLOR display four
colors selected from one of several predefined palettes of colors. They
display these foreground colors against a background color which can be any
one of the 16 available colors. With the CGA hardware, the palette of
foreground colors is predefined and cannot be changed. Each palette number
is an integer as shown in Table 13.2.

Table 13.2  Available CGA Colors

╓┌─────────────────┌─────────────┌───────────────┌───────────────────────────╖
Palette Number    Color Index
                  1             2               3
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
0                 Green         Red             Brown
1                 Cyan          Magenta         Light gray
2                 Light green   Light red       Yellow
Palette Number    Color Index
                  1             2               3
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
2                 Light green   Light red       Yellow
3                 Light cyan    Light magenta   White
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


The _MRESNOCOLOR graphics mode produces palettes containing various shades
of gray on black-and-white monitors. The _MRESNOCOLOR mode displays colors
when used with a color display. However, only two palettes

are available with a color display. You can use the _selectpalette function
to select one of these predefined palettes. Table 13.3 shows the
correspondence between the color indexes and the palettes.

Table 13.3  CGA Colors:  _MRESNOCOLOR Mode

╓┌─────────────────┌────────────┌───────────┌────────────────────────────────╖
Palette Number    Color Index
                  1            2           3
Palette Number    Color Index
                  1            2           3
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
0                 Blue         Red         Light gray
1                 Light blue   Light red   White
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


You may use the _selectpalette function only with the _MRES4COLOR and
_MRESNOCOLOR graphics modes. To change palettes in other graphics modes, use
the _remappalette or _remapallpalette functions.

The following program sets the video mode to _MRES4COLOR and then cycles
through background colors and palette combinations. It works on computers
equipped with CGA, EGA, MCGA, or VGA cards. A color monitor is required.

  /* CGA.C: Demonstrate CGA colors. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <graph.h>
  #include <conio.h>

  long bkcolor[8] =
  {
     _BLACK, _BLUE, _GREEN, _CYAN,
    _RED, _MAGENTA, _BROWN, _WHITE
  };

  char *bkcolor_name[] =
  {
     "_BLACK", "_BLUE", "_GREEN", "_CYAN",
     "_RED", "_MAGENTA", "_BROWN", "_WHITE"
  };

  main()
  {
     int i, j, k;
     _setvideomode( _MRES4COLOR );
     for( i=0; i<= 3; i++ )
     {
        _selectpalette( i );
        for( k=0; k <= 7; k++ )
        {
           _setbkcolor( bkcolor[k] );
           for( j=0; j<=3; j++ )
           {
              _settextposition( 1, 1 );
              printf( "background color: %8s\n", bkcolor_name[k] );
              printf( "palette: %d\ncolor: %d\n", i, j );
              _setcolor( j );
              _rectangle( _GFILLINTERIOR, 160, 100, 320, 200 );
               getch();
           }
        }
     }
     _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
  }


EGA, MCGA, and VGA Palettes

At the beginning of this chapter, we mentioned the difference between color
indexes and color values. An analogy might make things clearer. Imagine a
painter who owns 64 tubes of paint and a painter's palette that has room for
only 16 globs of paint at any one time. A painting created under these
constraints could contain only 16 colors (selected from a total of 64). One
of the EGA graphics modes (_ERESCOLOR) is similar: 16 color indexes chosen
from a total of 64 color values. (Color indexes are sometimes called "color
attributes," or "pixel values." Color values are sometimes called "actual
colors.")

VGA Color Mixing - VGA offers the widest variety of color values: 262,144
(256K). Depending on the graphics mode, the VGA palette size may be 2, 16,
or 256. When you select a color value, you specify a level of intensity
ranging from 0-63 for each of the red, green, and blue color values. The
long integer that defines a color value consists of four bytes (32 bits):

  MSB                             LSB
  zzzzzzzz zzBBBBBB zzGGGGGG zzRRRRRR

The most-significant byte must contain all zeros. The two high bits in the
remaining three bytes must also be 0. To mix a light red (pink), turn red
all the way up, and mix in some green and blue:

  00000000 00100000 00100000 00111111

To represent this value in hexadecimal, use the number  0x0020203FL (the  L
marks it as a long value). You could also use the following macro:

  #define RGB ( r, g, b ) (0x3F3F3FL & ((long)(b) << 16 | (g) << 8 | (r)))

To create pure yellow (100% red plus 100% green) and assign it to a variable
 y1, use this line:

  y1 = RGB( 63, 63, 0 );

For white, turn all the colors on:  RGB( 63, 63, 63 ). For black, set all
colors to 0:  RGB( 0, 0, 0 ).

EGA Color Mixing - Mixing colors in EGA modes is similar to the mixing
described above, but there are fewer intensities for the red, green, and
blue components. In the modes that offer 64 colors, the R, G, and B values
cover 2 bits and can range from 0 to 3. The long integer that defines an RGB
color looks like this:

  MSB                             LSB
  zzzzzzzz zzBB???? zzGG???? zzRR????

The bits marked  z  must be zeros and the bits marked with question marks
can be any value. To form a pure red color value, you would use the constant
 0x00000030L. For cyan (blue plus green), use  0x00303000L. The RGB macro
defined above is easily modified for EGA monitors:

  #define EGARGB( r, g, b ) (0x3F3F3FL & ((long)(b) << 20 | (g) << 12 | (r
  << 4)))

In this macro, you would pass values in the range 0-3 instead of 0-63.


EGA Color Graphics Modes

The _MRES16COLOR, _HRES16COLOR, or _ERESCOLOR video modes display the best
color graphics with an EGA adapter. The CGA modes will also display on the
EGA but with the lower CGA resolution and decreased color options.

The _remappalette function assigns a new color value to a color index. For
example, when you first enter an EGA graphics mode, color index 1 equals the
color value blue. To reassign the pure red color value to color index 1, you
could use this line:

  _remappalette( 1, 0x000030L );

Or, use the symbolic constant _RED, which is defined in the  GRAPH.H  file:


  _remappalette( 1, _RED );

After this function call, any object currently drawn in color index 1 will
instantly switch from blue to red.

For EGA graphics, the first value is an integer in the range 0-15 and the
second value is a long int defined as a mixture of red, green, and blue (you
may also use the symbolic constants such as _RED).

The _remapallpalette function changes all of the color indexes
simultaneously. You pass it an array of color values. The first color value
in the list becomes the new color associated with the color index 0.

The number in a function call to set the color (such as _setcolor) is an
index into the palette of available colors. In the default text palette, an
index of 1 refers to blue but the palette could be remapped to change index
1 to any other available color. As a result, the color produced by that
pixel value also changes. The number of color indexes depends on the number
of colors supported by the current video mode.

The _remappalette and _remapallpalette functions work in all modes but only
with the EGA, MCGA, or VGA hardware. The _remappalette and _remapallpalette
functions fail and return a value of -1 when you attempt to remap a palette
without the EGA, MCGA, or VGA hardware.

The following program draws a rectangle with a red interior. In the default
EGA palette, color index 4 is red. This color index is changed to _BLUE in
this program.

  /* EGA.C: EGA palettes. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>
  #include <graph.h>

  main()
  {
     _setvideomode( _ERESCOLOR );
     _setcolor( 4 );
     _rectangle( _GFILLINTERIOR, 50, 50, 200, 200 );

     _settextposition( 1, 1 );
     printf( "Normal palette\n" );
     printf( "Press a key" );
     getch();

     _remappalette( 4, _BLUE );

     _settextposition( 1, 1 );
     printf( "Remapped palette\n" );
     printf( "Press a key" );
     getch();

     _remappalette( 4, _RED );

     _settextposition( 1, 1 );
     printf( "Restored palette\n" );
     printf( "Press a key to clear the screen" );
     getch();

     _clearscreen( _GCLEARSCREEN );
     _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
  }


VGA Color Graphics Modes

The VGA card adds graphics modes _VRES2COLOR, _VRES16COLOR, and
_MRES256COLOR to your repertoire. EGA and CGA modes can also be used with
the VGA hardware, but with either lower resolution or fewer color choices.

The VGA color graphics modes operate with a range of 262,144 (256K)  color
values. The _VRES2COLOR graphics mode displays two colors, the _VRES16COLOR
graphics mode displays 16, and the _MRES256COLOR graphics mode displays 256
colors from the available VGA colors.

Changing the Palette - The _remappalette function changes a color index to a
specified color value. The function below remaps the color index 1 to the
color value given by the symbolic constant _RED (which represents red).
After this statement is executed, whatever was displayed as blue will now
appear as red:

  _remappalette( 1, _RED );  /*reassign color index 1
                               to VGA red */

Use the _remapallpalette function to remap all of the available color
indexes simultaneously. The function's argument references an array of color
values that reflects the remapping. The first color number in the list
becomes the new color associated with color index 0.

Symbolic constants for the default color numbers are supplied so that the
remapping of VGA colors is compatible with EGA practice. The names of these
constants are self-explanatory. For example, the color numbers for black,
red, and light yellow are represented by the symbolic constants _BLACK,
_RED, and _LIGHTYELLOW.

All of the VGA display modes operate with any VGA video monitor. Colors are
displayed as shades of gray when the monochrome analog display is connected.


If you have a VGA card, the HORIZON.C program illustrates what can be done
with the range of 256 colors:

  /* HORIZON.C: VGA graphics with cycling of 256 colors. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <stdlib.h>
  #include <conio.h>
  #include <graph.h>

  #define RED 0x0000003FL
  #define GRN 0x00003F00L
  #define BLU 0x003F0000L
  #define WHT 0x003F3F3FL
  #define STEP 21

  struct videoconfig screen;
  long int rainbow[512];

  main()
  {
     int i;
     long int col, gray;

     if( _setvideomode( _MRES256COLOR ) == 0 )
     {
        printf( "This program requires a VGA card.\n" );
        exit( 0 );
     }
     for( col = 0; col < 64; col++ )
     {
        gray = col | (col << 8) | (col << 16);
        rainbow[col] = rainbow[col + 256] = BLU & gray;
        rainbow[col + 64] = rainbow[col + 64 + 256] = BLU | gray;
        rainbow[col + 128] = rainbow[col + 128 + 256] = RED | (WHT & ~gray);
        rainbow[col + 192] = rainbow[col + 192 + 256] = RED & ~gray;
     }
     _setvieworg( 160, 85 );

     for( i = 0; i < 255; i++ )
     {
        _setcolor( 255 - i );
        _moveto( i, i - 255 );
        _lineto( -i, 255 - i );
        _moveto( -i, i - 255 );
        _lineto( i, 255 - i );
        _ellipse( _GBORDER, -i, -i / 2, i, i / 2 );
     }
     for( i = 0; !kbhit(); i += STEP, i %= 256 )
        _remapallpalette( &(rainbow[i]) );

     _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
  }


Using the Color Video Text Modes

Two color video text modes, _TEXTC40 and _TEXTC80, can be used with the CGA,
EGA, and VGA displays. These modes display steady or blinking text in any of
16 foreground colors with any one of 8 background colors.


Basics of Text Color Selection

In a video text mode, each displayed character requires two bytes of video
memory. The first byte contains the ASCII code representing the character
and the second byte contains the display attribute. In the CGA color video
text modes, the attribute byte determines the color and whether it will
blink. Sixteen colors are available: the CGA pixel values, and the default
EGA and VGA pixel values. Since the EGA and VGA palette can be remapped,
these values can be made to correspond to any set of 16 colors with the
appropriate palette mapping.


Using Text Colors

Use the _gettextcolor and _getbkcolor functions to find the current text
foreground and background colors.

Values in the range 0-15 are interpreted as normal color. Values in the
range 16-31 are the same colors as those in the range 0-15 but with blinking
text.

Use the _settextcolor and _setbkcolor functions to set foreground and
background colors in video text mode. These functions use a single argument
that specifies the pixel value to be used for text displayed with the
_outtext function. The color indexes for color video text modes are defined
in Table 13.4.

Table 13.4  Text Colors

╓┌───────┌─────────┌───────┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Number  Color     Number  Color
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
0       Black     8       Dark gray
1       Blue      9       Light blue
2       Green     10      Light green
3       Cyan      11      Light cyan
4       Red       12      Light red
5       Magenta   13      Light magenta
6       Brown     14      Light brown
Number  Color     Number  Color
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
6       Brown     14      Light brown
7       White     15      Light white
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



Displaying Color Text

The _settextposition function moves the cursor to a row and column for
displaying color text. The _outtext function displays the text.


Example: Viewing Text Colors

The following program displays a chart showing all possible combinations of
text and background colors:

  /* COLTEXT.C: Display text in color. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>
  #include <graph.h>

  char buffer [80];

  main()
  {
     int blink,fgd;
     long bgd;

     _clearscreen( _GCLEARSCREEN );
     printf( "Text color attributes:\n" );

     for( blink=0; blink<=16; blink+=16 )
     {
        for( bgd=0; bgd<8; bgd++ )
        {
           _setbkcolor( bgd );
           _settextposition( bgd + ((blink / 16) * 9) + 3, 1 );
           _settextcolor( 7 );
           sprintf( buffer, "Bgd: %d Fgd:", bgd );
           _outtext( buffer );

           for( fgd=0; fgd<16; fgd++ )
           {
              _settextcolor( fgd+blink );
              sprintf( buffer, " %2d ", fgd+blink );
              _outtext( buffer );
           }
        }
     }
     getch();
     _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
  }


Text Coordinates

Before you can write a program to print a word over there on the screen, you
need a system that describes to the compiler where there really is. QuickC
divides the text screen into rows and columns. See Figure 13.2.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Two important conventions to keep in mind about video text mode are:


  1.  Numbering starts at 1, not 0. An 80-column screen contains columns
      1-80.

  2.  The row is always listed before the column.


If the screen is in a video text mode that displays 25 rows and 80 columns
(as in Figure 13.2), the rows are numbered 1-25 and the columns are numbered
1-80. In functions such as _settextposition, which is called in the next
example program, the parameters you pass are row and column (in that order).



Graphics Coordinates

A similar (but slightly different) system is used for locating pixels on a
graphics screen. There are three ways of describing the location of pixels
on the screen:


  1.  The physical screen coordinates

  2.  The viewport coordinates

  3.  The window coordinates


Each method is explained in the following sections.


The Physical Screen

Suppose you write a program that calls _setvideomode and puts the screen
into the VGA graphics mode _VRES16COLOR. This gives you a screen containing
640 horizontal pixels and 480 vertical pixels. The individual pixels are
named by their location relative to the x axis and y axis, as shown in
Figure 13.3.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Two important differences between text coordinates and pixel coordinates
are:


  1.  Numbering starts at 0, not 1. If there are 640 pixels, they're
      numbered 0-639.

  2.  The x coordinate (equivalent to a text column) is listed before the y
      coordinate.


The upper left corner is called the "origin." The x and y coordinates for
the origin are always (0, 0). If you use variables to refer to pixel
locations, declare them as integers.


Changing the Origin with _setvieworg

The _setvieworg function changes the current location of the viewport's
origin. When you first enter graphics mode, the "viewport" is equivalent to
the physical

screen. You pass two integers, which represent the x and y coordinates of a
physical screen location. For example, the following line would move the
origin to the physical screen location (50, 100):

  _setvieworg( 50, 100 );

The effect on the screen is illustrated in Figure 13.4.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

The number of pixels hasn't changed, but the names given to the points have
changed. The x axis now ranges from -50 to +589 instead of 0 to 639. The y
axis now covers the values -100 to +379. (If you own an adapter other than
the VGA, the numbers are different but the effect is the same.)

All standard graphics functions are affected by the new origin, including
_arc, _ellipse, _lineto, _moveto, _pie, and _rectangle.

For example, if you call the _rectangle function after relocating the
viewport origin, and pass it the values (0, 0) and (40, 40), the rectangle
would be drawn 50 pixels from the left edge of the screen and 100 pixels
from the top. It would not appear in the upper left corner.

The values passed to _setvieworg are always physical screen locations.
Suppose you called the same function twice:

  _setvieworg( 50, 100 );
  _setvieworg( 50, 100 );

The viewport origin would not move to (100, 200). It would remain at the
phys-ical screen location (50, 100).


Defining a Clipping Region with _setcliprgn

The _setcliprgn function creates an invisible rectangular area on the screen
called a "clipping region." Attempts to draw inside the clipping region are
successful, while attempts to draw outside the region are not.

When you first enter a graphics mode, the default clipping region occupies
the entire screen. QuickC ignores any attempts to draw outside the screen.

Changing the clipping region requires one call to _setcliprgn. Suppose
you've entered the CGA graphics mode  _MRES4COLOR, which has a screen
resolution of 320 x 200. If you draw a diagonal line from (0, 0) to (319,
199), from the top left to the bottom right corner, the screen looks like
Figure 13.5.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

You could create a clipping region with this line:

  _setcliprgn( 10, 10, 309, 189 )

With the clipping region in effect, the same _lineto command would put the
line shown in Figure 13.6 on the screen.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

The broken lines don't actually print on the screen. They indicate the outer
bounds of the clipping region.


Viewport Coordinates

The _setviewport function establishes a new viewport within the boundaries
of the physical screen. A standard viewport has two distinguishing features:



  1.  The origin of a viewport is in the upper left corner.

  2.  The clipping region matches the outer boundaries of the viewport.


The _setviewport function does the same thing as calling the _setvieworg and
the _setcliprgn functions.


Real Coordinates in a Window

Functions that refer to coordinates on the physical screen and within the
viewport require integer values. In real-life graphing applications, you
might wish to use floating-point values─stock prices, the price of wheat,
average rainfall, and so on. The _setwindow function allows you to scale the
screen to almost any size. In addition, the window-related functions take
double-precision, floating-point values instead of integers.

For example, say you want to graph 12 months of average temperatures that
range from -40 to +100. You could add the following line to your program:

  _setwindow( TRUE, 1.0, -40.0, 12.0, 100.0 );

The first argument is the invert flag, which puts the lowest y value in the
bottom left corner. The minimum and maximum Cartesian coordinates follow
(the decimal point marks them as floating-point values). The new
organization of the screen is shown in Figure 13.7.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Note that January and December are plotted on the left and right edges of
the screen. In an application like this, it might be better to number the x
axis from 0.0 to 13.0, to provide some extra space.

If you next plot a point with _setpixel_w or draw a line with _lineto_w, the
values are automatically scaled to the established window.

Follow these four steps to use real-coordinate graphics:


  1.  Enter a graphics mode with _setvideomode.

  2.  Use _setviewport to create a viewport area. (This step is optional if
      you plan to use the entire screen.)

  3.  Create a real-coordinate window with _setwindow, passing an int invert
      flag and four double x and y coordinates for the minimum and maximum
      values.

  4.  Draw graphics shapes with _rectangle_w and other functions. Do not
      confuse _rectangle (the viewport function) with _rectangle_w (the
      window function for drawing rectangles). All window functions end with
      an underscore and a letter w or an underscore and wxy.


Real-coordinate graphics can give you a lot of flexibility. For example, you
can fit either axis into a small range (such as 151.25 to 151.45) or into a
large range (-50,000 to +80,000), depending on the type of data you're
graphing. In addition, by changing the window coordinates, you can create
the effects of zooming in or panning across a figure.


Example Program

The program below illustrates some ways to use the real-coordinate windowing
functions.

  /* REALG.C: Real-coordinate graphics. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>
  #include <graph.h>

  #define TRUE 1
  #define FALSE 0

  int four_colors( void );
  void three_graphs( void );
  void grid_shape( void );

  int halfx, halfy;
  struct videoconfig screen;
  double bananas[] =
    {
      -0.3, -0.2, -0.224, -0.1, -0.5, +0.21, +2.9,
      +0.3, +0.2, 0.0, -0.885, -1.1, -0.3, -0.2,
      +.001, +.005, +0.14, 0.0, -0.9, -0.13, +0.3
    };

  main()
  {
    if( four_colors() )
       three_graphs();
    else
       printf( "This program requires a CGA, EGA,\
               or VGA graphics card.\n" );
  }
  /*
  . Additional functions defined below
  .
  .
  */

The main function is very short. It calls the  four_colors  function
(defined below), which attempts to enter a graphics mode where at least four
colors are available. If it succeeds, the  three_graphs  function is called,
which uses the numbers in the  bananas  array to draw three graphs. The
REALG.C screen output is shown in Figure 13.8.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

It's worth noting that the  grid_shape  function (defined below) that draws
the graphs is using the same numbers in each case. However, the program uses
three different real-coordinate windows. The two windows in the top half are
the same size in physical coordinates, but they have different window sizes.
In all three cases, the grid is 2 units wide. In the upper left corner, the
window is 4 units wide; in the upper right, the window is 6 units wide,
which makes the graph appear smaller.

In two of the three graphs, one of the lines goes off the edge, outside the
clipping region. The lines do not intrude into the other windows, since
defining a window creates a clipping region.

Finally, note that the graph on the bottom of the screen seems to be upside
down with respect to the two graphs above it.


Checking the Adapter

The first step in any graphics program is to enter a graphics mode. The
four_colors  function performs this step:

  /* four_colors function from REALG.C. */

  int four_colors( void )
  {
     _getvideoconfig( &screen );
     switch( screen.adapter )
     {
        case _CGA:
        case _OCGA:
           _setvideomode( _MRES4COLOR );
           break;
        case _EGA:
        case _OEGA:
           _setvideomode( _ERESCOLOR );
           break;
        case _VGA:
        case _OVGA:
           _setvideomode( _VRES16COLOR );
           break;
        default:
           return( FALSE );
     }
     _getvideoconfig( &screen );
     return( TRUE );
  }

The _getvideoconfig function places some information into the videoconfig
structure called  screen. Then we use the member  screen.adapter  in a
switch statement construct to turn on the matching graphics mode. The
symbolic constants _CGA and the rest are defined in the GRAPH.H file. The
modes that begin with the letter O are Olivetti modes.

If the computer is equipped with a color card, _getvideoconfig returns a
TRUE. If it is not, it returns a FALSE, which causes main to skip the
three_graphs  function.


Three Windows, Three Graphs

If the  four_colors  function works properly, main calls the function below,
which prints the three graphs.

  /* three_graphs function from REALG.C. */

  void three_graphs( void )
  {
     int xwidth, yheight, cols, rows;
     struct _wxycoord upleft, botright;

     _clearscreen( _GCLEARSCREEN );
     xwidth = screen.numxpixels;
     yheight = screen.numypixels;
     halfx = xwidth/2;
     halfy = yheight/2;
     cols = screen.numtextcols;
     rows = screen.numtextrows;

     /* first window */
     _setviewport( 0, 0, halfx-1, halfy-1 );
     _settextwindow( 1, 1, rows/2, cols/2 );
     _setwindow( FALSE, -2.0, -2.0, 2.0, 2.0 );
     grid_shape();
     _rectangle( _GBORDER, 0, 0, halfx-1, halfy-1 );

     /* second window */
     _setviewport( halfx, 0, xwidth-1, halfy-1 );
     _settextwindow( 1, cols/2+1, rows/2, cols );
     _setwindow( FALSE, -3.0, -3.0, 3.0, 3.0 );
     grid_shape();
     _rectangle_w( _GBORDER, -3.0, -3.0, 3.0, 3.0 );

     /* third window */
     _setviewport( 0, halfy, xwidth-1, yheight-1 );
     _settextwindow( rows/2+1, 1, rows, cols );
     _setwindow( TRUE, -3.0, -1.5, 1.5, 1.5 );
     grid_shape();
     upleft.wx = -3.0;
     upleft.wy = -1.5;
     botright.wx = 1.5;
     botright.wy = 1.5;
     _rectangle_wxy( _GBORDER, &upleft, &botright );

     getch();
     _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
  }

Clearing the Screen - Although entering a graphics mode automatically clears
the screen, it doesn't hurt to be sure, so  three_graphs  calls the
_clearscreen function:

  _clearscreen( _GCLEARSCREEN );

The _GCLEARSCREEN constant causes the entire physical screen to clear. Other
options include _GVIEWPORT and _GWINDOW, which clear the current viewport
and the current text window, respectively.

The First Window - After assigning values to some variables, the
three_graphs  function creates the first window:

  _setviewport( 0, 0, halfx - 1, halfy - 1 );
  _settextwindow( 1, 1, rows / 2, cols / 2 );
  _setwindow( FALSE, -2.0, -2.0, 2.0, 2.0 );

First a viewport is defined to cover the upper left quarter of the screen.
Next, a text window is defined within the boundaries of that border. (Note
the numbering starts at 1 and the row location precedes the column.)
Finally, a window is defined. The FALSE constant forces the y axis to
increase from top to bottom. The corners of the window are (-2.0, -2.0) in
the upper left and (2.0, 2.0) in the bottom right corner.

Next, the function  grid_shape  is called, and a border is added to the
window:

  grid_shape();
  _rectangle( _GBORDER, 0, 0, halfx-1, halfy-1 );

Note that this is the standard _rectangle function, which takes coordinates
relative to the viewport (not window coordinates).

Two More Windows - The two other windows are similar to the first. All three
call  grid_shape  (defined below), which draws a grid from location (-1.0,
-1.0) to (+1.0, +1.0). The grid appears in different sizes because the
coordinates in the windows vary. The second window ranges from (-3.0, -3.0)
to (+3.0, +3.0), so the width of the grid is one-third the width of the
second window, while it is one-half the width of the first.

Note also that the third window contains a TRUE as the first argument. This
causes the y axis to increase from bottom to top, instead of top to bottom.
As a result, this graph appears to be upside down in relation to the other
two.

After calling  grid_shape, the program frames each window with one of the
following functions:

  _rectangle( _GBORDER, 0, 0, halfx -1, halfy -1 );

  _rectangle_w( _GBORDER, -3.0, -3.0, 3.0, 3.0 );

  _rectangle_wxy( _GBORDER, &upleft, &botright );

All three functions contain a fill flag as the first argument. The
_rectangle function takes integer arguments that refer to the viewport
screen coordinates. The function _rectangle_w takes four double-precision,
floating-point values referring to window coordinates: upper left x, upper
left y, lower right x, and lower right y. The function _rectangle_wxy takes
two arguments: the addresses of two structures of type _wxycoord, which
contains two double types named wx and wy. The structure is defined in
GRAPH.H. The values are assigned just before _rectangle_wxy is called.

Text, Colors, and Lines - The  grid_shape  function is shown below:

  /* grid_shape from the REALG.C program. */

  void grid_shape( void )
  {
     int i, numc, x1, y1, x2, y2;
     double x, y;
     char txt[80];

  numc = screen.numcolors;
     for( i = 1; i <numc; i++ )
     {
        _settextposition( i, 2 );
        _settextcolor( i );
        sprintf( txt, "Color %d", i );
        _outtext( txt );
     }
     _setcolor( 1 );
     _rectangle_w( _GBORDER, -1.0, -1.0, 1.0, 1.0 );
     _rectangle_w( _GBORDER, -1.02, -1.02, 1.02, 1.02 );

  for( x = -0.9, i = 0; x <0.9; x += 0.1 )
     {
        _setcolor( 2 );
        _moveto_w( x, -1.0 );
        _lineto_w( x, 1.0 );
        _moveto_w( -1.0, x );
        _lineto_w( 1.0, x );

        _setcolor( 3 );
        _moveto_w( x - 0.1, bananas[i++] );
        _lineto_w( x, bananas[i] );
     }
     _moveto_w( 0.9, bananas[i++] );
     _lineto_w( 1.0, bananas[i] );
  }

First, the number of available color indexes is assigned to the  numc
variable and a for loop displays all of the available colors:

  numc = screen.numcolors;
  for( i = 1; i < numc; i++ )
  {
     _settextposition( i, 2 );
     _settextcolor( i );
     sprintf( txt, "Color %d", i );
     _outtext( txt );
  }

The names of the functions are self-explanatory. The advantage of using
_outtext in graphics mode is that, unlike printf, you can control the text
color.

The function names that end with _w work the same as their viewport
equivalents, except you pass double-precision, floating-point values instead
of integers. For example, you pass integers to _lineto but floating-point
values to _lineto_w.

If you're interested in further explorations of graphics, Chapters 14 and 15
introduce Presentation Graphics and fonts, both of which offer even more
graphics options.






Chapter 14  Presentation Graphics
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Presentation Graphics is the name given to a library of chart-generating
functions included with the QuickC package. With these functions your QuickC
programs can display data as a variety of graphs such as pie charts, bar and
column charts, line graphs, and scatter diagrams. Whole columns of
unintelligible numbers can be reduced to a single expressive picture with
Presentation Graphics.

This chapter shows you how to use the Presentation Graphics library in your
QuickC programs. The first section is an introduction to Presentation
Graphics. It explains terminology and describes some of the library's many
capabilities. The middle sections of this chapter list the steps involved in
writing a charting program and illustrate them with short examples.

The concluding portions of the chapter delve more deeply into Presentation
Graphics. Here you'll learn about the Presentation Graphics default data
structures and how to manipulate them. The final section presents a short
reference list of all the functions that comprise the Presentation Graphics
library.

To use Presentation Graphics you need a graphics adapter and a monitor
capable of bit-mapped display─the same equipment mentioned in Chapter 13,
"Graphics." Support is provided for CGA, EGA, VGA, MCGA, Hercules monochrome
graphics, and Olivetti Color Board.


Terminology

Certain terms and phrases pertaining to Presentation Graphics and its
functions are used throughout this chapter. The following description of
Presentation Graphics terminology will help you better understand this
chapter.


Data Series

 Groups or series of data can be graphed on the same chart.

Data that are related by a common idea or purpose constitutes a "series."
For example, the prices of a futures commodity over the course of a year
form a single series of data. The commodity's volume and open interest form
two more series for the same period of time. Presentation Graphics allows
you to plot multiple series on the same graph. In theory only your system's
memory capacity restricts the number of data series that can appear on a
graph. However, there are practical considerations.

Characteristics such as color and pattern help distinguish one series from
an-other. You can more readily differentiate series on a color monitor than
you can on a monochrome monitor. The number of series that can comfortably
appear on the same chart depends on the chart type and the number of
available colors. Only experimentation can tell you what is best for your
system.


Categories

Categories are non-numeric data. A set of categories forms a frame of
reference for the comparisons of numeric data. For example, the months of
the year are categories against which numeric data such as rainfall can be
plotted.

Regional sales provide another example. A chart can show comparisons of a
company's sales in different parts of the country. Each region forms a
category. The sales within each region are numeric data that have meaning
only within the context of a particular category.


Values

Values are numeric data. Sales, stock prices, air temperatures,
populations─all are series of values that can be plotted against categories
or against other values.

Presentation Graphics allows you to overlay different series of value data
on a single graph. For example, average monthly temperatures or monthly
sales of heating oil during different years─or a combination of temperatures
and sales─can be plotted together on the same graph.


Pie Charts

(Please refer to the printed book.)

"Pie charts" are used to represent data by showing the relationship of each
part to the whole. A good example is a company's monthly sales figures. The
sales to the company's various accounts can be represented as slices of the
pie.

Presentation Graphics can display either a standard or an "exploded" pie
chart. The exploded view shows the pie with one or more pieces separated for
emphasis. Presentation Graphics optionally labels each slice of a pie chart
with a percentage figure.


Bar and Column Charts

(Please refer to the printed book.)

As the name implies, a "bar chart" shows data as horizontal bars. Bar charts
show comparisons among items rather than absolute value.

"Column charts"

(Please refer to the printed book.)

are vertical bar charts. Column charts are frequently used to show
variations over a period of time, since they suggest time flow better than a
bar chart
Line Graphs

(Please refer to the printed book.)

"Line graphs" illustrate trends or changes in data. They show how a series
of values varies against some category─for example, average temperatures
throughout a particular year.

Traditionally, line graphs show a collection of data points connected by
lines; hence the name. However, Presentation Graphics can also plot points
that are not connected by lines.


Scatter Diagrams

(Please refer to the printed book.)

A "scatter diagram" is the only type of graph available in Presentation
Graphics that compares values with values. A scatter diagram simply plots
points. One value may correspond to several other values.

Scatter diagrams illustrate the relationship between numeric values in
different groups of data. They graphically show trends and correlations not
easily detected from rows and columns of raw numbers. This explains why
scatter diagrams are a favorite tool of statisticians and forecasters.

They are most useful with relatively large populations of data. Consider,
for example, the relationship between personal income and family size. If
you poll one thousand wage earners for their income and family size, you
have a scatter diagram with one thousand points. If you combine your results
so that you're left with one average income for each family size, you have a
line graph.


Axes

All Presentation Graphics charts except pie charts are displayed with two
perpendicular reference lines called "axes." The vertical or y axis runs
from top to bottom of the chart and is placed against the left side of the
screen. The horizontal or x axis runs from left to right across the bottom
of the screen.

 The chart type determines which axes are used for category and value data.


The x axis is the category axis for column and line charts and the value
axis for bar charts. The y axis is the value axis for column and line charts
and the category axis for bar charts.


Chart Windows

The "chart window" defines that part of the screen on which the chart is
drawn. Normally the window fills the entire screen, but Presentation
Graphics allows you to resize the window for smaller graphs. By redefining
the chart window to different screen locations, you can view separate graphs
together on the same screen.


Data Windows

While the chart window defines the entire graph including axes and labels,
the "data window" defines only the actual plotting area. This is the portion
of the graph to the right of the y axis and above the x axis. You cannot
directly specify the size of the data window. Presentation Graphics
automatically determines its size based on the dimensions of the chart
window.


Chart Styles

Each of the five types of Presentation Graphics charts can appear in two
different chart styles, as described in Table 14.1.

Table 14.1  Presentation Graphics Chart Styles

╓┌───────────┌───────────────────┌───────────────────────────────────────────╖
Chart Type  Chart Style #1      Chart Style #2
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Pie         With percentages    Without percentages
Bar         Side-by-side        Stacked
Column      Side-by-side        Stacked
Line        Points with lines   Points only
Scatter     Points with lines   Points only
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Bar and column charts have only one style when displaying a single series of
data. The styles "side-by-side" and "stacked" are applicable when more than
one series appear on the same chart. The first style arranges the bars or
columns for the different series side by side, showing relative heights or
lengths. The stacked style, illustrated in Figure 14.1 for a column chart,
emphasizes relative sizes between bars or columns.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Legends

 Legends help identify  individual data series.

When displaying more than one data series on a chart, Presentation Graphics
uses different colors, line styles, or patterns to differentiate the series.
Presentation Graphics also can display a "legend" that labels the different
series of a chart. For a pie chart, the legend labels individual slices of
the pie.

The format is similar to the legends found on printed graphs and maps. A
sample of the color and pattern used to graph the series appears next to the
series label. This identifies which set of data the labels belong to. The
"Palettes" section later in this chapter explains how different data series
are identified by color and pattern.


Presentation Graphics Program Structure

QuickC programs that use Presentation Graphics typically follow seven steps:


Step                              Comments
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Include required header files.    Along with other header files your
                                  program may need, you must include the
                                  files GRAPH.H and PGCHART.H.

Set video mode to graphics.       Refer to Chapter 13, "Graphics," for a
                                  discussion
                                  of video modes supported by QuickC. This
                                  chapter explains how to change modes
                                  within a QuickC program.

Initialize Presentation Graphics  Presentation Graphics places charting
chart                             parameters in a data structure. These
environment.                      parameters determine how a graph will
                                  appear on the screen. Collectively they
                                  make up the "chart environment,"
                                  described in the section "Customizing
                                  Presentation Graphics."  Presentation
                                  Graphics sets the environment parameters
                                  to default values. The amount of
                                  initialization that must be done by your
                                  program depends on how extensively it
                                  relies on defaults.

Assemble plot data.               Data can be collected in a variety of
                                  ways:  by calculating it elsewhere in
                                  the program, reading it from files, or
                                  entering it from the keyboard. All plot
                                  data
                                  must be assembled in arrays because the
                                  Presentation Graphics functions locate
                                  them through
                                  pointers.

Call Presentation Graphics        Display your chart.
functions.

Pause while chart is on the       Your program should pause after a chart
screen.                           is displayed. This step allows
                                  sufficient time to read the chart. A
                                  common method is to wait for a keyboard
                                  entry before resuming.

Reset video mode.                 When your program detects the signal to
                                  continue,
                                  it should normally reset the video to
                                  its original
                                  mode.

Once your program successfully compiles, you must link it to the library
modules PGCHART.LIB and GRAPHICS.LIB. Use the Microsoft Overlay Linker

QLINK.EXE or the QCL command-line interface to link programs outside the
QuickC environment. For descriptions of QLINK and QCL, see the Microsoft
QuickC Tool Kit, Chapter 1, "Creating Executable Programs."


Five Example Chart Programs

You'll have a better idea of Presentation Graphics capabilities once you've
seen what it can do. To that end some simple examples are presented in this
section. The sample programs that follow use only five of the 22
Presentation Graphics functions: _pg_initchart, _pg_defaultchart,
_pg_chartpie, _pg_chart, and _pg_chartscatter. Appendix B, "C Library
Guide," and online help document these functions and their arguments. But
the example code is straightforward, and you should be able to follow easily
for now. Each program is commented so that you can recognize the seven steps
given above.


A Sample Data Set

Suppose a grocer wants to graph the sales of orange juice over the course of
a single year. Sales figures are on a monthly basis, so the grocer selects
as category data the months of the year from January through December. The
sales figures are shown below.

╓┌─────────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Month                     Quantity (cases)
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
January                   33
Month                     Quantity (cases)
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
January                   33
February                  27
March                     42
April                     64
May                       106
June                      157
July                      182
August                    217
September                 128
October                   62
November                  43
December                  36
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



Example: Pie Chart

The following program uses Presentation Graphics to display a pie chart for
the grocer's data. The chart, which is shown in Figure 14.2, remains on the
screen until a key is pressed.

The Presentation Graphics functions return values that identify error
conditions. A return value of 0 indicates that the function has completed
its work without error. Refer to the header file PGCHART.H and online help
for descriptions of the nonzero error codes.

  /* PIE.C:  Create sample pie chart.  */

  #include <conio.h>
  #include <string.h>
  #include <graph.h>
  #include <pgchart.h>

  #define MONTHS 12

  typedef enum {FALSE, TRUE} boolean;

  float far value[MONTHS] =
  {
     33.0, 27.0, 42.0, 64.0,106.0,157.0,
    182.0,217.0,128.0, 62.0, 43.0, 36.0
  };
  char far *category[MONTHS] =
  {
    "Jan", "Feb", "Mar", "Apr",
    "May", "Jun", "Jly", "Aug",
    "Sep", "Oct", "Nov", "Dec"
  };
  short far explode[MONTHS] = {0};

  main()
  {
    chartenv env;
    int mode = _VRES16COLOR;

    /* Set highest video mode available */
    while(!_setvideomode( mode ))
       mode--;
    if(mode == _TEXTMONO)
       return( 0 );

    /* Initialize chart library and a default pie chart */
    _pg_initchart();
    _pg_defaultchart( &env, _PG_PIECHART, _PG_PERCENT );

    /* Add titles and some chart options */
    strcpy( env.maintitle.title, "Good Neighbor Grocery" );
    env.maintitle.titlecolor = 6;
    env.maintitle.justify = _PG_RIGHT;
    strcpy( env.subtitle.title, "Orange Juice Sales" );
    env.subtitle.titlecolor = 6;
    env.subtitle.justify = _PG_RIGHT;
    env.chartwindow.border = FALSE;

    /* Parameters for call to _pg_chartpie are:
     *
     *    env        - Environment variable
     *    category   - Category labels
     *    value      - Data to chart
     *    explode    - Separated pieces
     *    MONTHS     - Number of data values
     */
    if(_pg_chartpie( &env, category, value,
                      explode, MONTHS ))
    {
       _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
       _outtext( "Error:  can't draw chart" );
    }
    else
    {
       getch();
       _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
    }
    return( 0 );
  }

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Example: Bar Chart

The code for the PIE.C program needs only minor alterations to produce bar,
column, and line charts for the same data:


  ■   Replace the call to _pg_chartpie with _pg_chart. This function
      produces bar, column, and line charts depending on the value of the
      second argument for _pg_defaultchart.

  ■   Give new arguments to _pg_defaultchart that specify chart type and
      style.

  ■   Assign titles for the x axis and y axis in the structure  env .

  ■   Remove references to array  explode (applicable only to pie charts).


The following example produces the bar chart shown in Figure 14.3.

  /* BAR.C:  Create sample bar chart. */
  #include <conio.h>
  #include <string.h>
  #include <graph.h>
  #include <pgchart.h>
  #define MONTHS 12
  typedef enum {FALSE, TRUE} boolean;
  float far value[MONTHS] =
  {
     33.0, 27.0, 42.0, 64.0,106.0,157.0,
    182.0,217.0,128.0, 62.0, 43.0, 36.0
  };
  char far *category[MONTHS] =
  {
    "Jan", "Feb", "Mar", "Apr",
    "May", "Jun", "Jly", "Aug",
    "Sep", "Oct", "Nov", "Dec"
  };

  main()
  {
    chartenv env;
    int mode = _VRES16COLOR;
    /* Set highest video mode available */
    while(!_setvideomode( mode ))
       mode--;
    if(mode == _TEXTMONO)
       return(0);

    /* Initialize chart library and a default bar chart */
    _pg_initchart();
    _pg_defaultchart( &env, _PG_BARCHART, _PG_PLAINBARS );

    /* Add titles and some chart options */
    strcpy( env.maintitle.title, "Good Neighbor Grocery" );
    env.maintitle.titlecolor = 6;
    env.maintitle.justify = _PG_RIGHT;
    strcpy( env.subtitle.title, "Orange Juice Sales" );
    env.subtitle.titlecolor = 6;
    env.subtitle.justify = _PG_RIGHT;
    strcpy( env.yaxis.axistitle.title, "Months" );
    strcpy( env.xaxis.axistitle.title, "Quantity (cases)" );
    env.chartwindow.border = FALSE;

    /* Parameters for call to _pg_chart are:
     *    env        - Environment variable
     *    category   - Category labels
     *    value      - Data to chart
     *    MONTHS     - Number of data values */
    if(_pg_chart( &env, category, value, MONTHS ))
    {
       _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
       _outtext( "Error:  can't draw chart" );
    }
    else
    {
        getch();
        _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
     }
     return(0);
  }

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Example: Column Chart

The grocer's bar chart becomes a column chart in two easy steps. Simply
specify the new chart type when calling _pg_defaultchart and switch the axis
titles. To produce a column chart for the data, replace the call to
_pg_defaultchart with:

  _pg_defaultchart( &env, _PG_COLUMNCHART, _PG_PLAINBARS );

and replace the last two calls to strcpy with:

  strcpy( env.xaxis.axistitle.title, "Months" );
  strcpy( env.yaxis.axistitle.title, "Quantity (cases)" );

Notice that now the x axis is labeled "Months" and the y axis is labeled
"Quantity (cases)." Figure 14.4 shows the resulting column chart.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Example: Line Chart

Creating an equivalent line chart requires only one change. Use the same
code as for the column chart and replace the call to _pg_defaultchart with:


  _pg_defaultchart( &env, _PG_LINECHART, _PG_POINTANDLINE );

Figure 14.5 shows the line chart for the grocer's data.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Example: Scatter Diagram

Now suppose that the store owner wants to compare the sales of orange juice
to the sales of another product, say hot chocolate. Possible monthly sales
are shown below.

╓┌───────────┌─────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────╖
Months      Orange Juice (cases)  Hot Chocolate (cases)
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
January     33                    37
February    27                    37
Months      Orange Juice (cases)  Hot Chocolate (cases)
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
February    27                    37
March       42                    30
April       64                    19
May         106                   10
June        157                   5
July        182                   2
August      217                   1
September   128                   7
October     62                    15
November    43                    28
December    36                    39
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


The program SCATTER.C displays a scatter diagram that illustrates the
relationship between the sales of orange juice and hot chocolate throughout
a 12-month period.

  /* SCATTER.C:  Create sample scatter diagram. */

  #include <conio.h>
  #include <string.h>
  #include <graph.h>
  #include <pgchart.h>

  #define MONTHS 12
  typedef enum {FALSE, TRUE} boolean;

  /* Orange juice sales */

  float far xvalue[MONTHS] =
  {
     33.0, 27.0, 42.0, 64.0,106.0,157.0,
    182.0,217.0,128.0, 62.0, 43.0, 36.0
  };
  /* Hot chocolate sales */

  float far yvalue[MONTHS] =
  {
    37.0, 37.0, 30.0, 19.0, 10.0,  5.0,
     2.0,  1.0,  7.0, 15.0, 28.0, 39.0
  };

  main()
  {
    chartenv env;
    int mode = _VRES16COLOR;

    /* Set highest video mode available */

    while(!_setvideomode( mode ))
       mode--;
    if(mode == _TEXTMONO)
       return(0);

    /* Initialize chart library and default
     * scatter diagram
     */
    _pg_initchart();
    _pg_defaultchart( &env, _PG_SCATTERCHART,
                      _PG_POINTONLY );

    /* Add titles and some chart options */

    strcpy( env.maintitle.title, "Good Neighbor Grocery" );
    env.maintitle.titlecolor = 6;
    env.maintitle.justify = _PG_RIGHT;
    strcpy( env.subtitle.title,
            "Orange Juice vs Hot Chocolate" );
    env.subtitle.titlecolor = 6;
    env.subtitle.justify = _PG_RIGHT;
    env.yaxis.grid = TRUE;
    strcpy( env.xaxis.axistitle.title,
            "Orange Juice Sales" );
    strcpy( env.yaxis.axistitle.title,
            "Hot Chocolate Sales" );
    env.chartwindow.border = FALSE;

    /* Parameters for call to _pg_chartscatter are:
     *    env        - Environment variable
     *    xvalue     - X-axis data
     *    yvalue     - Y-axis data
     *    MONTHS     - Number of data values
     */

    if(_pg_chartscatter( &env, xvalue,
                          yvalue, MONTHS ))
    {
       _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
       _outtext( "Error:  can't draw chart" );
    }
    else
    {
       getch();
       _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
    }
    return(0);
  }

Figure 14.6 shows the results of SCATTER.C. Notice that the scatter points
form a slightly curved line, indicating a correlation exists between the
sales of the two products. The store owner can conclude from the scatter
diagram that the demand for orange juice is roughly inverse to the demand
for hot chocolate.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)


Palettes

Presentation Graphics displays each data series in a way that makes it
discernible from other series. It does this by defining a separate "palette"
for every data series in a chart. Palettes consist of entries that determine
color, line style, fill pattern, and plot character used to graph the
series.

Presentation Graphics maintains its palettes as an array of structures. The
header file PGCHART.H defines the palette structures as:

  /* Typedef for pattern bitmap */
  typedef unsigned char fillmap[8];

  /* Typedef for palette entry definition */
  typedef struct
  {
    unsigned short color;
    unsigned short style;
    fillmap        fill;
    char           plotchar;
  } paletteentry;

  /* Typedef for palette definition */
  typedef paletteentry palettetype[_PG_PALETTELEN];

It's important not to confuse the Presentation Graphics palettes with the
adapter display palettes, which are register values kept by the video
controller. The function _selectpalette described in Chapter 13, "Graphics,"
sets the display palette. It does not define the data series palettes used
by Presentation Graphics.


Color Pool

Presentation Graphics organizes all chart colors into a "color pool." The
color pool consists of pixel values valid for the current graphics mode.
(Refer to Chapter 13, "Graphics," or the Glossary for a definition of pixel
values.) Palette structures contain color codes that refer to the color
pool. A palette's color code determines the color used to graph the data
series associated with the palette. Colors of labels, titles, legends, and
axes are also determined by the contents of the color pool.

The first element of the color pool is always 0, which is the pixel value
for the screen background color. The second element is always the highest
pixel value available for the graphics mode. The remaining elements are
repeating sequences of available pixel values, beginning with 1.

As shown above, the first member of a palette data structure is:

  unsigned short color;

This variable defines the color code for the data series associated with the
palette. The color code is neither a display attribute nor a pixel value. It
is an index number of the color pool.

An example should make this clearer. A graphics mode of _MRES4COLOR  (320 x
200 graphics) provides four colors for display. Pixel values from 0 to 3
determine the possible pixel colors─say, black, green, red, and brown
respectively. In this case the first 8 elements of the color pool would be
the following:

╓┌─────────────────┌────────────┌────────────────────────────────────────────╖
Color Pool Index  Pixel Value  Color
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
0                 0            Black
1                 3            Brown
2                 1            Green
3                 2            Red
4                 3            Brown
5                 1            Green
6                 2            Red
7                 3            Brown
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


Notice that the sequence of available foreground colors repeats from the
third element. The first data series in this case would be plotted in brown,
the second series in green, the third series in red, the fourth series again
in brown, and so forth.

Video adapters such as the EGA or the Hercules InColor(tm) Card allow 16
on-screen colors. This allows Presentation Graphics to graph more series
without duplicating colors.


Style Pool

Presentation Graphics matches the color pool with a collection of different
line styles called the "style pool." Entries in the style pool define the
appearance of lines such as axes and grids. Lines can be solid, dotted,
dashed, or of some combination.

The second member of a palette structure defines a style code as:

  unsigned short style;

Each palette contains a style code that refers to an entry in the style pool
in the same way that it contains a color code that refers to an entry in the
color pool. The style code value in a palette is applicable only to line
graphs and lined scatter diagrams. The style code determines the appearance
of the lines drawn between points.

The palette's style code adds further variety to the lines of a multiseries
graph. It is most useful when the number of lines in a chart exceeds the
number of available colors. For example, a graph of nine different data
series must repeat colors if only three foreground colors are available for
display. However, the style code for each color repetition will be
different, ensuring that none of the lines looks the same.


Pattern Pool

Presentation Graphics also maintains a pool of "fill patterns." Patterns
determine the fill design for column, bar, and pie charts. The third member
of a palette structure holds the palette's fill pattern. The pattern member
is an array:

  fillmap fill;

where  fillmap  is type-defined as:

  typedef unsigned char fillmap[8];

Each fill pattern array holds an 8 x 8 bit map that defines the fill pattern
for the data series associated with the palette. Table 14.2 shows how a fill
pattern of diagonal stripes is created with the  fill  pattern array.

The bit map below corresponds to screen pixels. Each of the 8 layers of the
map are binary numbers, where a solid circle signifies 1 and an open circle
signifies 0. Thus the first layer of the map─that is, the first
byte─represents the binary number 10011001, which is the decimal number 153.


Table 14.2  Fill Patterns

╓┌──────────────────────────────────┌────────────────────────────────────────╖
Bit Map                            Value in fill
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼              fill[0] = 153
☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙              fill[1] = 204
∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙              fill[2] = 102
Bit Map                            Value in fill
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙              fill[2] = 102
∙  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼              fill[3] =   51
☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼              fill[4] = 153
☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙              fill[5] = 204
∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙              fill[6] = 102
∙  ∙  ☼  ☼  ∙  ∙  ☼  ☼              fill[7] =   51
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


If you wish to create the above pattern for your chart's first data series,
you must reset the  fill  array for the first palette structure. You can do
this in five steps:


  1.  Declare a structure of type palettetype to hold the palette
      parameters.

  2.  Call _pg_initchart to initialize the palettes with default values.

  3.  Call the Presentation Graphics function _pg_getpalette to retrieve a
      copy of the current palette data.

  4.  Assign the values given in Table 14.2 to the array  fill  for the
      first palette.

  5.  Call the Presentation Graphics function _pg_setpalette to load the
      modified palette values.


The following lines of code demonstrate these five steps:

  /* Declare a structure array for palette data. */

  palettetype palette_struct;
  .
  .
  .
  /* Initialize chart library */

  _pg_initchart();
  .
  .
  .
  /* Copy current palette data into palette_struct */

  _pg_getpalette( palette_struct );

  /* Reinitialize fill pattern for first palette using
     values in Table 14.2 */

  palette_struct[1].fill[0] = 153;
  palette_struct[1].fill[1] = 204;
  palette_struct[1].fill[2] = 102;
  palette_struct[1].fill[3] =  51;
  palette_struct[1].fill[4] = 153;
  palette_struct[1].fill[5] = 204;
  palette_struct[1].fill[6] = 102;
  palette_struct[1].fill[7] =  51;

  /* Load new palette data */

  _pg_setpalette( palette_struct );

Now when you display your bar or column chart the first series appears
filled with the striped pattern shown in Table 14.2.

Pie charts are a bit different. The idea of multiple series does not really
apply to them. Instead, palette structures correspond to individual slices.
If the number of slices exceeds the constant _PG_PALETTELEN, palettes are
recycled. Thus the first palette dictates not only the appearance of the
first slice, but of slice number _PG_PALETTELEN as well. The second palette
determines the appearance of both the second slice and of slice number
_PG_PALETTELEN + 1, and so forth.


Character Pool

The last member of a palette structure is an index number in a pool of ASCII
characters:

  char plotchar;

The member plotchar  represents plot points on line graphs and scatter
diagrams. Each palette uses a different character to distinguish plot points
between data series.


Customizing Presentation Graphics

Presentation Graphics is built for flexibility. You can use its system of
default values to produce professional-looking charts with a minimum of
programming effort. Or you can fine-tune the appearance of your charts by
overriding default values and initializing variables explicitly in your
program. The following section shows you how.


Chart Environment

The header file PGCHART.H defines a structure type chartenv. This structure
type organizes the set of variables known as the "chart environment." The
chart environment describes everything about a chart except the plots
themselves. It's the blank page, in other words, ready for plotting data.
The environment determines the appearance of text, axes, grid lines, and
legends.

Calling the _pg_defaultchart function fills the chart environment with
default values. Presentation Graphics allows you to reset any variable in
the environment before displaying a chart. Except for adjusting the palette
values, all initialization of data is done through a chartenv type
structure.

The sample chart programs provided earlier illustrate how to adjust
variables in the chart environment. These programs create a structure  env
of the type chartenv. The structure  env  contains the chart environment
variables, initialized by the call to _pg_defaultchart. Environment
variables such as the chart title are then given specific values, as in:

  strcpy( env.maintitle.title, "Good Neighbor Grocery" );

Environment variables that determine colors and line styles deserve special
mention. The chart environment holds several such variables, which can be
recognized by their names. For example, the variable titlecolor specifies
the color of title text. Similarly, the variable gridstyle specifies the
line style used to draw the chart grid.

 Colors and line styles in the chart environment are taken from palettes.

These variables are index numbers, but do not refer directly to the color
pool or line pool. They correspond instead to palette numbers. If you set
titlecolor to 2, Presentation Graphics uses the color code in the second
palette to determine the title's color. Thus the title in this case would be
the same color as the chart's second data series. If you change the color
code in the palette, you'll also change the title's color.

A structure of type chartenv consists of four secondary structures. The file
PGCHART.H type-defines the secondary structures as:

  titletype
  axistype
  windowtype
  legendtype

The remainder of this section describes the chart environment of
Presentation Graphics. It first examines structures of the four secondary
types that make up the chart environment structure. The section concludes
with a description of the chartenv structure type. Each discussion begins
with a brief explanation of the structure's purpose, followed by a listing
of the structure type definition as it appears in the PGCHART.H file. All
symbolic constants are defined in the file PGCHART.H.


titletype

Structures of type titletype determine text, color, and placement of titles
appearing in the graph. The PGCHART.H file defines the structure type as:

  typedef struct
  {
    char     title[_PG_TITLELEN];  /* Title text */
    short    titlecolor;           /* Palette color
                                      for title text */
    short    justify;              /* _PG_LEFT, _PG_CENTER,
                                      _PG_RIGHT */
  } titletype;

The following list describes titletype members:

Member Variable                   Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
justify                           An integer specifying how the title is
                                  justified
                                  within the chart window. The symbolic
                                  constants
                                  defined in the PGCHART.H file for this
                                  variable are _PG_LEFT, _PG_CENTER, and
                                  _PG_RIGHT.

titlecolor                        An integer between 1 and _PG_PALETTELEN
                                  that specifies a title's color. The
                                  default value for titlecolor is 1.

title[_PG_TITLELEN]               A character array containing title text.
                                  For example, if  env  is a structure of
                                  type chartenv, then  env.maintitle.title
                                  holds the character string used for the
                                  main title of the chart. Similarly,
                                  env.xaxis.axistitle.title  contains the
                                  axis title. The number of characters in
                                  a title must be one less than
                                  _PG_TITLELEN to allow room for a null
                                  terminator.


axistype

Structures of type axistype contain variables for the axes such as color,
scale, grid style, and tick marks. The PGCHART.H file defines the structure
type as:

  typedef struct
  {
    short       grid;          /* TRUE=grid lines drawn;
                                  FALSE=no lines */
    short       gridstyle;     /* Style bytes for grid */
    titletype   axistitle;     /* Title definition
                                  for axis */
    short       axiscolor;     /* Color for axis */
    short       labeled;       /* TRUE=ticks marks and titles
                                  drawn */
    short       rangetype;     /* _PG_LINEARAXIS,
                                  _PG_LOGAXIS */
    float       logbase;       /* Base used if log axis */
    short       autoscale;     /* TRUE=next 7 values
                                  calculated by system */
    float       scalemin;      /* Minimum value of scale */
    float       scalemax;      /* Maximum value of scale */
    float       scalefactor;   /* Scale factor for data on
                                  this axis */
    titletype   scaletitle;    /* Title definition for
                                  scaling factor */
    float       ticinterval;   /* Distance between tick marks
                                  (world coord.) */
    short       ticformat;     /* _PG_EXPFORMAT or
                                  _PG_DECFORMAT */
    short       ticdecimals;   /* Number of decimals for tick
                                  labels (max=9) */
  } axistype;

The following list describes axistype member variables:

Member Variable                   Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
autoscale                         A boolean variable. If autoscale is TRUE,
                                  Presentation Graphics automatically
                                  determines values
                                  for  scalefactor, scalemax, scalemin,
                                  scaletitle, ticdecimals, ticformat, and
                                  ticinterval (see below).
                                  If autoscale equals FALSE, these seven
                                  variables must be specified in your
                                  program.

axiscolor                         An integer between 1 and _PG_PALETTELEN
                                  that specifies the color used for the
                                  axis and parallel grid lines. (See
                                  description for gridstyle above.) Note
                                  that this member does not determine the
                                  color of the axis title. That selection
                                  is made through the structure
                                  axistitle.

axistitle                         A titletype structure that defines the
                                  title of the associated axis. The title
                                  of the y axis displays vertically to the
                                  left of the y axis, and the title of the
                                  x axis displays horizontally below the x
                                  axis.

grid                              A boolean true/false value that
                                  determines whether grid lines are drawn
                                  for the associated axis. Grid lines span
                                  the data window perpendicular to the
                                  axis.

gridstyle                         An integer between 1 and _PG_PALETTELEN
                                  that specifies the grid's line style.
                                  Lines can be solid, dashed, dotted, or
                                  some combination. The default value for
                                  gridstyle is 1. Note that the color of
                                  the parallel axis determines the color
                                  of the grid lines. Thus the x axis grid
                                  is the same color as the y axis, and the
                                  y axis grid is the same color as the x
                                  axis.

labeled                           A boolean value that determines whether
                                  tick marks and labels are drawn on the
                                  axis. Axis labels should not be confused
                                  with axis titles. Axis labels are
                                  numbers or descriptions such as "23.2"
                                  or "January" attached to each tick mark.

logbase                           If rangetype is logarithmic, the logbase
                                  variable determines the log base used to
                                  scale the axis. Default value is 10.

rangetype                         An integer that determines whether the
                                  scale of the axis is linear or
                                  logarithmic. The rangetype variable
                                  applies only to value data.

                                  Specify a linear scale with the
                                  _PG_LINEARAXIS constant. A linear scale
                                  is best when the difference between axis
                                  minimum and maximum is relatively small.
                                  For example, a linear axis range 0-10
                                  results in 10 tick marks evenly spaced
                                  along the axis.

                                  Use _PG_LOGAXIS to specify a logarithmic
                                  rangetype. Logarithmic scales are useful
                                  when the range is very large or when the
                                  data varies exponentially. Line graphs
                                  of exponentially varying data can be
                                  made straight with a logarithmic
                                  rangetype.

scalefactor                       All numeric data are scaled by dividing
                                  each value by scalefactor. For
                                  relatively small values, the variable
                                  scalefactor should be 1, which is the
                                  default.
                                  But data with large values should be
                                  scaled by an
                                  appropriate factor. For example, data in
                                  the range
                                  2 million-20 million should be plotted
                                  with scale-min set to 2, scalemax set to
                                  20, and scalefactor set to 1 million.

                                  If autoscale is set to TRUE,
                                  Presentation Graphics automatically
                                  determines a suitable value for
                                  scalefactor based on the range of data
                                  to be plotted. Presentation Graphics
                                  selects only values that are
                                  a factor of 1 thousand─that is, values
                                  such as 1
                                  thousand, 1 million, or 1 billion. It
                                  then labels the scaletitle appropriately
                                  (see below). If you desire some other
                                  value for scaling, you must set
                                  autoscale to FALSE and set scalefactor
                                  to the desired scaling value.

scalemax                          Highest value represented by the axis.

scalemin                          Lowest value represented by the axis.

scaletitle                        A titletype structure defining a string
                                  of text that
                                  describes the value of scalefactor. If
                                  autoscale is TRUE, Presentation Graphics
                                  automatically writes
                                  a scale description to scaletitle. If
                                  autoscale equals FALSE and scalefactor
                                  is 1, scaletitle.title should be blank.
                                  Otherwise your program should copy an
                                  appropriate scale description to
                                  scaletitle.title, such as "( x 1000),"
                                  "(in millions of units)," "times 10
                                  thousand dollars," etc.

                                  For the y axis, the scaletitle text
                                  displays vertically between the axis
                                  title and the y axis. For the x axis,
                                  the scale title appears below the x axis
                                  title.

ticdecimals                       Number of digits to display after the
                                  decimal point in tick labels. Maximum
                                  value is 9. Note that this variable
                                  applies only to axes with value data. It
                                  is
                                  ignored for the category axis.

ticformat                         An integer that determines the format of
                                  the labels assigned to each tick mark.
                                  Set ticformat to _PG_EXPFORMAT for
                                  exponential format or set it to
                                  _PG_DECFORMAT for decimal. The default
                                  is _PG_DECFORMAT. Note that this
                                  variable applies only to axes with value
                                  data. It is ignored for the category
                                  axis.

ticinterval                       Sets interval between tick marks on the
                                  axis. The tick interval is measured in
                                  the same units as the numeric data
                                  associated with the axis. For example,
                                  if 2 sequential tick marks correspond to
                                  the values 20 and 25, the tick interval
                                  between them is 5. Note that this
                                  variable applies only to axes with value
                                  data. It is ignored for the category
                                  axis.


windowtype

Structures of type windowtype contain sizes, locations, and color codes for
the three windows produced by Presentation Graphics: the chart window, the
data window, and the legend. Refer to the "Terminology" section at the
beginning of this chapter for definitions of these terms. Windows are
located on the screen relative to the screen's logical origin. By changing
the logical origin, you can display charts that are partly or completely off
the screen. The PGCHART.H file defines windowtype as:

  typedef struct
  {
    short  x1;            /* Left edge of window in
                             pixels */
    short  y1;            /* Top edge of window in
                             pixels */
    short  x2;            /* Right edge of window in
                             pixels */
    short  y2;            /* Bottom edge of window in
                             pixels */
    short  border;        /* TRUE for border, FALSE
                             otherwise */
    short  background;    /* Internal palette color for
                             window background */
    short  borderstyle;   /* Style bytes for window
                             border */
    short  bordercolor;   /* Internal palette color for
                             window border */
  } windowtype;

The following list describes windowtype member variables:

Member Variable                   Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
x1, y1, x2, y2                    Window coordinates in pixels. The
                                  ordered pair (x1, y1) specifies the
                                  coordinate of the upper left corner of
                                  the window. The ordered pair (x2, y2)
                                  specifies the coordinate of the lower
                                  right corner.

                                  The reference point for the coordinates
                                  depends on the type of window. The chart
                                  window is located relative to the
                                  logical origin, usually the upper left
                                  corner of the screen. The data and
                                  legend windows are located relative to
                                  the upper left corner of the chart
                                  window. This allows you to change the
                                  position of the chart window without
                                  having to redefine coordinates for the
                                  other two windows.

background                        An integer between 1 and _PG_PALETTELEN
                                  that specifies the window's background
                                  color. The default value for background
                                  is 1.

border                            A boolean variable that determines
                                  whether a border frame is drawn around a
                                  window.

bordercolor                       An integer between 1 and _PG_PALETTELEN
                                  that specifies the color of the window's
                                  border frame. The default value is 1.

borderstyle                       An integer between 1 and _PG_PALETTELEN
                                  that specifies the line style of the
                                  window's border frame. The default value
                                  is 1.


legendtype

Structures of type legendtype contain size, location, and colors of the
chart legend. The PGCHART.H file defines the structure type as:

  typedef struct
  {
    short      legend;        /* TRUE=draw legend;
                                 FALSE=no legend */
    short      place;         /* _PG_RIGHT, _PG_BOTTOM,
                                 _PG_OVERLAY */
    short      textcolor;     /* Palette color for text*/
    short      autosize;      /* TRUE=system calculates
                                 legend size */
    windowtypelegendwindow;  /* Window definition for
                                 legend */
  } legendtype;

The following list describes legendtype member variables:

Member Variable                   Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
autosize                          A boolean true/false variable that
                                  determines whether Presentation Graphics
                                  is to automatically calculate the size
                                  of the legend. If autosize equals FALSE,
                                  the legend window must be specified in
                                  the legendwindow structure (see below).

legend                            A boolean true/false variable that
                                  determines whether a legend is to appear
                                  on the chart. The legend variable is
                                  ignored by functions that graph
                                  single-series charts.

legendwindow                      A windowtype structure that defines
                                  coordinates, background color, and
                                  border frame for the legend. Coordinates
                                  given in legendwindow are ignored if
                                  autosize is TRUE.

place                             An integer that specifies the location
                                  of the legend relative to the data
                                  window. Setting the variable place equal
                                  to the constant _PG_RIGHT positions the
                                  legend to the right of the data window.
                                  Setting place to _PG_BOTTOM positions
                                  the legend below the data window.
                                  Setting place to _PG_OVERLAY positions
                                  the legend within the data window.

                                  These settings influence the size of the
                                  data
                                  window. If place is equal to _PG_BOTTOM
                                  or _PG_RIGHT, Presentation Graphics
                                  automatically sizes the data window to
                                  accommodate the legend.
                                  If place equals _PG_OVERLAY the data
                                  window is sized without regard to the
                                  legend.

textcolor                         An integer between 1 and _PG_PALETTELEN
                                  that specifies the color of text within
                                  the legend window.


chartenv

A structure of type chartenv defines the chart environment. The following
code shows that a chartenv type structure consists almost entirely of
structures of the four types discussed above.

The PGCHART.H file defines the chartenv structure type as:

  typedef struct
  {
    short       charttype;     /* Chart type */
    short       chartstyle;    /* Chart style */
    windowtype  chartwindow;   /* Window definition for
                                  overall chart */
    windowtype  datawindow;    /* Window definition for data
                                  part of chart */
    titletype   maintitle;     /* Main chart title */
    titletype   subtitle;      /* Chart subtitle */
    axistype    xaxis;         /* Definition for x axis */
    axistype    yaxis;         /* Definition for y axis */
    legendtype  legend;        /* Definition for legend */
  } chartenv;

 Initialize the chart  environment with the _pg_defaultchart function.

Note that all the data in a chartenv type structure is initialized by
calling the _pg_defaultchart function. If your program does not call
_pg_defaultchart, it must explicitly define every variable in the chart
environment─a tedious and unnecessary procedure. The recommended method for
adjusting the appearance of your chart is to initialize variables for the
proper chart type by calling the _pg_defaultchart function, and then
reassign selected environment variables such as titles.

The following list describes chartenv member variables:

Member Variable                   Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
chartstyle                        An integer that determines the style of
                                  the chart
                                  (see Table 14.1). Legal values for
                                  chartstyle
                                  are _PG_PERCENT and _PG_NOPERCENT
                                  for pie charts; _PG_STACKEDBARS and
                                  _PG_PLAINBARS for bar and column charts;
                                  and _PG_POINTANDLINE and _PG_POINTONLY
                                  for line graphs and scatter diagrams.
                                  This variable corresponds to the third
                                  argument for the _pg_defaultchart
                                  function.

charttype                         An integer that determines the type of
                                  chart displayed. The value of the
                                  variable charttype is  _PG_BARCHART,
                                  _PG_COLUMNCHART, _PG_LINECHART,
                                  _PG_SCATTERCHART, or _PG_PIECHART. This
                                  variable corresponds to the second
                                  argument for the _pg_defaultchart
                                  function.

chartwindow                       A windowtype structure that defines the
                                  appearance of the chart window.

datawindow                        A windowtype structure that defines the
                                  appearance of the data window.

legend                            A legendtype structure that defines the
                                  appearance of the legend window.

maintitle                         A titletype structure that defines the
                                  appearance of the main title of the
                                  chart.

subtitle                          A titletype structure that defines the
                                  appearance of the chart's subtitle.

xaxis                             An axistype structure that defines the
                                  appearance of the x axis. (This variable
                                  is not applicable for pie charts.)

yaxis                             An axistype structure that defines the
                                  appearance of the y axis. (This variable
                                  is not applicable for pie charts.)


An Overview of the Presentation Graphics Functions

The chapter concludes with a few words about the 22 functions that make up
the Presentation Graphics library. They are listed in Table 14.3 for
convenient reference. Refer to Appendix B, "C Library Guide," or online help
for a description of the functions and their arguments.

Table 14.3  Presentation Graphics Functions

╓┌────────────────────┌─────────────────────┌────────────────────────────────╖
Primary Functions    Secondary Functions
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pg_initchart        _pg_hlabelchart       _pg_setpalette
_pg_defaultchart     _pg_vlabelchart       _pg_resetpalette
_pg_chart            _pg_analyzechart      _pg_getstyleset
_pg_chartms          _pg_analyzechartms    _pg_setstyleset
_pg_chartscatter     _pg_analyzescatter    _pg_resetstyleset
_pg_chartscatterms   _pg_analyzescatterms  _pg_getchardef
Primary Functions    Secondary Functions
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pg_chartscatterms   _pg_analyzescatterms  _pg_getchardef
_pg_chartpie         _pg_analyzepie        _pg_setchardef
                     _pg_getpalette
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────


In most cases you need only be concerned with seven of the routines, called
the "primary functions." These functions initialize variables and display
the selected chart types. As demonstrated in example programs earlier in
this chapter, you can create very acceptable charts with programs that call
only three of the Presentation Graphics primary functions.

The 15 secondary functions of Presentation Graphics do not directly display
charts. Most of them retrieve or set data in the Presentation Graphics chart
environment.

Of special interest among the secondary functions are the "analysis
functions," identified by the prefix _pg_analyze in their function names.
These five functions calculate default values that pertain to a given chart
type and data set. Calling an analysis function has the same effect as
calling a corresponding primary function, except that the chart is not
displayed. This allows you to pass on to the library the burden of
calculating values. You can then make modifications  to the resulting values
and call a primary routine to display the chart.

Use the _pg_hlabelchart and _pg_vlabelchart functions to display text on
your chart that is not part of a title or axis label. These functions enable
you to attach notes or other messages to your chart. You may also find them
useful for labeling separate lines of a multiseries line graph.






Chapter 15  Fonts
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Preceding chapters have discussed how to write QuickC programs that generate
graphics and display charts. QuickC has yet another capability when it comes
to graphics: fonted text. Your programs can display various styles and sizes
of text in any graphics image or chart.

This chapter tells how. It assumes you have already read Chapter 13,
"Graphics." You should understand such terms as "graphics mode" and "text
mode," and be familiar with the functions _setvideomode and _moveto. Other
than that, there's very little to it. Fonts are simple to learn and even
simpler to use, yet they can add to your graphics a final touch of polish.


QuickC Fonts

A "font" is a collection of stylized text characters. Each font consists of
several type sizes and a typeface.

"Typeface" is a printer's term that refers to the style of the displayed
text─ Courier, for example, or Roman. The list on the following page shows
six of the typefaces available with QuickC's font library.

"Type size" measures the screen area occupied by individual characters. This
term is also borrowed from the printer's lexicon, but for our purposes is
specified in units of screen pixels. For example, "Courier 16 x 9" denotes
text of Courier typeface, with each character occupying a screen area of 16
vertical pixels by 9 horizontal pixels.

QuickC's font functions use two methods to create fonts. The first technique
generates Courier, Helv, and Tms Rmn fonts through a "bit-mapping" (or
"raster-mapping") technique. Bit-mapping defines character images with
binary data. Each bit in the map corresponds to a screen pixel. If a bit is
1, its associated pixel is set to the current screen color. A bit value of 0
clears the pixel. Video adapters use this same technique to display text in
graphics mode.

The second method creates the remaining three type styles─Modern, Script,
and Roman─as "vector-mapped" fonts. Vector-mapping represents each character
in terms of lines and arcs. In a literal sense vector-mapped characters are
drawn on the screen. You might think of bit-mapped characters as being
stenciled.

Each method has advantages and disadvantages. Bit-mapped characters are more
completely formed since the pixel mapping is predetermined. However, they
cannot be scaled. Vector-mapped text can be scaled to any size, but the
characters tend to lack the solid appearance of the bit-mapped characters.

(This figure may be found in the printed book.)

Table 15.1 lists available sizes for each font. Notice that the bit-mapped
fonts come in preset sizes as measured in pixels. The exact size of any
fonted character depends on screen resolution and display type.

Table 15.1  Typefaces and Type Sizes in the QuickC Library

╓┌─────────┌────────┌─────────────────────────┌──────────────────────────────╖
Typeface  Mapping  Size (in pixels)          Spacing
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Courier   Bit      13 x 8, 16 x 9,           Fixed
                   20 x 12

Helv      Bit      13 x 5, 16 x 7, 20 x 8,   Fixed
                   13 x 15, 16 x 6, 19 x 8

Tms Rmn   Bit      10 x 5, 12 x 6, 15 x 8,   Fixed
                   16 x 9, 20 x 12, 26 x 16
Typeface  Mapping  Size (in pixels)          Spacing
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
                   16 x 9, 20 x 12, 26 x 16

Modern    Vector   Scaled                    Proportional

Script    Vector   Scaled                    Proportional

Roman     Vector   Scaled                    Proportional

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



QuickC's font routines can display characters 32-255, including most
extended characters (ASCII 128-255). A few extended characters cannot be
displayed; these are represented as either an underscore (_) or period (.)
character.


Using QuickC's Font Library

Data for both bit-mapped and vector-mapped fonts reside in files on disk. A
.FON extension identifies the files. The names of the .FON files indicate
their content. For example, the files MODERN.FON, ROMAN.FON, and SCRIPT.FON
hold data for the three vector-mapped fonts.

 You can use Microsoft Windows .FON files.

QuickC .FON files are identical to the .FON files used in the Microsoft
Windows operating environment. If you have access to Windows you can use any
of its .FON files with QuickC's font functions. Windows .FON files are also
available for purchase separately. In addition, several vendors offer
software that can create or modify .FON files, allowing you to design your
own fonts.

Your programs should follow these three steps to display fonted text:


  1.  Register fonts

  2.  Set the current font from the register

  3.  Display text using the current font


The following sections describe each of the three steps in detail. An
example program later in the chapter demonstrates the steps.


Register Fonts

The fonts you plan to use must first be organized into a list in memory, a
process called "registering." The register list contains information about
the available .FON files. Register fonts by calling the function
_registerfonts. This function reads header information from specified .FON
files. It builds a list of file information but does not read mapping data
from the files.

The GRAPH.H file prototypes the _registerfonts function as:

  short far _registerfonts( unsigned char far * );

The argument points to a string containing a file name. The file name is the
name of the .FON file for the desired font. The file name can include wild
cards, allowing you to register several fonts with one call to
_registerfonts.

If it successfully reads one or more .FON files, _registerfonts returns the
number of fonts registered. If the function fails, it returns a negative
error code. Refer to Appendix B, "C Library Guide," or to online help for a
description of error codes.


Set Current Font

Call the function _setfont to select a current font. This function checks to
see if the requested font is registered, then reads the mapping data from
the appropriate .FON file. A font must be registered and marked current
before your program can display text of that font.

The GRAPH.H file prototypes _setfonts as

  short far _setfont( unsigned char far * );

The function's argument is a pointer to a character string. The string
consists of letter codes that describe the desired font, as outlined below:


Option Code                       Meaning
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
b                                 Select the best fit from the registered
                                  fonts. This option instructs _setfont to
                                  accept the closest-fitting font if a
                                  font of the specified size is not
                                  registered.

                                  If at least one font is registered, the
                                  b option always sets a current font. If
                                  you do not specify the b option and an
                                  exact matching font is not registered,
                                  _setfont will fail. In this case, any
                                  existing current font remains current.
                                  Refer to online help for a description
                                  of error codes returned by _setfont.

                                  The _setfont function uses four criteria
                                  for selecting the best fit. In
                                  descending order of precedence the four
                                  criteria are pixel height, typeface,
                                  pixel width, and spacing (fixed or
                                  proportional). If you request a
                                  vector-mapped font,_setfont sizes the
                                  font to correspond with the specified
                                  pixel height and width. If you request a
                                  raster-mapped (bit-mapped) font,
                                  _setfont chooses the closest available
                                  size. If the requested type size for a
                                  raster-mapped font fits exactly between
                                  two registered fonts, the smaller size
                                  takes precedence.

f                                 Select only a fixed-spaced font.

hy                                Character height, where y is the height
                                  in pixels.

nx                                Select font number x, where x is less
                                  than or equal to the value returned by
                                  _registerfonts. For example, the option
                                  n3 makes the third registered font
                                  current, assuming that three or more
                                  fonts are registered.

p                                 Select only a proportional-spaced font.

r                                 Select only a raster-mapped (bit-mapped)
                                  font.

t`fontname'                       Typeface of the font in single quotes.
                                  The fontname string is one of the
                                  following:

                                  courier     modern

                                  helv        script

                                  tms rmn     roman

                                  Notice the space in "tms rmn."
                                  Additional font files use other names
                                  for fontname. Refer to the vendor's
                                  documentation for these names.

v                                 Select only a vector-mapped font.

wx                                Character width, where x is the width in
                                  pixels.

Option codes are not case-sensitive and can be listed in any order. You can
separate codes with spaces or any other character that is not a valid option
code. The _setfont function ignores all invalid codes.

The _setfont function updates a data area with parameters of the current
font. The data area is in the form of a structure, defined in the GRAPH.H
file as

  struct _fontinfo
  {
     int     type;          /* set = vector,clear = bit map */
     int     ascent;        /* pix dist from top to base */
     int     pixwidth;      /* character width in pixels */
     int     pixheight;     /* character height in pixels */
     int     avgwidth;      /* average character width */
     char    filename[81];  /* file name including path */
     char    faceName[32];  /* font name */
  };

If you wish to retrieve the parameters of the current font, call the
function _getfontinfo. Refer to Appendix B, "C Library Guide," or online
help for a description of this function.


Display Text

The last step consists of two parts. First, select a screen position for the
text with the graphics function _moveto. Then display fonted text at that
position with the function _outgtext. The _moveto function takes pixel
coordinates as arguments. The coordinates locate the top left of the first
character in the text string.


An Example Program

QuickC's font functions shine when used in conjunction with your other
graphics functions. They allow you to dress up any image on the screen. Yet
they can make a visual impression when used by themselves, as an example
will show.

The program SAMPLER.C displays sample text in all the available fonts, then
exits when a key is pressed. Make sure the .FON files are in the current
directory before running the program.

  /* SAMPLER.C: Display sample text in various fonts. */

  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <conio.h>
  #include <stdlib.h>
  #include <graph.h>
  #include <string.h>

  #define NFONTS 6

  main()

  {
    static unsigned char *text[2*NFONTS] =
    {
        "COURIER",        "courier",
        "HELV",           "helv",
        "TMS RMN",        "tms rmn",
        "MODERN",         "modern",
        "SCRIPT",         "script",
        "ROMAN",          "roman"
    };
    static unsigned char *face[NFONTS] =
    {
        "t'courier'",
        "t'helv'",
        "t'tms rmn'",
        "t'modern'",
        "t'script'",
        "t'roman'"
    };
    static unsigned char list[20];
    struct videoconfig vc;
    int mode = _VRES16COLOR;
    register i;

    /*  Read header info from all .FON files in
     *  current directory   */

    if(_registerfonts( "*.FON" )<0 )
    {
       _outtext("Error:  can't register fonts");
       exit( 0 );
    }

    /*   Set highest available video mode */

    while( !_setvideomode( mode ) )
       mode--;
    if( mode == _TEXTMONO )
       exit ( 0 );

    /*   Copy video configuration into structure vc */

    _getvideoconfig( &vc );

    /*   Display six lines of sample text */

    for( i = 0; i<NFONTS; i++ )
    {
       strcpy( list, face[i] );
       strcat( list, "h30w24b" );

       if( !_setfont( list ) )
       {
           _setcolor( i + 1 );
           _moveto( 0, (i * vc.numypixels) / NFONTS );
           _outgtext( text[i * 2] );
           _moveto( vc.numxpixels / 2,
                       (i * vc.numypixels) / NFONTS );
           _outgtext( text[(i * 2) + 1] );
       }
       else
       {
           _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );
           _outtext( "Error:  can't set font" );
           exit( 0 );
       }
    }
    getch();
    _setvideomode( _DEFAULTMODE );

    /* Return memory when finished with fonts */

    _unregisterfonts();
    exit ( 0 );
  }

Notice that SAMPLER.C calls the graphics function _moveto to establish the
starting position for each text string. Chapter 13, "Graphics," describes
the _moveto function in the section "Graphics Coordinates." The function
_setfont takes a character string as an argument. The string is a list of
options that specifies typeface and the best fit for a character height of
30 pixels, and a width of 24 pixels. See Appendix B, "C Library Guide," and
online help for complete descriptions of the QuickC font functions.


A Few Hints

Fonted text is simply another form of graphics, and using fonts effectively
requires little programming effort. Still, there are a few things to watch:



  ■   Remember the video should be set only once to establish a graphics
      mode. If you generate an image─say, with Presentation Graphics─and
      wish to incorporate fonted text into it, don't reset the video mode
      prior to calling the font routines. Doing so will blank the screen,
      destroying the original image.

  ■   The _setfont function reads specified .FON files to obtain mapping
      data for the current font. Each call to _setfont causes a disk access
      and overwrites the old font data in memory. If you wish to show text
      of different styles on the same screen, display all text of one font
      before moving on to the others. By minimizing the number of calls to
      _setfont you'll save time spent in disk I/O and memory reloads.

  ■   When your program finishes with the fonts library, you might wish to
      free the memory occupied by the register list. Call the function
      _unregisterfonts to do this. As its name implies, this function frees
      the memory allocated by _registerfonts. The register information for
      each type size of each font takes up approximately 140 bytes of
      memory. Thus the amount of memory returned by _unregisterfonts is
      significant only if you have many fonts registered.

  ■   As for aesthetics, the same suggestions for the printed page apply to
      fonted screen text. Typefaces are more effective when they are not
      competing with each other for attention. Restricting the number of
      styles per screen to one or two generally results in a more pleasing,
      less cluttered image.







Chapter 16  In-Line Assembly
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

QuickC has the ability to handle assembly-language instructions right in
your C programs. This powerful feature is called "in-line assembly."

Assembly language serves many purposes, such as improving program speed,
reducing memory needs, and controlling hardware. The in-line assembler lets
you embed assembly-language instructions directly in your C source programs
without extra assembly and link steps. And the assembler is built into the
compiler─you don't need a separate assembler such as the Microsoft Macro
Assembler (MASM).

This chapter assumes that you are familiar with assembly-language terms and
concepts. If you have never programmed in assembly language, refer to the
section "References and Books on Assembly Language," at the end of this
chapter.


Advantages of In-Line Assembly

Because QuickC's in-line assembler doesn't require separate assembly and
link steps, it is more convenient than a separate assembler. In-line
assembly code can use any C variable or function name that is visible (in
scope), so it is easy to integrate it with your program's C code. And
because the assembly code can be mixed in-line with C statements, it can do
tasks that are cumbersome or impossible in C alone.

The uses of in-line assembly include


  ■   Writing the body of a function in assembly language

  ■   Spot-optimizing speed-critical sections of code

  ■   Calling DOS and BIOS routines with the INT instruction

  ■   Creating TSR (terminate-and-stay-resident) code or handler routines
      that require knowledge of processor states


In-line assembly is a special-purpose tool. If you plan to transport an
application, you'll probably want to place machine-specific code in a
separate module. And because the in-line assembler doesn't support all MASM
directives, you may find it more convenient to use MASM for such modules.


The _asm Keyword

The _asm keyword invokes the in-line assembler and can appear wherever a C
statement is legal. It cannot appear by itself. It must be followed by an
assembly instruction, a group of instructions enclosed in braces, or, at the
very least, an empty pair of braces. The term "_asm block" here refers to
any instruction or group of instructions, whether or not in braces.

Below is a simple _asm block enclosed in braces. (The code prints the "beep"
character, ASCII 7.)

  _asm
  {
     mov ah, 2
     mov dl, 7
     int 21h
  }

Alternatively, you can put _asm in front of each assembly instruction:

  _asm mov ah, 2
  _asm mov dl, 7
  _asm int 21h

Since the _asm keyword is a statement separator, you can also put assembly
instructions on the same line:

  _asm mov ah, 2   _asm mov dl, 7   _asm int 21h

  Braces can prevent ambiguity and needless repetition.

All three examples generate the same code, but the first style─enclosing the
_asm block in braces─has some advantages. The braces clearly separate
assembly code from C code and avoid needless repetition of the _asm keyword.
Braces can also prevent ambiguities. If you want to put a C statement on the
same line as an _asm block, you must enclose the block in braces. Without
the braces, the compiler cannot tell where assembly code stops and C
statements begin. Finally, since the text in braces has the same format as
ordinary MASM text, you can easily cut and paste text from existing MASM
source files.

The braces enclosing an _asm block don't affect variable visibility, as do
braces in C. You can also nest _asm blocks, but the nesting doesn't affect
variable visibility.


Using Assembly Language in _asm Blocks

The in-line assembler has much in common with other assemblers. For example,
it accepts any expression that is legal in MASM, and it supports almost all
80286 and 80287 instructions. This section describes the use of
assembly-language features in _asm blocks.


Instruction Set

The in-line assembler supports the full instruction set of the Intel(R)
80286 and 80287 processors, except for privileged instructions that control
the processor's protected mode (protected mode is available in the OS/2 and
XENIX(R) operating systems, but not in DOS). It does not recognize 80386-
and 80387-specific instructions. To use assembly instructions specific to
the 80286 and 80287 processors, you must compile your QuickC program with
the /G2 switch included in the command line. For a description of the
compiler /G command-line switch, refer to Chapter 4, "QCL Command
Reference," in the Microsoft QuickC Tool Kit.


Expressions

In-line assembly code can use any MASM expression, that is, any combination
of operands and operators that evaluates to a single value or address.


Data Directives and Operators

Although an _asm block can reference C data types and objects, it cannot
define data objects with MASM directives or operators. Specifically, you
cannot use the definition directives DB, DW, DD, DQ, DT, and DF, or the
operators DUP or THIS. Nor are MASM structures and records available. The
in-line assembler doesn't accept the directives STRUC, RECORD, WIDTH, or
MASK.


EVEN and ALIGN Directives

While the in-line assembler doesn't support most MASM directives, it does
support EVEN and ALIGN. These directives put NOP (no operation) instructions
in the assembly code as needed to align labels to specific boundaries. This
makes instruction-fetch operations more efficient for some processors (not
including eight-bit processors such as the Intel 8088).


Macros

The in-line assembler is not a macro assembler. You cannot use MASM macro
directives (MACRO, REPT, IRC, IRP, and ENDM) or macro operators ( <>, !, &,
%, and .TYPE). An _asm block can use C preprocessor directives, however. See
the section "Using C in _asm Blocks" for more information.


Segment References

You must refer to segments by register rather than by name (the segment name
_TEXT is invalid, for instance). Segment overrides must use the register
explicitly, as in ES:[BX].


Type and Variable Sizes

The LENGTH, SIZE, and TYPE operators have a limited meaning in in-line
assembly. They cannot be used at all with the DUP operator (because you
cannot define data with MASM directives or operators). But you can use them
to find the size of C variables or types:


  ■   The LENGTH operator can return the number of elements in an array. It
      returns the value 1 for nonarray variables.

  ■   The SIZE operator can return the size of a C variable. A variable's
      size is the product of its LENGTH and TYPE.

  ■   The TYPE operator can return the size of a C type or variable. If the
      variable is an array, TYPE returns the size of a single element of the
      array.


For instance, if your program has an eight-element int array,

  int arr[8];

the following C and assembly expressions yield the size of  arr  and its
elements:

╓┌───────────┌───────────────────────────┌───────────────────────────────────╖
_asm        C                           Size
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
LENGTH arr  sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0])  8
SIZE arr    sizeof(arr)                 16
_asm        C                           Size
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
SIZE arr    sizeof(arr)                 16
TYPE arr    sizeof(arr[0])              2
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



Comments

Instructions in an _asm block can use assembly-language comments:

  _asm mov ax, offset buff ; Load address of buff

Because C macros expand into a single logical line, avoid using
assemblylanguage comments in macros (see the section "Defining _asm Blocks
as C Macros," below). An _asm block can also contain C-style comments, as
noted below.


Debugging with the CodeView(R) Debugger

 In-line assembly code can be debugged with CodeView.

Programs containing in-line assembly code can be debugged with the CodeView
debugger, assuming you compile with the /Zi option.

Note that putting multiple assembly instructions or C statements on one line
can hamper debugging with CodeView. In source mode, the CodeView debugger
lets you set breakpoints on a single line but not on individual statements
on the same line. The same principle applies to an _asm block defined as a C
macro, which expands to a single logical line.


Using C in _asm Blocks

Because in-line assembly instructions can be mixed with C statements, they
can refer to C variables by name and use many other elements of C. An _asm
block can use the following C language elements:


  ■   Symbols, including labels and variable and function names

  ■   Constants, including symbolic constants and enum members

  ■   Macros and preprocessor directives

  ■   Comments ( /* */ )

  ■   Type names (wherever a MASM type would be legal)

  ■   typedef names, generally used with operators such as PTR and TYPE or
      to specify structure or union members


Within an _asm block, you can specify integer constants with either C
notation or assembler radix notation (0x100 and 100h are equivalent, for
instance). This allows you to define (using #define) a constant in C, and
use it in both C and assembly portions of the program. You can also specify
constants in octal by preceding them with a 0. For example, 0777 specifies
an octal constant.


Using Operators

An _asm block cannot use C-specific operators, such as the  operator.
However, operators shared by QuickC and MASM, such as the * operator, are
interpreted as assembly-language operators. For instance, outside an _asm
block, square brackets ( [] ) are interpreted as enclosing array subscripts,
which C automatically scales to the size of an element in the array. Inside
an _asm block, they are seen as the MASM index operator, which yields an
unscaled byte offset from any data object or label (not just an array). The
following code illustrates the difference:

  int array[10];

  _asm mov array[6], bx ;  Store BX at array+6 (not scaled)

  array[6] = 0;         /* Store 0 at array+12 (scaled) */

The first reference to  array  is not scaled, but the second is. Note that
you can use the TYPE operator to achieve scaling based on a constant. For
instance, the following statements are equivalent:

  _asm mov array[6 * TYPE int], 0 ; Store 0 at array + 12

  array[6] = 0;                   /* Store 0 at array + 12 */


Using C Symbols

An _asm block can refer to any C symbol that is visible (in scope) where the
block appears. (C symbols are variable names, function names, and labels─in
other words, names that aren't symbolic constants or enum members.)

A few restrictions apply to the use of C symbols:


  ■   Each assembly-language statement can contain only one C symbol.
      Multiple symbols can appear in the same assembly instruction only with
      OFFSET, LENGTH, TYPE, and SIZE expressions.

  ■   Functions referenced in an _asm block must be declared (prototyped)
      earlier in the program. Otherwise, the compiler cannot distinguish
      between function names and labels in the _asm block.

  ■   An _asm block cannot use any C symbols with the same spelling as MASM
      reserved words (regardless of case). MASM reserved words include
      instruction names such as PUSH and register names such as SI.

  ■   Structure and union tags are not recognized in _asm blocks.



Accessing C Data

A great convenience of in-line assembly is the ability to refer to C
variables by name. An _asm block can refer to any symbols─including variable
names─that are visible where the block appears. For instance, if the C
variable  var  is visible, the instruction

  _asm mov ax, var

stores the value of  var  in AX.

If a structure or union member has a unique name, an _asm block can refer to
it using only the member name, without specifying the C variable or typedef
name before the period (.) operator. If the member name is not unique,
however, you must place a variable or typedef name immediately before the
period (.) operator. For instance, the following structure types share
same_name  as their member name:

  struct first_type
  {
     char *weasel;
     int same_name;
  };

  struct second_type
  {
     int wonton;
     long same_name;
  };

If you declare variables with the types

  struct first_type hal;
  struct second_type oat;

all references to the member  same_name  must use the variable name, because
same_name  is not unique. But the member  weasel  has a unique name, so you
can refer to it using only its member name:

  _asm
  {
     mov bx, OFFSET hal
     mov cx, [bx]hal.same_name ; Must use 'hal'
     mov si, [bx].weasel       ; Can omit 'hal'
  }

Note that omitting the variable name is merely a coding convenience. The
same assembly instructions are generated whether or not it is present.


Writing Functions

If you write a function with in-line assembly code, it's a simple matter to
pass arguments to the function and return a value from it. The following
examples compare a function first written for a separate assembler and then
rewritten for the in-line assembler. The function, called  power2, receives
two parameters, multiplying the first parameter by 2 to the power of the
second parameter. Written for a separate assembler, the function might look
like this:

  ; POWER.ASM
  ; Compute the power of an integer
  ;
         PUBLIC _power2
  _TEXT SEGMENT WORD PUBLIC 'CODE'
  _power2 PROC

          push bp         ; Save BP
          mov bp, sp      ; Move SP into BP so we can refer
                          ;   to arguments on the stack
          mov ax, [bp+4]  ; Get first argument
          mov cx, [bp+6]  ; Get second argument
          shl ax, cl      ; AX = AX * ( 2 ^ CL )
          pop bp          ; Restore BP
          ret             ; Return with sum in AX

  _power2 ENDP
  _TEXT   ENDS
          END

 Function arguments are usually passed on the stack.

Since it's written for a separate assembler, the function requires a
separate source file and assembly and link steps. C function arguments
usually are passed on the stack, so this version of the  power2  function
accesses its arguments by their positions on the stack. (Note that the MODEL
directive, available in MASM and some other assemblers, also allows you to
access stack arguments and local stack variables by name.)

The POWER2.C program below writes the  power2  function with in-line
assembly code:

  /* POWER2.C */
  #include <stdio.h>

  int power2( int num, int power );

  void main( void )
  {
     printf( "3 times 2 to the power of 5 is %d\n", \
             power2( 3, 5) );
  }

  int power2( int num, int power )
  {
     _asm
     {
        mov ax, num    ; Get first argument
        mov cx, power  ; Get second argument
        shl ax, cl     ; AX = AX * ( 2 to the power of CL )
     }
     /* Return with result in AX */
  }

The in-line version of the  power2  function refers to its arguments by name
and appears in the same source file as the rest of the program. This version
also requires fewer assembly instructions. Since C automatically preserves
BP, the _asm block doesn't need to do so. It can also dispense with the RET
instruction, since the C part of the function performs the return.

Because the in-line version of  power2  doesn't execute a C return
statement, it causes a harmless warning if you compile at warning levels 2
or higher:

  warning C4035: 'power2' : no return value

The function does return a value, but QuickC cannot tell that in the absence
of a return statement. Simply ignore the warning in this context.


Using and Preserving Registers

In general, you should not assume that a register will have a given value
when an _asm block begins. An _asm block inherits whatever register values
happen to result from the normal flow of control.

As you may have noticed in the POWER2.C example in the previous section, the
power2  function doesn't preserve the value in the AX register. When you
write a function in assembly language, you don't need to preserve the AX,
BX, CX, DX, ES, and flags registers. However, you should preserve any other
registers you use (DI, SI, DS, SS, SP, and BP).

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
WARNING

If your in-line assembly code changes the direction flag using the STD or
CLD instructions, you must restore the flag to its original value.
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

The POWER2.C example in the previous section also shows that functions
return values in registers. This is true whether the function is written in
assembly language or in C.

 Functions return values in the AX and DX registers.

If the return value is short (a char, int, or near pointer), it is stored in
AX. The POWER2.C example returned a value by terminating with the desired
value in AX.

If the return value is long, store the high word in DX and the low word in
AX. To return a longer value (such as a floating-point value), store the
value in memory and return a pointer to the value (in AX if near or in DX:AX
if far).

Assembly instructions that appear in-line with C statements are free to
alter the AX, BX, CX, and DX registers. C doesn't expect these registers to
be maintained between statements, so you don't need to preserve them. The
same is true of the SI and DI registers, with some exceptions (see the
section "Optimizing," below). You should preserve the SP and BP registers
unless you have some reason to change them─to switch stacks, for instance.


Jumping to Labels

Like an ordinary C label, a label in an _asm block is visible (has scope)
throughout the function in which it is defined (not only in the block). Both
assembly instructions and C goto statements can jump to labels inside or
outside the _asm block.

 Labels in _asm blocks have function scope and are not case sensitive.

Unlike C labels, labels defined in _asm blocks are not case sensitive, even
when used in C statements. C labels are not case sensitive in an _asm block,
either. (Outside an _asm block, a C label is case sensitive as usual.) The
following do-nothing code shows all the permutations.

  void func( void )
  {
     goto C_Dest;  /* legal */
     goto c_dest;  /* error */

     goto A_Dest;  /* legal */
     goto a_dest;  /* legal */

     _asm
     {
        jmp C_Dest ; legal
        jmp c_dest ; legal

        jmp A_Dest ; legal
        jmp a_dest ; legal

        a_dest:    ; _asm label
     }

     C_Dest:       /* C label */
     return;
  }

Don't use C library function names as labels in _asm blocks. For instance,
you might be tempted to use  exit  as a label,

  jne exit
     .
     .
     .
  exit:
     ; More _asm code follows

forgetting that exit is the name of a C library function. The code doesn't
cause a compiler error, but it might cause a jump to the exit function
instead of the desired location.

As in MASM programs, the dollar symbol ($) serves as the current location
counter─a label for the instruction currently being assembled. In _asm
blocks, its main use is to make long conditional jumps:

  jne $+5 ; next instruction is 5 bytes long
  jmp farlabel
  ; $+5
     .
     .
     .
  farlabel:


Calling C Functions

An _asm block can call C functions, including C library routines. The
following example calls the printf library routine:

  #include <stdio.h>

  char format[] = "%s %s\n";
  char hello[] = "Hello";
  char world[] = "world";

  void main( void )
  {
     _asm
     {
        mov  ax, offset world
        push ax
        mov  ax, offset hello
        push ax
        mov  ax, offset format
        push ax
        call printf
       add sp, 6
     }
  }

Since function arguments are passed on the stack, you simply push the needed
arguments─string pointers, in the example above─before calling the function.
The arguments are pushed in reverse order, so they come off the stack in the
desired order. To emulate the C statement

  printf( format, hello, world );

the example pushes pointers to  world,  hello, and  format, in that order,
then calls printf. The last instruction in the _asm block adjusts the stack
to account for the arguments previously pushed onto it.


Defining _asm Blocks as C Macros

C macros offer a convenient way to insert assembly code into C code, but
they demand extra care because a macro expands into a single logical line.
To create trouble-free macros, follow these rules:


  ■   Enclose the _asm block in braces

  ■   Put the _asm keyword in front of each assembly instruction

  ■   Use old-style C comments ( /* comment */ ) instead of assembly-style
      comments ( ; comment )


To illustrate, the following example defines a simple macro:

  #define BEEP _asm \
  /* Beep sound */       \
  {                       \
     _asm mov ah, 2       \
     _asm mov dl, 7       \
     _asm int 21h         \
  }

At first glance, the last three _asm keywords seem superfluous. They are
needed, however, because the macro expands into a single line:

  _asm /* Beep sound */ { _asm mov ah, 2  _asm mov dl, 7 _asm int 21h }

The third and fourth _asm keywords are needed as statement separators. The
only statement separators recognized in _asm blocks are the newline
character and _asm keyword. And since a block defined as a macro is one
logical line, you must separate each instruction with _asm.

The braces are essential as well. If you omit them, the compiler can be
confused by C statements on the same line to the right of the macro
invocation. Without the closing brace, QuickC cannot tell where assembly
code stops, and it sees C statements after the _asm block as assembly
instructions.

  Use C comments in _asm blocks written as macros.

Assembly-style comments that start with a semicolon (;) continue to the end
of the line. This causes problems in macros because QuickC ignores
everything after the comment, all the way to the end of the logical line. To
prevent errors, use C comments ( /* comment */ ) in _asm blocks defined as
macros.

An _asm block written as a C macro can take arguments. Unlike an ordinary C
macro, however, an _asm macro cannot return a value. So you cannot use such
macros in C expressions.

 You can convert MASM macros to C macros.

Note that some MASM-style macros can be written as C macros. Below is a MASM
macro that sets the video page to the value specified in the  page
argument:

  setpage   MACRO page
            mov ah, 5
            mov al, page
            int 10h
            ENDM

The following code defines  setpage  as a C macro:

  #define setpage( page ) _asm  \
     {                                \
        _asm mov ah, 5                \
        _asm mov al, page             \
        _asm int 10h                  \
  }

Both macros do the same job.


Optimizing

The presence of an _asm block in a function affects optimization in a few
different ways. First, as you might expect, QuickC doesn't try to optimize
the _asm block itself. What you write in assembly language is exactly what
you get.

Second, the presence of an _asm block affects register variable storage.
(See the section "Register Variables" in Chapter 5, "Advanced Data Types,"
for a discussion of register variables.) Under normal circumstances, QuickC
automatically stores variables in registers. This is not done, however, in
any function that contains an _asm block. To get register variable storage
in such a function, you must request it with the register keyword.

Since the compiler stores register variables in the SI and DI registers,
these registers represent variables in functions that request register
storage. The first eligible variable is stored in SI and the second in DI.
Preserve SI and DI in such functions unless you want to change the register
variables.

Keep in mind that the name of a variable declared with register translates
directly into a register reference (assuming a register is available for
such use). For instance, if you declare

  register int sample;

and the variable  sample  happens to be stored in SI, then the _asm
instruction

  _asm mov ax, sample

is equivalent to

  _asm mov ax, si

If you declare a variable with register and the compiler cannot store the
variable in a register, QuickC issues a compiler error if you reference the
variable in an _asm block. The solution is to remove the register
declaration from that variable.

Register variables form a slight exception to the general rule that an
assembly-language statement can contain no more than one C symbol. If one of
the symbols is a register variable, for example,

  register int v1;
  int v2;

then an instruction can use two C symbols, as in

  mov v1, v2

Finally, the presence of in-line assembly code inhibits loop optimization
for the entire function in which the code appears. (Loop optimization can be
selected with the /Ol command-line switch; see Chapter 4, "QCL Command
Reference," in Microsoft QuickC Tool Kit.) This optimization is suppressed
no matter which compiler options you use.


References and Books on Assembly Language

Assembly language varies widely for different computer processors. In
selecting a reference on assembly language, make sure it describes assembly
for the Intel 8086 family of processors or compatibles. These are the
microprocessors used in the IBM and IBM-compatible computers able to run
QuickC.

The following books and articles may be useful in learning to program in
assembly language:

Chesley, Harry R. and Mitchell Waite. Supercharging C with Assembly
Language.
    Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,  Inc., 1987.

Duncan, Ray. Advanced MS-DOS Programming, 2nd ed. Redmond,  Washington:
Microsoft Press, 1988.

Lafore, Robert. Assembly Language Primer for the IBM PC & XT.
    New York, New York: Plume/Waite, 1984.

Metcalf, Christopher D. and Marc B. Sugiyama. COMPUTE!'s Beginner's Guide to
Machine Language on the IBM PC & PCjr.
    Greensboro, North Carolina: COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., 1985.

Microsoft. Microsoft Macro Assembler 5.1 Programmer's Guide.
    Redmond, Washington, 1987. (Included with Microsoft Macro Assembler.)

Microsoft. Microsoft Macro Assembler 5.1 Reference.
    Redmond, Washington, 1987. (Included with Microsoft Macro Assembler.)

Sargent, Murray and Richard L. Shoemaker. The IBM Personal Computer from the
Inside Out.
    Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1986.

The above references are listed for your convenience only. With the
exception of those published by Microsoft, Microsoft Corporation does not
endorse these books or recommend them over others on the same subject.






Appendix A  C Language Guide
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

This appendix provides a quick summary of C language fundamentals. It does
not attempt to teach you the C language (Part 1 of this book does that) or
document all the details of C. Use it as a refresher or ready reference
after you have read all the material in Chapters 1 through 10.

To simplify reference, this appendix has the same general organization as
the chapters in Part 1. Each major section lists the chapter(s) where you
may find more detailed information on a given topic.

You can also use QuickC's online help to get instant information on any
topic. The online help index and table of contents provide alternate ways to
access information.


General Syntax

Basic C-language syntax is explained in Chapter 1, "Anatomy of a C Program."


A C statement consists of keywords, expressions, and function calls. A
statement always ends with a semicolon. A statement block is a collection of
statements enclosed by braces ({ }). A statement block can appear anywhere a
simple C statement appears. No semicolon occurs after the closing brace.

C is a free-format programming language. You can insert "whitespace"
characters (spaces, tabs, carriage returns, and form feeds) almost anywhere,
to indent statement blocks and otherwise make your code more readable.

Comments begin with the slash-asterisk sequence (/*) and end with the
asterisk-slash sequence (*/). Comments are legal anywhere a space is legal,
but they cannot be nested.


User-Defined Names

The rules governing user-defined names are explained in Chapter 1, "Anatomy
of a C Program," and Chapter 4, "Basic Data Types."

You can define your own names ("identifiers") for variables, functions, and
user-defined types. Identifiers are case sensitive. For instance, the
identifier myVariable  is not the same as the identifier  Myvariable. You
cannot use a C keyword (see the list below) as an identifier.

An identifier can contain only the following characters:


  ■   abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

  ■   ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

  ■   0123456789

  ■   _ (underscore)


The first character of an identifier must be a letter or the underscore
character. The first 31 characters of local identifiers are significant. The
name can contain more than 31 characters, but QuickC ignores everything
beyond the thirty-first character. Global identifiers are normally
significant to 30 characters.


Keywords

A keyword has a special meaning in the C language. You must spell keywords
as shown in the following list, and you cannot use them as user-defined
names (see above).

_asm            _emit           _interrupt       signed
 auto            enum           _loadds          sizeof
_based          _export          long            static
  break          extern         _near            struct
 case           _far            _pascal          switch
_cdecl          _fastcall        register        typedef
 char            float           return          union
 const           for            _saveregs        unsigned
 continue       _fortran        _segname         void
 default         goto           _segment         volatile
 do             _huge           _self            while
 double          if              short
 else            int

A few other words, such as main, have a special meaning but are not keywords
in the strict sense. Use online help to get details on all such words.


Functions

The rules governing C functions are explained in Chapter 2, "Functions."

Every C program must have at least one function, named main, which marks the
beginning and end of the program's execution. Every executable statement in
a C program must occur within a function.

Variables can be declared inside or outside functions. Variables declared
inside a function are "local" and can only be accessed in that function.
Variables declared outside all functions are "global" and can be accessed
from any function in your program.

You call a C function by stating its name. If the function requires
"arguments" (data), you list the arguments in the parentheses that follow
the function name. Arguments that you pass to a function become local
variables in the function.

A function can return a value (using the return keyword) or return nothing.
If the function contains no return statement, it ends automatically when
execution reaches the closing brace of the function definition.

A function "prototype" (declaration) tells QuickC the function's name, the
type of value it returns, and the number and type of arguments it requires.
Function prototypes normally appear near the beginning of the program. They
allow QuickC to check the accuracy of every reference to the function.


Flow Control

Flow-control statements are explained in Chapter 3, "Flow Control."

The C language provides several kinds of flow-control statements. The for,
while, and do statements create loops. The if and switch statements perform
a branch. The break, continue, return, and goto statements perform an
unconditional "jump" to another location in your program.

The following sections describe the C flow-control statements in
alphabetical order.


The break Statement

The break statement terminates the smallest enclosing do, for, switch, or
while statement in which it appears. It passes control to the statement
following the terminated statement.

This statement is often used to exit from a loop or switch statement (see
below). The following example illustrates break:

  while( c != 'Q' )
  {
    /* Some C statements here */
    if( number_of_characters > 80 )
        break;  /* Break out of while loop */
    /* More C statements here */
  }
  /* Execution continues here after break statement */


The continue Statement

The continue statement is the opposite of the break statement. It passes
control to the next iteration of the smallest enclosing do, for, or while
statement in which it appears.

This statement is often used to return to the start of a loop from within a
deeply nested loop.

The following example illustrates continue:

  while( c != 'Q' )
  {
    /* Some C statements here*/
    if( c == 0x20 )
       continue;    /* Skip rest of loop */
    /* More C statements here */
  }

In the example, the continue statement skips to the next iteration of the
loop whenever  c  equals 0x20, the ASCII value for a space character.


The do Statement

The do statement repeats a statement until a specified expression becomes
false. The test expression in the loop is evaluated after the body of the
loop executes. Thus, the body of a do loop always executes at least once.

Use a break, goto, or return statement when you need to exit a do loop
early. Use the continue statement to terminate an iteration without exiting
the loop. The continue statement passes control to the next iteration of the
loop.

The following example illustrates do:

  sample = 1;
  do
    printf( "%d\t%d\n", sample, sample * sample );
  while( ++x <= 7 );

The printf statement in the example always executes at least once, no matter
what value  x  has when the loop begins.


The for Statement

The for statement lets you repeat a statement a specified number of times.
It consists of three expressions:


  ■   An initializing expression, which is evaluated when the loop begins

  ■   A test expression, which is evaluated before each iteration of the
      loop

  ■   A modifying expression, which is evaluated at the end of each
      iteration of the loop


These expressions are enclosed in parentheses and followed by the loop
body─the statement the loop is to execute. Each expression in the
parentheses can be any legal C statement.

The for statement works as follows:


  1.  The initializing expression is evaluated.

  2.  As long as the test expression evaluates to a nonzero value, the loop
      body is executed. When the test expression becomes 0, control passes
      to the statement following the loop body.

  3.  At the end of each iteration of the loop, the modifying expression is
      evaluated.


You can use a break, goto, or return statement to exit a for loop early. Use
the continue statement to terminate an iteration without exiting the for
loop. The continue statement passes control to the next iteration of the
loop.

The following example illustrates for:

  for( counter = 0; counter < 100; counter++ )
  {
    x[counter] = 0; /* Set every array element to zero */
  }


The goto Statement

The goto statement performs a jump to the statement following the specified
label. A goto statement can jump anywhere within the current function.

A common use of goto is to exit immediately from a deeply nested loop. For
instance:

  for( ... )
  {
     for( ... )
     {
        /* Do something here */
        if(c == CTRL_C)
           goto myplace;
     }
     /* Do something else here */
  }

  /* The goto label is named myplace */
  myplace:
  /* The goto statement transfers control here */


The if Statement

The if statement performs a branch based on the outcome of a conditional
test. If the test expression is true, the body of the if statement executes.
If it is false, the statement body is skipped.

The else keyword is used with if to form an either-or construct that
executes one statement when the test expression is true and another when
it's false. C does not offer an "else-if" keyword. You can combine if and
else statements to achieve the same effect. C pairs each else with the most
recent if that lacks an else.

Below is a simple if statement:

  if( score < 70 )
    grade = 'F';
  else
    grade = 'P';

If the value of the variable  score  is less than 70, the variable  grade
is set to the constant  F. Otherwise,  score  is set to  P.


The return Statement

The return statement ends the execution of the function in which it appears.
It can also return a value to the calling function. For example:

  return;      /* End function and return no value */

  return myvariable; /* End function and return value of myvariable */


The switch Statement

The switch statement allows you to branch to various sections of code based
on the value of a single variable. This variable must evaluate to a char,
int, or long constant.

Each section of code in the switch statement is marked with a case label─the
keyword case followed by a constant or constant expression. The value of the
switch test expression is compared to the constant in each case label. If a
match is found, control transfers to the statement after the matching label
and continues until you reach a break statement or the end of the switch
statement.

For example:

  switch( answer )
  {
    case 'y': /* First case */
       printf( "lowercase y\n" );
       break;

    case 'n': /* Another case */
       printf( "lowercase n\n" );
       break;

    default:  /* Default case */
       printf( "not a lowercase y or n\n" );
       break;
  }

The example tests the value of the variable  answer. If  answer  evaluates
to the constant  'y', control transfers to the first case in the switch
statement. If it equals  'n', control transfers to the second case.

A case labelled with the default keyword executes when none of the other
case constants matches the value of the switch test expression. In the
example, the default case executes when  answer  equals any value other than
 'y'  or  'n'.

If you omit the break statement at the end of a case, execution falls
through to the next case.

If you omit the default case and no matching case is found, nothing in the
switch statement executes.

No two case constants in the same switch statement can have the same value.



The while Statement

The while statement repeats a statement until its test expression becomes
false. A while loop evaluates its test expression before executing its loop
body. If the test expression is false when the loop begins, the loop body
never executes. (Contrast this behavior with the do loop, which always
executes its loop body at least once.)

For example:

  while( !sample )  /* Repeat until sample equals 1 */
  {
    printf( "%d\t%d\n", x, x*x );
    x += 6;
    if( x > 20 )
       sample = 1;
  }

You can exit a while loop early with a break or goto statement. The continue
statement skips to the next iteration of the loop.


Data Types

Data types are explained in Chapter 4, "Data Types," and Chapter 5,
"Advanced Data Types." A brief description is given here.


Basic Data Types

The basic data types in C are character (char), integer (int), and floating
point (float and double). All other data types are derived from these basic
types. For example, a string is an array of char values.

Table A.1 lists the range of values for each data type.

Table A.1  Basic Data Types

╓┌────────────────┌────────────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────╖
Type Name        Other Names                  Range of Values
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
char             signed char                  -128 to 127

unsigned char    none                         0 to 255

int              signed, signed int           -32,768 to 32,767

unsigned         unsigned int                 0 to 65,535

unsigned short   unsigned short int           0 to 65,535

short            short int, signed short      -32,768 to

                 signed short int             32,767
Type Name        Other Names                  Range of Values
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
                 signed short int             32,767

long             long int, signed long        -2,147,483,647 to

                 signed long int              2,147,483,648

unsigned long    unsigned long int            0 to 4,294,967,295

_segment         none                         0 to 65,535

enum             none                         -32,768 to 32,767

float            none                         Approximately 1.2E-38 to
                                              3.4E+38 (7-digit precision)

double           none                         Approximately 2.2E-308 to
                                              1.8E+308 (15-digit precision)

long double      none                         Approximately 3.4E-4932 to
Type Name        Other Names                  Range of Values
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
long double      none                         Approximately 3.4E-4932 to
                                              1.2E+4932 (19-digit
                                              precision)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────




Character Type

The character type (char) occupies one byte of storage and can express a
whole number in the range of -128 to 127. Unsigned characters have a range
of 0 to 255. You can represent any ASCII character as an unsigned char
value.

Typical declarations of character types are shown below:

  char answer; /* Declare a character variable answer */

  char alpha = 'a'; /* Declare character variable alpha
                       and initialize it */

A character constant represents a single ASCII character. Typical character
constants are shown below:

  char alpha = 'a'; /* Declare and initialize */

  char c2 = 0x61; /* Declare and initialize with
                     hexadecimal value for 'a' */

Escape Sequences - Escape sequences represent special characters, such as
the carriage return. An escape sequence consists of a backslash character
plus a letter or punctuation mark. Table A.2 lists the C escape sequences;
they are also listed in online help.

Table A.2  C Escape Sequences

╓┌──────────┌─────────────────────┌──────────────────────────────────────────╖
Character  Meaning               Hexadecimal Value
Character  Meaning               Hexadecimal Value
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
\a         Alert (bell)          0x07
\n         New line (linefeed)   0x0A
\b         Backspace             0x08
\r         Carriage return       0x0D
\f         Formfeed              0x0C
\t         Tab                   0x09
\v         Vertical tab          0x0B
\\         Backslash             0x5C
\'         Single quote          0x27
\"         Double quote          0x22
\0         Null                  0x00
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────



Integer Type

The integer (int) type occupies two bytes of storage and can express a whole
number in the range -32,768 to 32,767. Unsigned integers (unsigned or
unsigned int) have a range of 0 to 65,535.

In QuickC, short integers (short or short int) are the same as integers
(int). Note that the short and int types are not the same in some operating
systems other than DOS.

Signed long integers (long) occupy four bytes and have a range of
-2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647. Unsigned long integers have a range of 0 to
4,294,967,295.

Integer variables are declared with the keywords int, short, unsigned, or
long. Typical declarations of integer types are shown below:

  int z; /* Declare an int variable z */

  int ten = 10; /* Declare int variable and
                   assign it the value 10 */

  unsigned int a; /* Declare unsigned int variable */

  unsigned long BigInt = 2000000001UL; /* Declare and
                                          initialize */

Integer constants are used to represent decimal, octal, and hexadecimal
numbers. There are three types of integer constants:


  1.  Decimal constants can only contain the digits 0-9. The first digit
      must not be 0.

  2.  Octal constants can only contain the digits 0-7. The first digit must
      be 0.

  3.  Hexadecimal constants can only contain the digits 0-9, plus the
      letters a-f or A-F. The constant must begin with either 0x or 0X.


You can specify that an integer constant is long by adding the suffix l or
L. The suffix can be used with decimal, hexadecimal, or octal notation.

To specify that an integer constant is short, add the suffix u or U. This
suffix can also be used with decimal, hexadecimal, or octal notation.

Typical integer constants are shown below:

  42    /* Decimal constant */

  0x34  /* Hexadecimal constant */

  0x3cL /* Long hexadecimal constant */

  052   /* Octal constant */


Floating-Point Types

You can declare floating-point variables using the keywords float or double.
The float type occupies four bytes of storage and can express a
floating-point value in the range 1.2E-38 to 3.4E+38. This type has
seven-digit precision.

The double type occupies eight bytes of storage and can express a
floating-point value in the range 2.2E-308 to 1.8E+308. This type has
fifteen-digit precision.

The long double type occupies ten bytes of storage and can express a
floating-point value in the range 3.4E-4932 to 1.2E+4932. This type has
nineteen-digit precision.

Typical declarations of floating-point types are shown below:

  float SmallPi = 3.14;  /* Declare floating-point variable */

  double AccuratePi = 3.141592653596  /* Declare
                                        double-precision */

Floating-point constants can represent decimal numbers in either single or
double precision. A floating-point constant must either contain a decimal
point or end with the suffix e or E. Typical floating-point constants are
shown below:

  2.78   /* Floating-point constant */

  3E     /* Floating-point constant */


Aggregate Data Types

Aggregate data types are built from one or more of the basic data types.
These include the following:


  ■   Arrays (including strings)

  ■   Structures

  ■   Unions



Arrays and Strings

An "array" is a collection of data elements of a single type. An array can
contain any data type. You can access an element of an array by using the
array name and a numeric subscript.

A "string" is an array of characters that terminates with the null character
(\0). Arrays that contain strings must allow space for the final null
character.

Typical arrays and strings are shown below:

  int id_number[10]; /* One-dimensional;
                        10 elements; integer */

  char name[30]; /* String */

  float matrix[5][3]; /* Two-dimensional array,
                         5 rows, 3 columns */

  char baby[30] = "Peter Roddy"; /* String initialization */


Structures

A "structure" is a collection of data items of different types. Once you
have defined a structure type, you can declare a structure variable using
that type.

The following example illustrates a simple structure:

  struct date
  {
    int month;
    int day;
    int year;
  }

  struct date today;

The example defines a structure type named  date  and declares a structure
variable  today  to be of type  date.

Use the structure-member operator ( . ) to access the "elements" (members)
of a structure. The name

  today.month

refers to the  month  member of the  today  structure in the example.


Unions

A "union" is a set of data items of different types sharing the same storage
space in memory. One use of unions is accessing the computer's DOS
registers. For instance, QuickC defines the union REGS as the following:

  union REGS
  {
    struct WORDREGS x;
    struct BYTEREGS h;
  };


Advanced Data Types

Advanced data topics are explained in Chapter 5, "Advanced Data Types." A
brief description of each topic is given here.


Visibility

Variables declared outside all functions are global and can be accessed
anywhere in the current source file. Variables declared inside a function
are local and can be accessed only in that function. Use the extern keyword
to make a variable declared in another source file visible in the current
source file.


Lifetime

Global variables, and local variables declared with the static keyword,
exist for the lifetime of the program. Other local variables are
"automatic;" they come into being when the function starts and evaporate
when it ends.


Type Conversions

A type conversion occurs automatically when an expression mixes two
different data types. QuickC converts the lower-ranking type to the
higher-ranking type before it performs the specified operation.

You can also "cast" (manually convert) a value to any type by placing the
desired type name in parentheses in front of the value. The example below
casts the value of  sample  to type float and assigns the value to  x:

  int sample;
  float x;
  x = (float)sample;


User-Defined Types

The typedef keyword allows you to create user-defined types, which are
synonyms for existing data types. User-defined types can make your program
more readable. For example, a type called  string  may be easier to
understand than a type called char *.

A simple typedef declaration is shown below. The name of an existing type
(long int) is followed by the synonym  income.

  typedef long int income;

Once you have created a new type name, you can use it wherever the original
type name could be used:

  income net_income, gross_income;

In the example above, the variables  net_income  and  gross_income  are of
type  income, which is the same as long int.


Enumerated Types

An enumerated type (declared with enum) has values limited to a specified
set. If the enum declaration does not specify any values, QuickC assigns
sequential integers to the enumeration identifiers beginning at zero.

The example below assigns the values of 0, 1, and 2 to the enumeration
identifiers  zero,  one, and  two, respectively. It also creates an
enumerated type  small_numbers  that can be used to declare other variables.


  /* Enumerated data type */
  enum small_numbers {zero, one, two};

  /* Variable my_numbers is of type small_numbers */
  enum small_numbers  my_numbers;

The following example explicitly assigns values to the enumeration
identifiers:

  /* Enumerated data type */
  enum even_numbers { two = 2, four = 4, six = 6 };


Operators

C-language operators are explained in Chapter 6, "Operators."

An "operand" is a constant or variable manipulated by an operator in an
expression. An "operator" specifies how the operands in an expression are to
be evaluated. Operators also produce a result that can be nested within a
larger expression.

C provides a rich set of operators covering everything from basic arithmetic
operations to logical and bitwise operations. You can also combine the
assignment operator (=) with any arithmetic or bitwise operator to form a
combined assignment operator.

C operators have two properties, precedence and associativity. You can
change the normal order of evaluation by enclosing expressions in
parentheses.

Table A.3 lists the C operators and their precedence and associativity
values. The lines in the table separate precedence levels. The highest
precedence level is at the top of the table.

Table A.3  C Operators

╓┌───────────────────────┌────────────────────────────────────┌──────────────╖
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
( )                     Function call                        Left to right

[ ]                     Array element

.                       Structure or union
                        member

->                      Pointer to structure
                        member

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

- -                     Decrement                            Right to left

++                      Increment

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

:>                      Base operator                        Left to right
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
:>                      Base operator                        Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

!                       Logical NOT                          Right to left

~                       One's complement

-                       Unary minus

+                       Unary plus

&                       Address

*                       Indirection

sizeof                  Size in bytes

(type)                  Type cast [for example, (float) i]
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
(type)                  Type cast [for example, (float) i]

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

*                       Multiply                             Left to right

/                       Divide

%                       Modulus (remainder)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

+                       Add                                  Left to right

-                       Subtract

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

<<                      Left shift                           Left to right
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
<<                      Left shift                           Left to right

>>                      Right shift

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

<                       Less than                            Left to right

<=                      Less than or equal to

>                       Greater than

>=                      Greater than or equal to

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

==                      Equal                                Left to right

!=                      Not equal
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
!=                      Not equal

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

&                       Bitwise AND                          Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

^                       Bitwise exclusive OR                 Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

|                       Bitwise OR                           Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

&&                      Logical AND                          Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

||                      Logical OR                           Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

? :                     Conditional                          Right to left

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

=                       Assignment                           Right to left

*=, /=, %=, +=, -=      Compound assignment

<<=, >>=,  &=, ^=, |=

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

,                       Comma                                Left to right
Symbol                  Name or Meaning                      Associativity
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
,                       Comma                                Left to right

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────




Preprocessor Directives

Preprocessor directives are explained in Chapter 7, "Preprocessor
Directives."

A "preprocessor directive" is a command to the QuickC compiler, which
processes all such commands before it compiles your source program. A
preprocessor directive begins with the # symbol, followed by the directive
and any arguments the directive needs. Since a preprocessor directive is not
a C language statement, it doesn't end in a semicolon.

The two most commonly used directives are #define and #include. Use the
#define directive to give a meaningful name to some constant in your
program. The following directive tells QuickC to replace  PI  with  3.14159
everywhere in the source program:

  #define PI  3.14159

The #include directive below tells QuickC to insert the contents of a
specified file at the current location in your source program.

  #include <stdio.h> /* Standard header file */

Such files are called "include files" or "header files." Standard header
files, such as STDIO.H, end with the .H extension and contain function
prototypes and other definitions needed for QuickC library routines.

Table A.4 lists and describes the QuickC standard header files. Consult
online help for information on the header files needed by individual library
functions.

Table A.4  QuickC Header Files

╓┌─────────────────────────────────┌─────────────────────────────────────────╖
File Name                         Major Contents
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
ASSERT.H                          assert debugging macro

BIOS.H                            BIOS service functions

CONIO.H                           Console and port I/O routines

CTYPE.H                           Character classification

DIRECT.H                          Directory control

DOS.H                             MS-DOS interface functions

ERRNO.H                           System-wide error numbers

FCNTL.H                           Flags used in open and sopen functions

FLOAT.H                           Constants needed by math functions

File Name                         Major Contents
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

GRAPH.H                           Low-level graphics and font routines

IO.H                              File-handling and low-level I/O

LIMITS.H                          Ranges of integers and character types

LOCALE.H                          Internationalization functions

MALLOC.H                          Memory-allocation functions

MATH.H                            Floating-point math routines

MEMORY.H                          Buffer-manipulation routines

PGCHART.H                         Presentation graphics

PROCESS.H                         Process-control routines

File Name                         Major Contents
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

SEARCH.H                          Searching and sorting functions

SETJMP.H                          setjmp and longjmp functions

SHARE.H                           Flags used in sopen

SIGNAL.H                          Constants used by signal function

STDARG.H                          Macros used to access variable-length
                                  argument-list functions

STDDEF.H                          Commonly used data types and values

STDIO.H                           Standard I/O header file

STDLIB.H                          Commonly used library functions

STRING.H                          String-manipulation functions
File Name                         Major Contents
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
STRING.H                          String-manipulation functions

TIME.H                            General time functions

VARARGS.H                         Variable-length argument-list functions

SYS\LOCKING.H                     Flags used by locking function

SYS\STAT.H                        File-status structures and functions

SYS\TIMEB.H                       time function

SYS\TYPES.H                       File-status and time types

SYS\UTIME.H                       utime function

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────




Pointers

Pointers are described in Chapter 8, "Pointers," and Chapter 9, "Advanced
Pointers."

A "pointer" is a variable that contains the memory address of an item rather
than its value. A pointer can point to any type of data item or to a
function. The following code illustrates pointer declarations:

  int *intptr; /* Pointer to an integer */
  char *name; /* Pointer to char */

The following operators are used with pointers:


  ■   The indirection operator (*) has two uses. In a declaration, it means
      that the declared item is a pointer. In an expression, it denotes the
      data being pointed to.

  ■   The address-of operator (&) yields the memory address at which an item
      is stored.


You can perform four arithmetic operations on pointers:


  1.  Adding a pointer and an integer

  2.  Subtracting an integer from a pointer

  3.  Subtracting two pointers

  4.  Comparing two pointers


Pointer arithmetic operations are automatically scaled by the size of the
object pointed to. For instance, adding 1 to a pointer to a float item
causes the address stored in the pointer to be incremented four bytes, the
size of one float item.

QuickC 2.5 also supports based pointers, a highly advanced feature, that are
compatible with Microsoft C version 6.0. Please refer to your C 6.0
documentation for more information about based pointers and objects.






Appendix B  C Library Guide
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

This appendix outlines the features of the C run-time library provided with
QuickC. It does not intend to be a complete presentation of the complete C
run-time library. Instead, this appendix presents the most fundamental
routines, grouped by category so you can begin experimenting with C and with
QuickC.

Remember, use online help to get instant help on any topic of interest. The
online help system provided with QuickC provides complete reference
information for all C library functions, keywords, and preprocessor
directives.


Overview of the C Run-Time Library

At last count, the C run-time library contained over 400 functions to use in
C programs. This appendix describes the major categories of functions
included in the library and, within those categories, the fundamental
routines every C programmer should know.

The discussions of these categories give only a brief overview of the
capabilities of the run-time library. You can find a complete description of
the syntax and use of each routine in online help.

The routines in the C run-time library are divided into the following
categories:

Table B.1  C Run-Time Library Routines

╓┌───────────────────────────────┌──────────────────────────────────┌────────╖
Category                        Function Routines                  Page
Category                        Function Routines                  Page
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Buffer Manipulation             memchr, memcmp, memcpy, memmove,   345
                                memset

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Character Classification        isalnum, isalpha, isascii,         346
and Conversion                  iscntrl, isdigit, isgraph,
                                islower, isprint, ispunct,
                                isspace, isupper, isxdigit,
                                tolower, toupper

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Data Conversion                 atof, atoi, atol, itoa, ltoa,      348
                                ultoa, strtod, strtol, strtoul

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Error Message                   assert, perror, strerror,          349
Category                        Function Routines                  Page
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Error Message                   assert, perror, strerror,          349
                                _strerror

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Graphics 1: Low-Level                                              350
                     Graphics

Configure Mode and              _displaycursor, _getvideoconfig,   351
   Environment                  _setvideomode

Set Coordinates                 _getcurrentposition,               352
                                _getphyscoord,_getviewcoord,
                                _getwindowcoord,
                                _setcliprgn,_setvieworg,
                                _setviewport, _setwindow

Set Palette                     _remapallpalette, remappallette,   354
                                _selectpalette
Category                        Function Routines                  Page
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
                                _selectpalette

Set Attributes                  _getbkcolor, _getcolor,            355
                                _setbkcolor, _setcolor

Output Images                   _arc, _clearscreen, _ellipse,      356
                                _floodfill, _getpixel,
                                _lineto, _moveto, _pie,
                                _rectangle, _setpixel

Output Text                     _displaycursor, _gettextcolor,     359
                                _gettextcursor,
                                _gettextposition, _outtext,
                                _settextposition,
                                _settextcolor, _settextwindow

Transfer Images                 _getimage, _imagesize, _putimage   361

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Category                        Function Routines                  Page
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Graphics 2: Presentation        _pg_chart, _pg_chartms,            362
                     Graphics   _pg_chartpie, _pg_chartscatter,
                                _pg_chartscatterms,
                                _pg_defaultchart, _pg_initchart

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Graphics 3: Font Display        _getfontinfo, _getgtextextent,     365
                                _outgtext, _registerfonts,
                                _setfont, _unregisterfonts

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Input and Output                                                   367

Stream Routines                 clearerr, fclose, feof, ferror,    367
                                fflush, fgetc, fgetpos, fgets,
Category                        Function Routines                  Page
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
                                fflush, fgetc, fgetpos, fgets,
                                fopen, fprintf, fputc, fputs,
                                fread, freopen, fscanf, fseek,
                                fsetpos, ftell, fwrite, getc,
                                getchar, gets, printf, putc,
                                putchar, puts, rewind, scanf,
                                sprintf, sscanf, tmpfile, tmpnam,
                                ungetc

Low-Level Routines              close, creat, eof, lseek, open,    373
                                read, tell, write

Console and Port                cgets, cprintf, cputs, cscanf,     375
   I/O Routines                 getch, getche, kbhit,
                                putch, ungetch

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Math                            abs, fabs, labs, acos, asin, atan,  377
Category                        Function Routines                  Page
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Math                            abs, fabs, labs, acos, asin, atan,  377
                                atan2, ceil, cos, cosh,
                                exp, floor, fmod, frexp, ldexp,
                                log, log10, modf, pow, rand,
                                srand, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Memory Allocation               calloc, free, _ffree, hfree,       381
                                _nfree, malloc, _fmalloc,
                                _nmalloc, realloc

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Process Control                 abort, atexit, exit, _exit,        383
                                system

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Category                        Function Routines                  Page
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Searching and Sorting           bsearch, lfind, lsearch, qsort     384

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

String Manipulation             strcat, strcpy, strdup, strncat,   385
                                strncpy, strchr,
                                strcspn, strpbrk, strrchr, strspn,
                                strstr, strcmp,
                                strcmpi, stricmp, strncmp,
                                strnicmp, strlen, strlwr,
                                strupr, strnset, strset, strtok

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Time                            asctime, clock, ctime, difftime,   389
                                ftime, gmtime,
                                mktime, time

Category                        Function Routines                  Page
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────




Buffer-Manipulation Routines

Buffer manipulation routines are used with areas of memory on a
character-by-character basis. Buffers are arrays of characters (bytes).
Unlike strings, however, they are not usually terminated with a null
character (\0).

memchr - Returns a pointer to the first occurrence, within a specified
number of characters, of a given character in the buffer.

Include                           STRING.H

Prototype                         void *memchr( const void *buf,  int c,
                                  size_t count );

Arguments                         buf         Pointer to buffer

                                  c           Character to copy

                                  count       Number of characters

Returns                           A pointer to the location of c in buf
                                  if successful;

                                  NULL if c is not within first count
                                  bytes  of buf

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
memcmp - Compares a specified number of characters from two buffers.

Include                           STRING.H

Prototype                         int memcmp( const void *buf1,  const
                                  void *buf2, size_t count );

Arguments                         buf1        First buffer

                                  buf2        Second buffer

                                  count       Number of characters

Returns                           A negative value if buf1 < buf2,  0 if
                                  buf1 = buf2,

                                  a positive value if buf1 > buf2

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
memcpy - Copies a specified number of characters from one buffer to another.

Include                           STRING.H

Prototype                         void *memcpy( void *dest,  const void *
                                  src, size_t count );

Arguments                         dest        New buffer

                                  src         Buffer to copy from

                                  count       Number of characters to copy

Returns                           A pointer to dest

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
memmove - Copies a specified number of characters from one buffer to
another. When the source and target areas overlap, the memmove function is
guaranteed to properly copy the full source.

Include                           STRING.H

Prototype                         void *memmove( void *dest,  const void *
                                  src, size_t count );

Arguments                         dest        Target object

                                  src         Source object

                                  count       Number of characters to copy

Returns                           The value of dest

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
memset - Uses a given character to initialize a specified number of bytes in
the buffer.

Include                           STRING.H

Prototype                         void *memset( void *dest,  int c, size_t
                                  count );

Arguments                         dest        Pointer to destination

                                  c           Character to set

                                  count       Number of characters

Returns                           A pointer to dest


Character Classification and Conversion Routines

The classification routines (is...) test a character and return a one (1) if
the character is in the set that the routine is testing for. The conversion
routines (to...) convert characters between uppercase and lowercase. These
routines are generally faster than writing a test expression such as the
following:

  if ((c >= 0) || c <= 0x7f))

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
isalnum, isalpha, isascii, iscntrl, isdigit, isgraph, islower, isprint,
ispunct, isspace, isupper, isxdigit These routines test a character for a
specified condition and return a nonzero value if the condition is true. -

Include                           CTYPE.H

Prototypes                        int isalnum( int c );  (alphanumeric
                                  character: A-Z, a-z, 0-9)



                                  int isalpha( int c );   (alphabetic
                                  character: A-Z,  a-z)



                                  int isascii( int c );     (ASCII
                                  character: 0x00-0x7F)



                                  int iscntrl( int c );    (control
                                  character: 0x00-0x1F,  0x7F)



                                  int isdigit( int c );     (decimal
                                  digit: 0-9)



                                  int isgraph( int c );   (printable
                                  character, not space:  0x21-0x7E)



                                  int islower( int c );   (lowercase
                                  letter: a-z)



                                  int isprint( int c );    (printable
                                  character: 0x20-0x7E)



                                  int ispunct( int c );   (punctuation
                                  character)



                                  int isspace( int c );    (white-space
                                  character:  0x09-0x0D, 0x20)



                                  int isupper( int c );   (uppercase
                                  letter: A-Z)



                                  int isxdigit( int c );   (hexadecimal
                                  digit: A-F,  a-f, 0-9)

Argument                          c           Character to be tested

Returns                           A nonzero value if the condition is true

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
tolower, toupper - These routines accept a character argument and return a
converted character. The tolower and toupper routines are also implemented
as functions. To use the function versions, you must do the following:


  ■   Include CTYPE.H if necessary for other macro definitions

  ■   If CTYPE.H is included, give #undef directives for tolower and toupper

  ■   Include STDLIB.H (which contains the function prototypes)


Include                           CTYPE.H

Prototypes                        int tolower( int c );



                                  int toupper( int c );

Argument                          c           Character to be converted

Returns                           tolower: the lowercase equivalent of c
                                  only if c is an uppercase letter

                                  toupper: the uppercase equivalent of c
                                  only if c  is a lowercase letter


Data Conversion Routines

The data conversion routines convert numbers to strings of ASCII characters
and vice versa.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
atof, atoi, atol - These ASCII-to-number routines convert an ASCII string to
a float, an integer, and a long, respectively.

Include                           STDLIB.H or MATH.H (atof)

                                  STDLIB.H (atoi, atol)

Prototypes                        double atof( const char *string  );



                                  int atoi( const char *string );



                                  long atol( const char *string );

Argument                          string      String to be converted

Returns                           The converted string, or 0 if string
                                  cannot  be converted

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
itoa, ltoa, ultoa - These number-to-ASCII routines convert an integer, a
long value, or an unsigned long value to an ASCII string.

Include                           STDLIB.H

Prototypes                        char * itoa( int value, char  *string,
                                  int radix );



                                  char * ltoa( long value, char *string,
                                  int radix );



                                  char * ultoa( unsigned long value, char
                                  *string,  int radix );

Arguments                         value       Number to be converted

                                  string      String result

                                  radix       Number base of value

Returns                           A pointer to string; there is no error
                                  return

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strtod, strtol, strtoul - These routines convert a string to a double, a
long, and an unsigned long, respectively.

Include                           STDLIB.H

Prototypes                        double strtod( const char *nptr,  char
                                  **endptr );



                                  long strtol( const char *nptr, char **
                                  endptr,  int base );



                                  unsigned long strtoul( const char *nptr,
                                  char **endptr,  int base );

Arguments                         nptr        String to convert

                                  endptr      End of scan

                                  base        Number base to use

Returns                           strtod: the converted value; overflow
                                  returns  HUGE_VAL,

                                  underflow returns 0

                                  strtol: the converted value; overflow
                                  returns LONG_MAX

                                  or LONG_MIN, depending on sign of
                                  converted  value

                                  strtoul: the converted value if
                                  successful, 0 if not, and

                                  ULONG_MAX on overflow


Error Message Routines

The routines in this category handle the display of error messages.

The assert macro is typically used to test for program logic errors; it
prints a message when a given "assertion" fails to hold true. Defining the
identifier NDEBUG to any value causes occurrences of assert to be disabled
in the source file, thus allowing you to turn off assertion checking without
modifying the source file.

The perror routine prints the system-error message, along with a
user-supplied message, for the last system-level call that produced an
error. The perror routine is declared in the include files STDLIB.H and
STDIO.H. The error number is obtained from the errno variable. The system
message is taken from the sys_errlist array.

The strerror and _strerror routines store error messages in a string.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
assert - Tests for logic error.

Include                           ASSERT.H, STDIO.H

Prototype                         void assert( expression );

Argument                          expression  Expression to test

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
perror - Prints error message.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototypes                        void perror( const char *string  );

                                  int errno;

                                  int sys_nerr;

                                  char *sys_errlist [sys_nerr];

Arguments                         string      User-supplied message

                                  errno       Error number

                                  sys_nerr    Number of system-error
                                              messages

                                  sys_errlis  Array of error messages
                                  t

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strerror, _strerror  - Saves system-error message and optional user-error
message in string. The routine strerror is the ANSI-compatible version.

Include                           STRING.H

Prototypes                        char *strerror( int errnum  );

                                  char *_strerror( char *string );

                                  int errno;

                                  int sys_nerr;

                                  char *sys_errlist [sys_nerr];

Arguments                         errnum      Error number

                                  string      User-supplied message

                                  errno       Error number

                                  sys_nerr    Number of system-error
                                              messages

                                  sys_errlis  Array of error messages
                                  t

Returns                           A pointer to the error-message string


Graphics 1: Low-Level Graphics Routines

The low-level graphics routines provide line, figure, and pixel manipulation
capabilities. The routines for presentation graphics are described in the
next section. The routines for displaying fonts follow the presentation
graphics section.

The graphics package supports the IBM(R) (and compatible) Enhanced Graphics
Adapter (EGA), Color Graphics Adapter (CGA), certain operating modes of the
Video Graphics Array (VGA) hardware configurations, and the MCGA (Multicolor
Graphics Array). The graphics package also supports the Hercules Graphics
Card, Graphics Card Plus, InColor Card, and 100 percent compatible cards, as
well as the special Olivetti(R) modes available on AT&T(R) computers.

The low-level graphics routines can be divided into the seven categories
listed below, corresponding to the different tasks involved with creating
and manipulating graphic objects:

Category                          Task
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Configure mode and environment    Selects the proper display mode for the
                                  hardware and establishes memory areas
                                  for writing and displaying images

Set coordinates                   Specifies the logical origin and the
                                  active display area within the screen

Set palette                       Specifies a palette mapping

Set attributes                    Specifies background and foreground
                                  colors and mask and line styles

Output images                     Draws and fills figures on the screen

Output text                       Writes text to the screen

Transfer images                   Stores images in memory and retrieves
                                  them


Configure Mode and Environment

The configure category of functions sets the status of the cursor, sets
active and visual pages, and determines and sets video display modes.

The _setvideomode and _getvideoconfig functions are generally used at the
very beginning of a graphics program.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_displaycursor - Determines whether the cursor will be left on or turned off
on exit from graphics routines.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _displaycursor( short toggle
                                  );

Argument                          toggle      Cursor state (_GCURSORON,
                                              _GCURSOROFF  )

Returns                           The previous value of toggle

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getvideoconfig - Obtains status of current graphics environment.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         struct videoconfig _far * _far
                                  _getvideoconfig

                                  ( struct videoconfig _far *config );

Argument                          config      Configuration information

Returns                           The configuration information as a
                                  videoconfig  structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_setvideomode - Selects screen display mode.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _setvideomode( short mode );

Argument                          mode        Desired mode (_DEFAULTMODE,
                                              _TEXTBW40,

                                  _TEXTC40, _TEXTBW80, _TEXTC80,
                                  _MRES4COLOR,

                                  _MRESNOCOLOR, _HRESBW, _TEXTMONO,

                                  _HERCMONO, _MRES16COLOR, _HRES16COLOR,

                                  _ERESNOCOLOR, _ERESCOLOR, _VRES2COLOR,

                                  _VRES16COLOR, _MRES256COLOR, _ORESCOLOR,

                                  _MAXRESMODE, _MAXCOLORMODE)

Returns                           A nonzero value if successful, 0 if not


Set Coordinates

The Microsoft C graphics routines recognize three sets of coordinates:


  1.  Window coordinates defined with real-number values that are mapped to
      a specified viewport

  2.  Viewport coordinates defined by the application (viewport coordinates)

  3.  Fixed physical coordinates determined by the hardware and display
      configuration of the user's environment (physical coordinates)


The functions in this category alter the coordinate systems and provide a
means to translate coordinates between the various systems.

Most of these routines have two or three forms. The functions are listed by
the "base" name, without a suffix. Note, though, that function names that
end with a _w, such as _getcurrentposition_w, use the window-coordinate
system. Those that end with a _wxy, such as _getviewcoord_wxy, use the
window-coordinate system and a _wxycoord structure to define the
coordinates.

The default viewport-coordinate system is identical to the physical one. The
physical origin (0, 0) is always in the upper left corner of the display.
The x axis extends in the positive direction left to right, and the y axis
extends in the positive direction top to bottom.

The dimensions of the x and y axes depend upon the hardware display
configuration and the selected mode. These values are accessible at run time
by examining the numxpixels and numypixels fields of the videoconfig
structure returned by _getvideoconfig.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getcurrentposition - Obtains the coordinates of the current graphic-output
position. The _getcurrentposition function returns the position as an
xycoord structure and the _getcurrentposition_w function returns the
position as a  _wxycoord structure.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        struct xycoord _far _getcurrentposition(
                                  void );



                                  struct _wxycoord _far
                                  _getcurrentposition_w( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           _getcurrentposition: the coordinates of
                                  the current position as

                                  an xycoord structure

                                  _getcurrentposition_w: the coordinates
                                  of the current position

                                  as a _wxycoord structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getphyscoord - Converts viewport coordinates to physical coordinates.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         struct xycoord _far _getphyscoord( short
                                  x, short y );

Argument                          x, y        View point to translate

Returns                           A pair of physical coordinates as an
                                  xycoord  structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getviewcoord  - Converts specified coordinates to viewport coordinates.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        struct xycoord _far _getviewcoord( short
                                  x, short  );



                                  struct xycoord _far _getviewcoord_w(
                                  double wx, double wy  );



                                  struct xycoord _far _getviewcoord_wxy(
                                  struct _wxycoord _far

                                  *pwxy1 );

Arguments                         x, y        Physical point to translate

                                  wx, wy      Window-coordinate point to
                                              translate

                                  pwxy1       Window-coordinate point to
                                              translate

Returns                           A pair of logical coordinates as an
                                  xycoord  structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getwindowcoord - Converts physical coordinates to window coordinates.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         struct _wxycoord _far _getwindowcoord(
                                  short  x, short y );

Argument                          x, y        Physical point to translate

Returns                           A pair of window coordinates as a
                                  _wxycoord  structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_setcliprgn - Limits graphic output to part of the screen.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         void _far _setcliprgn( short x1, short
                                  y1, short x2, short y2 );

Arguments                         x1, y1      Upper left corner of clip
                                              region

                                  x2, y2      Lower right corner of clip
                                              region

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_setvieworg - Positions the logical origin.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         struct xycoord _far _setvieworg( short x
                                  ,  short y );

Argument                          x, y        New origin point

Returns                           The physical coordinates of the previous
                                  viewport  origin in an

                                  xycoord structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_setviewport - Limits graphic output and positions the logical origin within
a limited area.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         void _far _setviewport( short x1,  short
                                  y1, short x2, short y2 );

Arguments                         x1, y1      Upper left corner of window

                                  x2, y2      Lower right corner of window

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_setwindow - Defines a window-coordinate system.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         void _far _setwindow( short finvert,
                                  double wx1, double wy1,

                                  double wx2, double wy2 );

Arguments                         wx1, wy1    Upper left corner of  window

                                  wx2, wy2    Lower right corner of window

                                  finvert     Invert flag  (TRUE, FALSE)

Returns                           Void


Set Palette

A screen pixel can be represented as a one-, two-, or four-bit value,
depending on the particular mode. The byte representation is called the
"color value."

Each color that can be displayed is represented by a unique ordinal value
called a "color index." A palette is simply a mapping of the actual display
colors to the legal values.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_remapallpalette, _remappalette - The _remapallpalette routine assigns
colors to all color values. The _remappalette routine assigns color indexes
to selected color values.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        short _far _remapallpalette( long _far *
                                  colors  );



                                  long _far _remappalette( short index,
                                  long color );



Arguments                         colors      Color value array: (_BLACK,
                                              _BLUE, _GREEN,

                                  _CYAN, _RED, _MAGENTA, _BROWN,  _WHITE,

                                  _GRAY, _LIGHTBLUE, ,_LIGHTGREEN,

                                  _LIGHTCYAN, _LIGHTRED, _LIGHTMAGENTA,

                                  _LIGHTYELL  _BRIGHTWHITE)
                                  OW,

                                  index       Color index to reassign

                                  color       Color value to assign color
                                              index

Returns                           _remapallpalette:  0 if successful, -1
                                  if not

                                  _remappalette:  the previous color value
                                  of the index argument

                                  if successful, -1 if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_selectpalette - Selects a predefined palette.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _selectpalette( short number
                                  );

Argument                          number      Palette number

Returns                           The value of the previous palette


Set Attributes

Attributes are characteristics (color, fill pattern, or line style) that can
be specified for low-level graphics routines.

A fill mask is an 8-by-8-bit template array, with each bit representing a
pixel. If a bit is 0, the pixel in memory is left untouched: the mask is
transparent to that pixel. If a bit is 1, the pixel is assigned the current
color value. The template is repeated over the entire fill area.

A line style is a 16-bit template buffer, with each bit corresponding to a
pixel. If a bit is 0, the pixel is set to the current background color. If a
bit is 1, the pixel is set to the current color. The template is repeated
for the length of the line.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getbkcolor - Reports the current background color.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         long _far _getbkcolor( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           The current background color

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getcolor - Obtains the current color.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _getcolor( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           The current color

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_setbkcolor - Sets the current background color.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         long _far _setbkcolor( long color );

Argument                          color       Desired color value

Returns                           The color value of the previous
                                  background color

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_setcolor - Sets the current color.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _setcolor( short color );

Argument                          color       Desired color index

Returns                           The previous color


Output Images

These routines display graphic elements (arcs, lines, pixels, etc.) on the
screen.

Circular figures such as arcs and ellipses are centered within a "bounding
rectangle," specified by two points that define the diagonally opposed
corners of the rectangle. The center of the rectangle becomes the center of
the figure, and the rectangle's borders determine the size of the figure.

Most of these routines have two or three forms. The functions are listed by
the "base" name, without a suffix. Note, though, that function names that
end with a _w, such as _arc_w, use the window coordinate system. Those that
end with a _wxy, such as _ellipse_wxy, use the window coordinate system and
a  _wxycoord structure to define the coordinates.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_arc  - Draws an arc.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        short _far _arc( short x1, short  y1,
                                  short x2, short y2,

                                  short x3, short y3, short x4, short y4
                                  );



                                  short _far _arc_wxy( struct _wxycoord
                                  pwxy1,

                                  struct _wxycoord*pwxy2, struct
                                  _wxycoord*pwxy3,

                                  struct _wxycoord*pwxy4 );

Arguments                         x1, y1      Upper left corner of
                                              bounding  rectangle

                                  x2, y2      Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle

                                  x3, y3      Start vector

                                  x4, y4      End vector

                                  pwxy1       Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle

                                  pwxy2       Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle

                                  pwxy3       Start vector

                                  pwxy4       End vector

Returns                           A nonzero value if the arc is drawn
                                  successfully,  0 if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_clearscreen - Erases the screen and fills it with the current background
color.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         void _far _clearscreen( short area );

Argument                          area        Target area (_GCLEARSCREEN,
                                              _GVIEWPORT,

                                   _GWINDOW)

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_ellipse  - Draws an ellipse.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        short _far _ellipse( short control,
                                  short x1, short y1,

                                  short x2, short y2 );



                                  short _far _ellipse_w( short control,
                                  double wx1,  double wy1,

                                  double wx2, double wy2 );



                                  short _far _ellipse_wxy( short control,
                                  struct _wxycoord*  pwxy1,

                                  struct _wxycoord*pwxy2 );

Arguments                         control     Fill flag ( _GFILLINTERIOR,
                                               _GBORDER)

                                  x1, y1      Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (view

                                  coordinates)

                                  x2, y2      Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (view

                                  coordinates)

                                  wx1, wy1    Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window

                                  coordinates)

                                  wx2, wy2    Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle  (window

                                  coordinates)

                                  pwxy1       Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window

                                  coordinates)

                                  pwxy2       Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window

                                  coordinates)

Returns                           A nonzero value if the ellipse is drawn
                                  successfully,  0 if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_floodfill  - Fills an area of the screen with the current color.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        short _far _floodfill( short x, short  y
                                  , short boundary );



                                  short _far _floodfill_w( double wx,
                                  double wy, short  boundary );

Arguments                         x, y        Start point (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx, wy      Start point (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  boundary    Boundary color

Returns                           A nonzero value if successful, 0 if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getpixel  - Obtains a pixel's color index. The coordinates can be specified
in either view coordinates (_getpixel) or in window coordinates
(_getpixel_w).

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        short _far _getpixel( short x, short  y
                                  );



                                  short _far _getpixel_w( double wx,
                                  double wy );

Arguments                         x, y        Pixel position (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx, wy      Pixel position (window
                                              coordinates)

Returns                           The color index if successful, -1 if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_lineto  - Draws a line from the current graphic output position to a
specified point. The coordinate of the end point can be specified in either
view coordinates (_lineto) or in window coordinates (_lineto_w).

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        short _far _lineto( short x, short  y );



                                  short _far _lineto_w( double wx, double
                                  wy );

Arguments                         x, y        End point (view coordinates)

                                  wx, wy      End point (window
                                              coordinates)

Returns                           A nonzero value if the line is drawn
                                  successfully,  0 if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_moveto  - Moves the current graphic-output position to a specified point.
The coordinates can be specified in either view coordinates (_moveto) or in
window coordinates (_moveto_w).

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        struct xycoord _far _moveto( short x,
                                  short );



                                  struct _wxycoord _far _moveto_w( double
                                  wx, double wy  );

Arguments                         x, y        Target position (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx, wy      Target position (window
                                              coordinates)

Returns                           The logical coordinates of the previous
                                  position  as an xycoord

                                  structure (_moveto) or as a _wxycoord
                                  structure (_moveto_w)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pie  - Draws a figure shaped like a pie wedge.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        short _far _pie( short control, short
                                  x1, short y1,

                                  short x2, short y2, short x3, short y3,
                                  short x4, short y4 );



                                  short _far _pie_wxy( short control,
                                  struct _wxycoord*  pwxy1,

                                  struct _wxycoord*pwxy2, struct
                                  _wxycoord* pwxy3,

                                  struct _wxycoord*pwxy4 );

Arguments                         control     Fill flag (_GFILLINTERIOR,
                                              _GBORDER)

                                  x1, y1      Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  x2, y2      Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  x3, y3      Start vector(view
                                              coordinates)

                                  x4, y4      End vector (view coordinates)

                                  pwxy1       Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  pwxy2       Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  pwxy3       Start vector (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  pwxy4       End vector (window
                                              coordinates)

Returns                           A nonzero value if the pie is drawn
                                  successfully,  0 if not



────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_rectangle  - Draws a rectangle.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        short _far _rectangle( short control,
                                  short x1, short y1,

                                  short x2, short y2 );



                                  short _far _rectangle_w( short control,
                                  double wx1,  double wy1,

                                  double wx2, double wy2 );



                                  short _far _rectangle_wxy( short control
                                  , struct _wxycoord*pwxy1,

                                  struct _wxycoord*pwxy2 );

Arguments                         control     Fill flag (_GFILLINTERIOR,
                                              _GBORDER)

                                  x1, y1      Upper left corner (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  x2, y2      Lower right corner (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx1, wy1    Upper left corner (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx2, wy2    Lower right corner (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  pwxy1       Upper left corner (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  pwxy2       Lower right corner (window
                                              coordinates)

Returns                           A nonzero value if the rectangle is
                                  drawn successfully,  0 if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_setpixel  - Sets a pixel's color index.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        short _far _setpixel( short x, short  y
                                  );



                                  short _far _setpixel_w( double wx,
                                  double wy );

Arguments                         x, y        Target pixel (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx, wy      Target pixel (window
                                              coordinates)

Returns                           The pixel's previous value if successful,
                                  -1  if not


Output Text

These routines provide text output in both graphics and text modes.

These functions recognize text window boundaries and should be used in
applications using text windows.

No formatting capability is provided. If you want to output integer or
floating-point values, you must convert the values into a string variable
before calling these routines. All screen positions are specified as
character-row and character-column coordinates.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_displaycursor - Sets the cursor "on" or "off" on exit from a graphics
routine.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _displaycursor( short toggle
                                  );

Argument                          toggle      Cursor state (_GCURSORON,
                                              _GCURSOROFF)

Returns                           The previous value of toggle

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_gettextcolor - Obtains the current text color.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _gettextcolor( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           The color index of the current text
                                  color

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_gettextcursor - Obtains the current cursor attribute.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _gettextcursor( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           The current cursor attribute

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_gettextposition - Obtains the current text-output position.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         struct rccoord _far _gettextposition(
                                  void  );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           The current text position as an rccoord
                                  structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_outtext - Outputs text to the screen at the current position.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         void _far _outtext( unsigned char _far *
                                  text  );

Argument                          text        Text to be output

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_settextposition - Relocates the current text position.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         struct rccoord _far _settextposition(
                                  short  row, short col );

Arguments                         row         Row coordinate of new output
                                              position

                                  col         Column coordinate of new
                                              output position

Returns                           The previous text position in an rccoord
                                  structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_settextcolor - Sets the current text color.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _settextcolor( short index
                                  );

Argument                          index       Desired color index

Returns                           The value of the previous color

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_settextwindow - Sets the current text-display window.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         void _far _settextwindow( short r1,
                                  short c1, short r2, short c2 );

Arguments                         r1, c1      Upper left corner of window

                                  r2, c2      Lower right corner of window

Returns                           Void


Transfer Images

These functions transfer screen images between memory and the display, using
a buffer allocated by the application. You can use these functions to
animate graphics elements on the screen.

Most of these routines have two or three forms. The functions are listed by
the "base" name, without a suffix. Note, though, that function names that
end in a _w, such as _getimage_w, use the window-coordinate system. Those
that end with a _wxy, such as _imagesize_wxy, use the window-coordinate
system and a _wxycoord structure to define the coordinates.

The _imagesize function is used to find the size in bytes of the buffer
needed to store a given image.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getimage - Stores a screen image in memory.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        void _far _getimage( short x1, short  y1
                                  ,

                                  short x2, short y2, char _huge *image
                                  );



                                  void _far _getimage_w( double wx1,
                                  double wy1,

                                  double wx2, double wy2, char _huge *
                                  image  );



                                  void _far _getimage_wxy( struct
                                  _wxycoord*pwxy1,

                                  struct _wxycoord*pwxy2, char _huge *
                                  image  );

Arguments                         x1, y1      Upper left corner of
                                              bounding  rectangle (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  x2, y2      Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx1, wy1    Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx2, wy2    Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle  (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  pwxy1       Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  pwxy2       Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  image       Storage buffer for screen
                                              image

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_imagesize - Returns image size in bytes.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        long _far _imagesize( short x1, short
                                  y1, short x2, short y2 );



                                  long _far _imagesize_w( double wx1,
                                  double wy1, double  wx2,

                                  double wy2 );



                                  long _far _imagesize_wxy( struct
                                  _wxycoord* pwxy1,

                                  struct _wxycoord* pwxy2 );

Arguments                         x1, y1      Upper left corner of
                                              bounding  rectangle (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  x2, y2      Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx1, wy1    Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx2, wy2    Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle  (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  pwxy1       Upper left corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  pwxy2       Lower right corner of
                                              bounding rectangle (window
                                              coordinates)

Returns                           The storage size of the image in bytes

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_putimage - Retrieves an image from memory and displays it.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototypes                        void _far _putimage( short x, short  y,

                                  char _huge *image, short action );



                                  void _far _putimage_w( double wx, double
                                  wy,

                                  char _huge *image, short action );

Arguments                         x, y        Position of upper left
                                              corner of  image (view
                                              coordinates)

                                  wx, wy      Position of upper left
                                              corner of image (window
                                              coordinates)

                                  image       Stored image buffer

                                  action      Interaction with existing
                                              screen image (_GAND,   _GOR,

                                  _GXOR, _GPSET, _GPRESET)

Returns                           Void


Graphics 2: Presentation Graphics Routines

The presentation graphics routines provide complete charting capabilities
for line, bar, column, scatter, and pie charts.

Some charts plot both "categories," or non-numeric data such as time
periods, and "values," or specific numeric data, such as sales. Presentation
graphics routines support the following kinds of charts:

Chart Name                        Description
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
Line                              Category/value chart, with styles for
                                  lines between points and for no lines

Bar                               Category/value chart, horizontal bars,
                                  styles for stacked and unstacked
                                  multiple series charts

Column                            Category/value chart, vertical bars,
                                  with styles for stacked and unstacked
                                  multiple series charts

Scatter                           Value/value chart, with styles for lines
                                  connecting points or for no lines

Pie                               Pie chart, with optional percentages and
                                  exploded sections

The graphics package supports the IBM (and compatible) Enhanced Graphics
Adapter (EGA), Color Graphics Adapter (CGA), certain operating modes of the
Video Graphics Array (VGA) hardware configurations, and the Multicolor
Graphics Array (MCGA). The graphics package also supports the Hercules
Graphics Card, Graphics Card Plus, InColor Card, and 100-percent compatible
cards, as well as the special Olivetti modes available on AT&T computers.

The _pg_initchart and _pg_defaultchart functions are generally used at the
very beginning of a presentation graphics program.

The _pg_chart functions produce column charts, line charts, and bar charts.
The _pg_chartscatter functions produce a scatter plot of data. The
_pg_chartpie function generates a pie chart.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pg_chart - Generates a chart of the type specified in the env environment
variable. It produces a column, bar, or line chart for a single series of
data.

Include                           PGCHART.H

Prototype                         short _far _pg_chart( chartenv _far*env,


                                  char _far*_far *categories, float _far*
                                  values,  short n );

Arguments                         env         Chart environment variable

                                  categories  Array of category variables

                                  values      Array of data values

                                  n           Number of data values to
                                              chart

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pg_chartms - Generates a multiple series of charts of the type specified in
the env environment variable. It produces a column, bar, or line chart for a
multiple series of data. All series must be the same length.

Include                           PGCHART.H

Prototype                         short _far _pg_chartms( chartenv _far *
                                  env,

                                  char _far * _far*categories, float _far*
                                  values,  short n, short nseries,

                                  short arraydim, char _far* _far*
                                  serieslabels  );

Arguments                         env         Chart environment variable

                                  categories  Array of category variables

                                  values      Two-dimensional array of
                                              data values (series, data)

                                  n           Number of data values to
                                              chart in a series

                                  nseries     Number of series to chart

                                  arraydim    Second (row) dimension of
                                              data array

                                  serieslabe  Array of labels for series
                                  ls

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pg_chartpie - Generates a pie chart for a single series of data.

Include                           PGCHART.H

Prototype                         short _far _pg_chartpie( chartenv _far*
                                  env,

                                  char _far* _far*categories, float _far*
                                  values,

                                  short _far*explode, short n );

Arguments                         env         Chart environment variable

                                  categories  Array of category names

                                  values      Array of data values

                                  explode     Array of explode flags;
                                              1=explode, 0=do not explode

                                  n           Number of data values to
                                              chart

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pg_chartscatter - Generates a scatter chart for a single series of data.

Include                           PGCHART.H

Prototype                         short _far _pg_chartscatter( chartenv
                                  _far  *env, float _far *xvalues,

                                  float _far *yvalues, short n );

Arguments                         env         Chart environment variable

                                  xvalues     Array of x-axis data values

                                  yvalues     Array of y-axis data values

                                  n           Number of data values to
                                              chart

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pg_chartscatterms - Generates a scatter chart for a multiple series of
data.

Include                           PGCHART.H

Prototype                         short _far _pg_chartscatterms( chartenv
                                  _far  *env,

                                  float _far*xvalues, float _far*yvalues,
                                  short nseries, short n,

                                  short rowdim, char _far* _far *
                                  serieslabels  );

Arguments                         env         Chart environment variable

                                  xvalues     Two-dimensional array of x
                                              -axis values

                                  yvalues     Two-dimensional array of y
                                              -axis values

                                  n           Number of data values to
                                              chart in a series

                                  nseries     Number of series to chart

                                  rowdim      Second (row) dimension of
                                              data array

                                  serieslabe  Array of labels for series
                                  ls

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pg_defaultchart - Initializes all necessary variables in the chart
environment for the specified default chart and chart style.

Include                           PGCHART.H

Prototype                         short _far _pg_defaultchart( chartenv
                                  _far  *env, short charttype,

                                  short chartstyle );

Arguments                         env         Chart environment variable

                                  charttype   Chart type (_PG_BARCHART,

                                  _PG_COLUMNCHART, _PG_LINECHART,

                                  _PG_SCATTERCHART, _PG_PIECHART)

                                  chartstyle  Chart style

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_pg_initchart - Initializes chart line-style set, default palettes, screen
modes, and character fonts. You must call this routine before any other
charting routine.

Include                           PGCHART.H

Prototype                         short _far _pg_initchart( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not


Graphics 3: Font Display Routines

The font graphics routines display font-based characters on the screen.

The _registerfonts function initializes the fonts package with a set of
disk-based type fonts. This must be done at the very beginning of any fonts
program. The _unregisterfonts function frees fonts from memory when they are
no longer needed.

The _setfont function makes a specified font the current active font for
output. The _outgtext function displays text on the screen using the current
font.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getfontinfo - Obtains the current font characteristics.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _getfontinfo( struct
                                  _fontinfo  _far *fontbuffer );

Argument                          fontbuffer  Font information

Returns                           Font information as a _fontinfo
                                  structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_getgtextextent - Determines the width of the specified text in the current
font.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _getgtextextent( unsigned
                                  char  _far * text );

Argument                          text        Text to be analyzed

Returns                           The width of the text in pixels

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_outgtext - Outputs text in the current font to the screen at the current
position.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         void _far _outgtext( unsigned char _far
                                  *text  );

Argument                          text        Text to be output

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_registerfonts - Initializes the font library.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _registerfonts( unsigned char
                                  _far *filename );

Argument                          file name   File name of .FON files to
                                              register

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_setfont - Finds a single font that matches a specified set of
characteristics and makes this font the current font.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         short _far _setfont( unsigned char _far
                                  *options  );

Argument                          options     Font options string

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_unregisterfonts - Frees memory associated with fonts.

Include                           GRAPH.H

Prototype                         void _far _unregisterfonts( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           Void


Input and Output Routines

The input and output (I/O) routines of the standard C library allow you to
read and write data to and from files and devices. In C, there are no
predefined file structures; all data is treated as sequences of bytes.

Three types of I/O functions are available:


  ■   Stream I/O,  in which the data file is a stream of individual
      characters

  ■   Low-level I/O, which uses the system's I/O capabilities directly

  ■   Console and port I/O, which are stream routines for console or port


Stream I/O uses the FILE structure. The stream routines provide for
buffered, formatted, or unformatted input and output.

Low-level I/O uses a file "handle" to access files. This handle is an
integer value that is used to refer to the file in subsequent operations.

Do not mix stream and low-level routines on the same file or device.


Stream Routines

In the stream routines listed below, the following manifest constants are
used:


  ■   EOF is defined to be the value returned at end-of-file

  ■   NULL is the null pointer

  ■   FILE is the structure that maintains information about a stream

  ■   BUFSIZ defines the default size of stream buffers, in bytes


────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
clearerr - Clears the error indicator for a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         void clearerr( FILE *stream  );

Argument                          stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fclose - Closes a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fclose( FILE *stream  );

Argument                          stream      Target FILE structure

Returns                           0 if successful, EOF if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
feof - Tests for end-of-file on a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int feof( FILE *stream  );

Argument                          stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           A nonzero value when the current
                                  position is  the end-of-file,

                                  0 if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
ferror - Tests for error on a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int ferror( FILE *stream  );

Argument                          stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           A nonzero value to indicate an error in
                                  stream,  0 to indicate

                                  no error

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fflush - Flushes a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fflush( FILE *stream  );

Argument                          stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           0 if successful, if stream has no buffer,
                                  or  if stream is open

                                  only for reading; returns EOF otherwise

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fgetc - Reads a character from a stream (function version).

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fgetc( FILE *stream  );

Argument                          stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           The character read; EOF may indicate
                                  error

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fgetpos - Gets the position indicator of a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fgetpos( FILE *stream,  fpos_t *pos
                                  );

Arguments                         stream      Target stream

                                  pos         Position indicator storage

Returns                           0 if successful, a nonzero value if not

                                  errno:  EINVAL, EBADF

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fgets - Reads a string from a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         char *fgets( char *string,  int n, FILE
                                  *stream );

Arguments                         string      Storage location for data

                                  n           Number of characters stored

                                  stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           A pointer to string if successful, NULL
                                  if unsuccessful or at

                                  end-of-file

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fopen - Opens a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         FILE *fopen( const char *filename,
                                  const char *mode );

Arguments                         filename    Path name of file

                                  mode        Type of access permitted
                                              such as r, w,  a, r+, w+, a+
                                              , t, b

                                  (appended to type to indicate mode)

Returns                           A pointer to the open file if successful,
                                  NULL  if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fprintf - Writes formatted data to a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fprintf( FILE *stream,  const char *
                                  format [[, argument]]...  );

Arguments                         stream      Pointer to FILE structure

                                  format      Format-control string

Returns                           The number of characters printed

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fputc - Writes a character to a stream (function version).

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fputc( int c, FILE *stream  );

Arguments                         c           Character to be written

                                  stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           The character written; EOF may indicate
                                  error

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fputs - Writes a string to a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fputs( const char *string,  FILE *
                                  stream );

Arguments                         string      String to be output

                                  stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fread - Reads unformatted data from a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         size_t fread( void *buffer,  size_t size
                                  , size_t count, FILE *stream  );

Arguments                         buffer      Storage location for data

                                  size        Item size in bytes

                                  count       Maximum number of items to
                                              be read

                                  stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           The number of items actually read

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
freopen - Reassigns a FILE pointer.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         FILE *freopen( const char  *filename,
                                  const char *mode,

                                  FILE *stream );

Arguments                         filename    Path name of new file

                                  mode        Type of access permitted
                                              such as r,  w,  a,  r+,  w+,

                                  a+,  t,  b (appended to type to indicate
                                  mode)

                                  stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           A pointer to the newly opened file if
                                  successful,  a NULL

                                  pointer if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fscanf - Reads formatted data from a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fscanf( FILE *stream,  const char*
                                  format  [[, argument]]  ... );

Arguments                         stream      Pointer to FILE structure

                                  format      Format-control string

Returns                           The number of fields successfully
                                  converted and  assigned;

                                  EOF indicates an attempt to read the
                                  end-of-file

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fseek - Repositions FILE pointer to given location.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fseek( FILE *stream,  long offset,
                                  int origin );

Arguments                         stream      Pointer to FILE structure

                                  offset      Number of bytes from origin

                                  origin      Initial position (SEEK_SET,
                                              SEEK_CUR,  SEEK_END)

Returns                           0 if successful, a nonzero value if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fsetpos - Sets the position indicator of a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int fsetpos( FILE *stream,  const fpos_t
                                  *pos );

Arguments                         stream      Target stream

                                  pos         Position-indicator storage

Returns                           0 if successful, a nonzero value if not

                                  errno:  EINVAL, EBADF

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
ftell - Gets current FILE pointer position.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         long ftell( FILE *stream  );

Argument                          stream      Target FILE structure

Returns                           The current position if successful, -1L
                                  if  not

                                  errno:  EINVAL, EBADF

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fwrite - Writes unformatted data items to a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         size_t fwrite( const void *buffer,
                                  size_t size, size_t count,

                                  FILE *stream );

Arguments                         buffer      Pointer to data to be
                                              written

                                  size        Item size in bytes

                                  count       Maximum number of items to
                                              be written

                                  stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           The number of full items actually
                                  written

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
getc - Reads a character from a stream (macro version).

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int getc( FILE *stream  );

Argument                          stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           The character read; EOF may indicate
                                  error

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
getchar - Reads a character from stdin (macro version).

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int getchar( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           The character read; EOF may indicate
                                  error

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
gets - Reads a line from stdin.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         char *gets( char *buffer  );

Argument                          buffer      Storage location for input
                                              string

Returns                           A pointer to its argument if successful,
                                  a NULL  pointer if at

                                  end-of-file or unsuccessful

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
printf - Writes formatted data to stdout.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int printf( const char *format  [[,
                                  argument]]... );

Argument                          format      Format-control string

Returns                           The number of characters printed

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
putc - Writes a character to a stream (macro version).

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int putc( int c, FILE *stream  );

Arguments                         c           Character to be written

                                  stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           The character written; EOF may indicate
                                  error

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
putchar - Writes a character to stdout (macro version).

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int putchar( int c );

Argument                          c           Character to be written

Returns                           The character written; EOF may indicate
                                  error

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
puts - Writes a line to a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int puts( const char *string );

Argument                          string      String to be output

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
rewind - Repositions FILE pointer to beginning of a stream.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         void rewind( FILE *stream  );

Argument                          stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
scanf - Reads formatted data from stdin.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int scanf( const char *format [[,
                                  argument]]... );

Argument                          format      Format control string

Returns                           The number of fields converted and
                                  assigned if  successful, 0 if

                                  no fields were assigned, EOF for an
                                  attempt to read  end-of-file

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
sprintf - Writes formatted data to string.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int sprintf( char *buffer, const  char *
                                  format [[, argument]]  ... );

Arguments                         buffer      Storage location for output

                                  format      Format-control string

Returns                           The number of characters stored in
                                  buffer

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
sscanf - Reads formatted data from string.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int sscanf( const char *buffer,  const
                                  char *format [[, argument]]  ... );

Arguments                         buffer      Stored data

                                  format      Format-control string

Returns                           The number of fields converted and
                                  assigned if  successful, 0 if

                                  no fields were assigned, EOF for an
                                  attempt to read  at end-of-string

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
tmpfile - Creates a temporary file.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         FILE *tmpfile( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           A stream pointer if successful, NULL  if
                                  not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
tmpnam - Generates a temporary file name.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         char *tmpnam( char *string  );

Argument                          string      Pointer to temporary name

Returns                           A pointer to the new name if successful,
                                  NULL  if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
ungetc - Places a character in the input stream buffer.

Include                           STDIO.H

Prototype                         int ungetc( int c, FILE  *stream );

Arguments                         c           Character to be pushed

                                  stream      Pointer to FILE structure

Returns                           The character argument c if successful,
                                  EOF if not


Low-Level Routines

The low-level input and output calls do not buffer or format data.

Files opened by low-level calls are referenced by a "file handle," an
integer value used by the operating system to refer to the file.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
close - Closes a file.

Include                           IO.H

Prototype                         int close( int handle );

Argument                          handle      Handle referring to open
                                              file

Returns                           0 if successful, -1 if not

                                  errno: EBADF

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
creat  - Creates a file.

Include                           IO.H, SYS\TYPES.H, SYS\STAT.H

Prototype                         int creat( char *filename, int  pmode );

Arguments                         filename    Path name of new file

                                  pmode       Permission setting (
                                              S_IWRITE , S_IREAD,

                                  S_IREAD | S_IWRITE)

Returns                           A handle if successful, -1 if not

                                  errno:  EACCES, EMFILE, ENOENT

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
eof  - Tests for end-of-file.

Include                           IO.H

Prototype                         int eof( int handle );

Argument                          handle      Handle referring to open
                                              file

Returns                           1 if the current position is the
                                  end-of-file  and 0 if it is not,

                                  -1 to indicate an error

                                  errno:  EBADF

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
lseek  - Repositions file pointer to a given location.

Include                           IO.H, STDIO.H

Prototype                         long lseek( int handle, long offset,
                                  int origin );

Arguments                         handle      Handle referring to open
                                              file

                                  offset      Number of bytes from origin

                                  origin      Initial position (SEEK_SET,
                                              SEEK_CUR,  SEEK_END)

Returns                           The new position offset (in bytes) from
                                  the beginning  of

                                  the file if successful, -1L if not

                                  errno:  EBADF, EINVAL

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
open  - Opens a file.

Include                           FCNTL.H, IO.H, SYS\TYPES.H, SYS\STAT.H

Prototype                         int open( char *path, int oflag [[,  int
                                  pmode]] );

Arguments                         path        File path name

                                  oflag       Type of operations allowed
                                              such as O_APPEND,

                                  O_BINARY, O_CREAT,  O_EXCL,   O_RDONLY,

                                  O_RDWR,   O_TEXT,   O_TRUNC,  O_WRONLY

                                  (may be joined by | )

                                  pmode       Permission setting (S_IWRITE
                                              ,  S_IREAD,

                                  S_IREAD | S_IWRITE)

Returns                           A handle if successful, -1 if not

                                  errno:  EACCES, EEXIST, EMFILE,  ENOENT

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
read  - Reads data from a file.

Include                           IO.H

Prototype                         int read( int handle, char *buffer,
                                  unsigned int count );

Arguments                         handle      Handle referring to open
                                              file

                                  buffer      Storage location of data

                                  count       Maximum number of bytes

Returns                           The number of bytes actually read or 0
                                  at end-of-file  if

                                  successful; -1 if not

                                  errno:  EBADF

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
tell  - Gets current file-pointer position.

Include                           IO.H

Prototype                         long tell( int handle );

Argument                          handle      Handle referring to open
                                              file

Returns                           The current position if successful, -1L
                                  if  not

                                  errno:  EBADF

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
write  - Writes data to a file.

Include                           IO.H

Prototype                         int write( int handle, void *buffer,
                                  unsigned int count );

Arguments                         handle      Handle referring to open
                                              file

                                  buffer      Data to be written

                                  count       Number of bytes

Returns                           The number of bytes actually written if
                                  successful,  -1 if not

                                  errno:  EBADF, ENOSPC




Console and Port I/O Routines

The console and port I/O routines perform reading and writing operations on
your console or on the specified port.

The cgets, cscanf, getch, getche, and kbhit routines take input from the
console.

The cprintf, cputs, putch, and ungetch routines write to the console.

The console or port does not have to be opened or closed before I/O is
performed.

The console I/O routines use the corresponding MS-DOS system calls to read
and write characters. Since these routines are not compatible with stream or
low-level library routines, console routines should not be used with them.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
cgets - Reads a string from the console.

Include                           CONIO.H

Prototype                         char *cgets( char *buffer  );

Argument                          buffer      Storage location for data

Returns                           A pointer to the start of the string,
                                  which is  at str[2]

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
cprintf - Writes formatted data to the console.

Include                           CONIO.H

Prototype                         int cprintf( char *format [[,  argument]]
                                  ... );

Argument                          format      Format-control string

Returns                           The number of characters printed

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
cputs - Writes a string to the console.

Include                           CONIO.H

Prototype                         int cputs( char *string );

Argument                          string      Output string

Returns                           0 if successful, nonzero if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
cscanf - Reads formatted data from the console.

Include                           CONIO.H

Prototype                         int cscanf( char *format [[,  argument
                                  ]]... );

Argument                          format      Format-control string

Returns                           The number of fields converted and
                                  assigned if  successful

                                  (0 means no fields were assigned), EOF
                                  for an attempt  to read

                                  end-of-file

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
getch - Reads a character from the console.

Include                           CONIO.H

Prototype                         int getch( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           The character read

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
getche - Reads a character from the console and echoes it.

Include                           CONIO.H

Prototype                         int getche( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           The character read

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
kbhit - Checks for a keystroke at the console.

Include                           CONIO.H

Prototype                         int kbhit( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           A nonzero value if a key has been
                                  pressed, 0  if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
putch - Writes a character to the console.

Include                           CONIO.H

Prototype                         int putch( int c );

Argument                          c           Character to be output

Returns                           The argument c if successful, EOF  if
                                  not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
ungetch - "Ungets" the last character read from the console so that it
becomes the next character read.

Include                           CONIO.H

Prototype                         int ungetch( int c );

Argument                          c           Character to be pushed

Returns                           The argument c if successful, EOF  if
                                  not


Math Routines

The math routines allow you to perform common mathematical calculations.

All math routines work with floating-point values and therefore require
floating-point support.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
abs, fabs, labs - The abs, fabs, and labs routines return the absolute value
of an integer, a double, and a long argument, respectively.

Includes                          STDLIB.H (abs, labs), MATH.H (fabs)

Prototypes                        int abs( int n );



                                  double fabs( double x );



                                  long labs( long x );

Arguments                         n           Integer (abs) or long (labs)
                                              value

                                  x           Floating-point value

Returns                           Absolute value of its argument

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
acos - Calculates the arccosine.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double acos( double x );

Argument                          x           Value whose arccosine is to
                                              be calculated

Returns                           The arccosine result if successful, or 0
                                  if x  > 1

                                  errno:  EDOM

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
asin - Calculates the arcsine.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double asin( double x );

Argument                          x           Value whose arcsine is to be
                                              calculated

Returns                           The arcsine result if successful, or 0
                                  if x  >1

                                  errno:  EDOM

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
atan, atan2 - Calculates the arctangent of x (atan) or the arctangent of y/x
(atan2).

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototypes                        double atan( double x );



                                  double atan2( double y, double x );

Argument                          x, y        Floating-point values

Returns                           atan: the arctangent result

                                  atan2: the arctangent of y/x, or 0 if
                                  both arguments  are 0

                                  errno:  EDOM

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
ceil - Rounds the argument up to an integer.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double ceil( double x );

Argument                          x           Floating-point value

Returns                           The double result

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
cos, cosh - Calculates the cosine (cos) or the hyperbolic cosine (cosh).

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototypes                        double cos( double x );



                                  double cosh( double x );

Argument                          x           Angle (in radians)

Returns                           cos: the cosine result if successful, 0
                                  if not

                                  cosh: the hyperbolic result if
                                  successful, or HUGE_VAL  if the

                                  result is too large

                                  errno:  ERANGE

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
exp - Calculates the exponential function.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double exp( double x );

Argument                          x           Floating-point value

Returns                           The exponential value if successful,
                                  HUGE_VAL  on overflow,

                                  0 on underflow

                                  errno:  ERANGE

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
floor - Rounds the argument down to an integer.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double floor( double x );

Argument                          x           Floating-point value

Returns                           The floating-point result

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
fmod - Finds the floating-point remainder.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double fmod( double x, double y  );

Argument                          x, y        Floating-point values

Returns                           The floating-point remainder, or 0 if y
                                  is 0

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
frexp - Calculates an exponential value.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double frexp( double x, int *expptr  );

Argument                          x           Floating-point value

                                  expptr      Pointer to stored integer
                                              exponent

Returns                           The mantissa, or 0 if x is 0

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
ldexp - Calculates the argument times 2exp.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double ldexp( double x, int exp  );

Arguments                         x           Floating-point value

                                  exp         Integer exponent

Returns                           An exponential value if successful,
                                  HUGE_VAL  on overflow

                                  errno:  ERANGE

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
log, log10 - Calculates the natural logarithm (log) or the base-10 log
(log10).

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototypes                        double log( double x );



                                  double log10( double x );

Argument                          x           Floating-point value

Returns                           A logarithm result if successful,
                                  -HUGE_VAL  if not

                                  errno: EDOM (if x < 0), ERANGE  (if x =
                                  0)

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
modf - Breaks argument into integer and fractional parts.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double modf( double x, double *intptr
                                  );

Arguments                         x           Floating-point value

                                  intptr      Pointer to stored integer
                                              position

Returns                           The signed fractional portion of x

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
pow - Calculates a value raised to a power.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double pow( double x, double y  );

Arguments                         x           Number to be raised

                                  y           Power of x

Returns                           The argument x raised to the y  power if
                                  successful,

                                  HUGE_VAL if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
rand, srand - The rand function returns a pseudorandom integer in the range
0-32,767. The srand function initializes the random number generator.

Include                           STDLIB.H

Prototypes                        int rand( void );



                                  void srand( unsigned seed );

Argument                          seed        Seed for random-number
                                              generation  (srand)

Returns                           rand: a pseudorandom number

                                  srand: void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
sin, sinh - Calculates the sine (sin) or hyperbolic sine (sinh).

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototypes                        double sin( double x );



                                  double sinh( double x );

Argument                          x           Angle (in radians)

Returns                           sin: the sine of x if successful,  0 if
                                  not

                                  sinh: the hyperbolic sine of x if
                                  successful, HUGE_VAL  if not

                                  errno:  ERANGE

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
sqrt - Finds the square root.

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototype                         double sqrt( double x );

Argument                          x           Nonnegative floating-point
                                              value

Returns                           A square root if successful, 0 if not

                                  errno:  EDOM

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
tan, tanh - Calculates the tangent (tan) or hyperbolic tangent (tanh).

Includes                          FLOAT.H, MATH.H

Prototypes                        double tan( double x );



                                  double tanh( double x );

Argument                          x           Angle (in radians)

Returns                           tan: the tangent of x if successful,  0
                                  if not

                                  tanh: the hyperbolic tangent of x

                                  errno:  ERANGE (tan only)


Memory-Allocation Routines

The memory-allocation routines allocate, free, analyze, and reallocate
blocks of memory.

Many of the memory-allocation functions are prefixed by an _f or an _n. This
notation means use the far (_f) heap or the near (_n) heap.

The malloc family of routines (malloc, _fmalloc, and _nmalloc) allocates
memory blocks of a specified size. The calloc function allocates storage for
an array. The halloc function allocates storage for a huge array.

The realloc routine changes the size of an allocated block.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
calloc - Allocates storage for an array.

Includes                          MALLOC.H, STDLIB.H

Prototype                         void *calloc( size_t num,  size_t size
                                  );

Arguments                         num         Number of elements

                                  size        Length in bytes of each
                                              element

Returns                           A void pointer to the allocated space if
                                  successful,

                                  NULL if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
free, _ffree, hfree, _nfree - Frees a block of memory previously allocated
by the corresponding malloc routine. The corresponding routines are listed
below:

Free Function                     Allocation Function
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
_ffree                            _fmalloc

free                              calloc, malloc, realloc

hfree                             halloc

_nfree                            _nmalloc



Includes                          MALLOC.H, STDLIB.H (ANSI-compatible free
                                  only)

Prototypes                        void _ffree( void _far *memblock  );



                                  void free( void *memblock );



                                  void _nfree( void near *memblock );



                                              void hfree( void huge *
                                              memblock );

Argument                          memblock    Allocated memory block

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
malloc , _fmalloc,  _nmalloc - Allocates a block of memory. The _fmalloc
function allocates the block in the far heap. The _nmalloc function
allocates the block in the near heap.

Includes                          MALLOC.H, STDLIB.H (ANSI-compatible
                                  malloc  only)

Prototypes                        void *malloc( size_t size );



                                  void _far *_fmalloc( size_t size );



                                  void near *_nmalloc( size_t size );

Argument                          size        Bytes to allocate

Returns                           A void pointer to the allocated space if
                                  successful,  NULL if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
realloc - Reallocates a block.

Include                           MALLOC.H, STDLIB.H

Prototype                         void *realloc( void *memblock,  size_t
                                  size );

Arguments                         memblock    Pointer to previously
                                              allocated  memory block

                                  size        New size in bytes

Returns                           A pointer to the reallocated memory if
                                  successful,  NULL

                                  if not


Process-Control Routines

The term "process" refers to a program being executed by the operating
system.

Use the process-control routines to


  ■   Terminate a process (abort, exit, and _exit)

  ■   Call a new function when a process terminates (atexit)

  ■   Start a new process (system)


Use the abort and _exit functions to exit without flushing stream buffers.
Use the exit function to exit after flushing stream buffers.

Use the atexit function to create a list of functions to be executed when
the calling program exits.

Use the system call to execute a given MS-DOS command.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
abort - Aborts a process.

Include                           PROCESS.H or STDLIB.H

Prototype                         void abort( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
atexit - Executes functions at program termination.

Include                           STDLIB.H

Prototype                         int atexit( void (*func)( void  ) );

Argument                          func        Function to be called

Returns                           A pointer to func if successful, NULL
                                  if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
exit, _exit - Terminates the process after flushing buffers (exit);
terminates the process without flushing buffers (_exit).

Include                           PROCESS.H or STDLIB.H

Prototypes                        void exit( int status );



                                  void _exit( int status );

Argument                          status      Exit status

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
system - Executes an MS-DOS command.

Include                           PROCESS.H, STDLIB.H

Prototype                         int system( const char *command );

Argument                          command     Command to be executed

Returns                           0 if successful, -1 if not

                                  errno:  E2BIG, ENOENT, ENOEXEC, ENOMEM






Searching and Sorting Routines

The bsearch, lfind, lsearch, and qsort routines provide helpful
binary-search, linear-search, and quick-sort utilities.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
bsearch - Performs a binary search.

Includes                          STDLIB.H, SEARCH.H

Prototype                         void *bsearch( const void *key,  const
                                  void *base,

                                  size_t num, size_t width, int( *compare
                                  )(  const void *elem1,

                                  const void *elem2 ) );

Arguments                         key         Object to search for

                                  base        Pointer to base of search
                                              data

                                  num         Number of elements

                                  width       Width of elements

                                  compare     Compare function

                                  elem1,      Array elements to compare
                                  elem2

Returns                           A pointer if successful, NULL if  not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
lfind, lsearch - Performs a linear search for given value. If the value is
not found, lsearch adds it to the end of the list.

Includes                          STDLIB.H, SEARCH.H

Prototypes                        char *lfind( char *key,  char *base,
                                  unsigned *num,

                                  unsigned width, int( *compare )( const
                                  void  *elem1,

                                  const void *elem2 ) );



                                  char *lsearch( const char *key, const
                                  char  *base,

                                  unsigned *num, unsigned width, int( *
                                  compare  )

                                  ( const void *elem1, const void *elem2 )
                                  );

Arguments                         key         Object to search for

                                  base        Pointer to base of search
                                              data

                                  num         Number of elements

                                  width       Width of elements

                                  compare     Compare function

                                  elem1,      Array elements to compare
                                  elem2

Returns                           A pointer if successful, NULL if  not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
qsort - Performs a quick sort.

Includes                          STDLIB.H, SEARCH.H

Prototype                         void qsort( void *base, size_t  num,
                                  size_t width,

                                  int( *compare )( const void *elem1,
                                  const  void *elem2 ) );

Arguments                         base        Start of target array

                                  num         Array size in elements

                                  width       Element size in bytes

                                  compare     Compare function

                                  elem1,      Array elements to compare
                                  elem2

Returns                           Void


String-Manipulation Routines

A wide variety of string routines is available in the run-time library. With
these functions, you can do the following:


  ■   Copy strings (strcat, strcpy, strdup, strncat, strncpy)

  ■   Search for strings, individual characters, or characters from a given
      set (strchr, strcspn, strpbrk, strrchr, strspn, strstr)

  ■   Perform string comparisons (strcmp, strcmpi, stricmp, strncmp,
      strnicmp)

  ■   Find the length of a string (strlen)

  ■   Convert strings to a different case (strlwr, strupr)

  ■   Set characters of the string to a given character (strnset, strset)

  ■   Break strings into tokens (strtok)


All string functions work on null-terminated character strings.

Use the buffer-manipulation routines described earlier in this appendix for
manipulating character arrays that do not end with a null character.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strcat, strcpy, strdup, strncat, strncpy - Use these routines to copy and
concatenate strings. The list below describes each function.

Function                          Action
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strcat                            Append (concatenate) a string

strcpy                            Copy one string to another

strdup                            Duplicate a string

strncat                           Append a specified number of characters
                                  to a string

strncpy                           Copy a specified number of characters
                                  from one string to another

Include                           STRING.H

Prototypes                        char *strcat( char *dest,  const char *
                                  src );



                                  char *strcpy( char *dest, const char *
                                  src  );



                                  char *strdup( const char *string );



                                  char *strncat( char *dest, const char *
                                  src,  size_t n );



                                  char *strncpy( char *dest, const char *
                                  src,  size_t n );

Arguments                         dest        Destination string

                                  src         Source string

                                  string      Null-terminated string

                                  n           Number of characters

Returns                           strcat: a pointer to the concatenated
                                  string

                                  strcpy: dest string

                                  strdup: a pointer if successful, NULL if
                                  not

                                  strncat, strncpy: a pointer to dest
                                  string

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strchr, strcspn, strpbrk, strrchr, strspn, strstr - Use these routines to
search strings. The list below describes each function.

Function                          Action
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strchr                            Finds first occurrence of a given
                                  character in a string

strcspn                           Finds first occurrence of a character
                                  from a given character set in a string

strpbrk                           Finds first occurrence of a character
                                  from one string in another

strrchr                           Finds last occurrence of a given
                                  character in a string

strspn                            Finds first substring from a given
                                  character set in a string

strstr                            Finds first occurrence of a given string
                                  in another string

Include                           STRING.H

Prototypes                        char *strchr( const char *string,  int c
                                   );



                                  size_t strcspn( const char *string1,
                                  const char *string2  );



                                  char *strpbrk( const char *string1,
                                  const char  *string2 );



                                  char *strrchr( const char *string, int c
                                    );



                                  size_t strspn( const char *string1,
                                  const char *string2  );



                                  char *strstr( const char *string1, const
                                  char  *string2 );

Arguments                         string,     Null-terminated  strings
                                  string1,
                                  string2

                                  c           Character

Returns                           strchr: a pointer if successful, NULL
                                  if not

                                  strcspn: an offset into string1

                                  strpbrk: a pointer to the first matching
                                  character in string1,

                                  NULL if no match is found

                                  strrchr: a pointer to the last
                                  occurrence of c in  string, NULL

                                  if c is not found

                                  strspn: the position of the first
                                  nonmatching character in  string1

                                  strstr: a pointer to the first
                                  occurrence of string2  in string1,

                                  or NULL if string2 is not found

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strcmp, strcmpi, stricmp, strncmp, strnicmp - Use these routines to compare
strings. The list below describes the operation of each function. An "n" in
the function name means to use up to n characters; "i" in the name means to
operate without regard to the case of the string.

Function                          Action
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strcmp                            Compares two strings

strcmpi                           Compares two strings without regard to
                                  case ("i"
                                  indicates that this function is case
                                  insensitive)

stricmp                           Compares two strings without regard to
                                  case (identical to strcmpi)

strncmp                           Compares characters of two strings

strnicmp                          Compares characters of two strings
                                  without regard to case

Include                           STRING.H

Prototypes                        int strcmp( const char *string1,  const
                                  char *string2 );



                                  int strcmpi( const char *string1, const
                                  char *string2  );



                                  int stricmp( const char *string1, const
                                  char *string2  );



                                  int strncmp( const char *string1, const
                                  char *string2,  size_t n );



                                  int strnicmp( const char *string1, const
                                  char *string2,  size_t n );

Arguments                         string1     Destination string

                                  string2     Source string

                                  n           Number of characters

Returns                           A negative value if string1, 0  if
                                  string1 = string2,

                                  a positive value if string1>string2

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strlen - The strlen function returns the length in bytes of the string, not
including the terminating null character (\0).

Include                           STRING.H

Prototype                         size_t strlen( const char *string  );

Argument                          string      Null-terminated string

Returns                           The string length

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strlwr, strupr - The strlwr and strupr routines convert the characters of a
string to lowercase and uppercase, respectively.

Include                           STRING.H

Prototypes                        char *strlwr( char *string  );



                                  char *strupr( char *string );

Argument                          string      String to be converted

Returns                           A pointer to a copy of the converted
                                  input string

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strnset, strset - The routines strnset and strset set the characters of a
string to a specified character. The strnset function sets the first n
characters in the string to the specified character. The strset function
sets the entire string to the specified character.

Include                           STRING.H

Prototypes                        char *strnset( char *string,  int c,
                                  size_t n );



                                  char*strset( char *string, int c );

Arguments                         string      String to be set

                                  c           Character setting

                                  n           Number of characters set

Returns                           A pointer to string







────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
strtok - The strtok function finds a token in a string. A "token" is a
series of characters delimited by a character from a specified set. For
example, use the strtok function to break an input line into the component
words.

Include                           STRING.H

Prototype                         char *strtok( char *string1,  const char
                                  *string2 );

Arguments                         string1     String containing tokens

                                  string2     Set of delimiter characters

Returns                           A pointer to a token in string1


Time Routines

Use the time routines to get the current time, convert it to a convenient
format, and store it according to your particular needs.

The current time is always taken from the system time.

The time function returns the current time as the number of seconds elapsed
since Greenwich mean time, January 1, 1970.

Use the asctime, ctime, gmtime, and mktime functions to manipulate the time
value.

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
asctime - Converts a time from a structure to a character string.

Include                           TIME.H

Prototype                         char *asctime( const struct tm *timeptr
                                  );

Argument                          timeptr     Time structure

Returns                           A pointer to string result

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
clock - Returns the elapsed CPU time for a process.

Include                           TIME.H

Prototype                         clock_t clock( void );

Arguments                         None

Returns                           The elapsed processor time if successful,
                                  -1  if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
ctime - Converts time from a long integer to a character string.

Include                           TIME.H

Prototype                         char *ctime( const time_t *timer  );

Argument                          timer       Pointer to stored time

Returns                           A pointer to string result; NULL  if
                                  time represents a date

                                  before 1980

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
difftime - Computes the difference between two times.

Include                           TIME.H

Prototype                         double difftime( time_t timer1, time_t
                                  timer0 );

Arguments                         timer0,     Beginning and ending  times
                                  timer1

Returns                           The difference in elapsed time between
                                  timer1  and timer0

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
ftime - Gets current system time as structure.

Includes                          SYS\TYPES.H, SYS\TIMEB.H

Prototype                         void ftime( struct timeb *timeptr  );

Argument                          timeptr     Pointer to time structure

Returns                           Void

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
gmtime - Converts time from integer to structure.

Include                           TIME.H

Prototype                         struct tm *gmtime( const time_t *timer
                                  );

Argument                          timer       Pointer to stored time

Returns                           A pointer to a structure

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
mktime - Converts time to a calendar value.

Include                           TIME.H

Prototype                         time_t mktime( struct tm *timeptr  );

Argument                          timeptr     Local time structure

Returns                           The encoded calendar time if successful,
                                  -1  if not

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
time - Gets current system time as a long integer.

Include                           TIME.H

Prototype                         time_t time( time_t *timer );

Argument                          timer       Storage location for time

Returns                           The elapsed time









Glossary
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

8087 or 80287 coprocessor:
Intel hardware products that provide very fast and precise floating-point
number processing.

aggregate types:
Arrays, structures, and unions.

ANSI (American National Standards Institute):
The national institute responsible for defining programming-language
standards to promote portability of these languages between different
computer systems. The ANSI standard for C will become official in 1990.

argc:
The traditional name for the first argument to the main function in a C
source program. It is an integer that specifies how many arguments are
passed to the program from the command line.

argument:
A value passed to a function.

argv:
The traditional name for the second argument to the main function in a C
source program. It is a pointer to an array of strings. Traditionally, the
first string is the program name, and each following string is an argument
passed to the program from the command line.

array:
A set of elements with the same type.

array pointer:
A pointer that holds the address of any element of an array.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange):
A set of 256 codes that many computers use to represent letters, digits,
special characters, and other symbols. Only the first 128 of these codes are
standardized; the remaining 128 are special characters that are defined by
the computer manufacturer.

automatic variable:
A variable, declared in a block, whose value is discarded when the program
exits from the block. See "static variable" and "lifetime."

background color:
A long integer representing the background color of the display screen. In
graphics modes, the background color applies to the entire screen. In text
modes, the background color specifies the text background for each
character. See "foreground color."

basic data types:
The integral, enumerated, floating-point, and pointer types in the C
language.

binary file:
A file that is not used for text processing. It may be an executable file, a
data file, or some other nontext file.

binary format:
A method of data representation in which data are stored directly from
memory to disk with no translations. In binary format, numeric values are
stored as binary numbers and are not translated to ASCII characters.

binary mode:
A method of accessing files in which no translations are performed. There is
no specific end-of-file character.

binary operator:
An operator that takes two operands. Binary operators in the C language are
the multiplicative operators (*/), additive operators (+ -), shift operators
(<<  >>), relational operators (< >>  <=  >=  ==  !=), bitwise operators (&
| ^), logical operators (&& ||), and the sequential-evaluation operator (,).

bit:
A binary digit (either 0 or 1), the smallest unit of information used with
computers. Eight bits make up one byte.

bit field:
A type of structure that allows manipulation of individual bits or groups of
bits.

bit-mapped font:
A font in which each character is defined by (mapped to) the bits of an
array.

bitwise operator:

An operator used to manipulate bits in an integer expression. Bitwise
operators in the C language are & (AND), | (inclusive OR), ^ (exclusive OR),
 (left shift), >> (right shift), and ~ (one's complement).

block:
A sequence of declarations, definitions, and statements enclosed within
curly braces ({}).

bounding rectangle:
An imaginary rectangle that defines the outer limits of a rounded shape such
as an ellipse, arc, or pie.

byte:
The unit of measure used for computer memory and data storage. One byte
contains eight bits and can store one ASCII character.

case label:
The case keyword and the constant, or constant expression, that follows it.

CGA:
IBM's Color Graphics Adapter.

character code:
A numeric code that represents a character. The default ASCII character set
used in all PCs and PS/2s comprises 256 eight-bit character codes.

character constant:
A character enclosed in single quotes, for example, 'p'. A character
constant has a type of char. See "string constant."

character set:
A set of alphabetic and numeric characters and symbols.

clipping:
The process of determining which parts of a graphics image lie within the
clipping region. Parts of the image that lie outside this region are
"clipped"; that is, they are not displayed.

clipping region:
The rectangular area of the screen where graphics display occurs.

color index:
A short integer that represents a displayable color. See "remapping" and
"color value."

color value:
A long integer representing an absolute color. See "remapping" and "color
index."

command-line argument:
A value passed to a program when the program begins execution.

conditional expression:
An expression consisting of three operands joined by the ternary (? :)
operator. Similar to an if-else construct, a conditional expression is used
to evaluate either of two expressions depending on the value of a third
expression.

constant expression:
An expression that evaluates to a constant. A constant expression may
involve integer constants, character constants, floating-point constants,
enumeration constants, type casts to integral and floating-point types, and
other constant expressions.

current color:
The color index for the color in which graphics pixels are displayed. The
current color can be examined with _getcolor or changed with _setcolor.

declaration:
A construct that associates the name and the attributes of a variable,
function, or type.

default:
A condition that is assumed by a program if not specified.

definition:
A construct that initializes and allocates storage for a variable or that
specifies the name, formal parameters, body, and return type of a function.

dimension:
The number of subscripts required to specify a single array element.

directive:
An instruction to the C preprocessor to perform an action on source-program
text before compilation.

double precision:
A real (floating-point) value that occupies eight bytes of memory. Double
precision values are accurate to 15 or 16 digits.

EGA:
Enhanced Graphics Adapter.

enumeration type:
A user-defined data type with values that range over a set of named integral
constants.

escape sequence:
A specific combination of a backslash (\) followed by a letter or
combination of digits, which represents white space and nonprinting
characters within strings and character constants.

expression:
A combination of operands and operators that yields a single value.

external variable:
A variable that is defined outside any function in a C source file and is
used in other source files in the same program.

file handle:
An integer value that is returned when a library function that performs
low-level input/output opens or creates a file. The file handle is used to
refer to that file in later operations.

file pointer:
A value that keeps track of the current position in an input or output
stream. It is updated to reflect the new position each time a read or write
operation takes place.

FILE pointer:
A pointer to a structure of type FILE that contains information about a
file. It is returned by library functions that create or open files and use
stream input/output.

fill flag:
A parameter that determines whether a shape will be drawn as a solid.

fill mask:
A group of pixels that defines the pattern used to fill a graphics shape.

fill pattern:
The design defined by the fill mask and used to fill a shape.

font:
A description of the style and shapes of the characters in a character set.

foreground color:
The color index for the color in which text is displayed. See "background
color."

format specification:
A string that specifies how the printf and scanf families of functions
interpret input and output data.

function:
A collection of declarations and statements that has a unique name and can
return a value.

function body:
A statement block containing the local variable declarations and statements
of a function.

function call:
An expression that passes control and arguments (if any) to a function.

function declaration:
A declaration that states the name, return type, and storage class of a
function that is defined explicitly elsewhere in the program.

function definition:
A definition that specifies a function's name, its formal parameters, the
declarations and statements that define what it does, and (optionally) its
return type and storage class.

function pointer:
A pointer that holds the address of a function.

function prototype:
A function declaration that includes a list of the names and types of formal
parameters in the parentheses following the function name.

global:
See "visibility."

graphics mode:
See "video mode."

header file:
An external source file that contains commonly used declarations and
definitions. The #include directive is used to insert the contents of a
header file into a C source file.

hexadecimal:
The base-16 numbering system whose digits are 0 through F. The letters A
through F represent the decimal numbers 10 through 15. It is often used in
computer programming because it is easily converted to and from binary, the
base-2 numbering system the computer itself uses.

HGC:
Hercules monochrome Graphics Card.

identifier:
A user-defined name in a C program. Identifiers name variables, functions,
macros, constants, and data types.

include file:
See "header file."

Incolor Card:
Hercules InColor Card, a 16-color version of the HGC+.

indirection:
Accessing a data object through a pointer, rather than directly by name.

initialize:
To assign a value to a variable, often at the time the variable is declared.

in-line assembler:
The part of QuickC that converts assembly-language instructions into machine
language.

in-line assembly code:
Assembly language instructions that appear within a QuickC source program.

input/output:
The processes involved in reading (input) and writing (output) data.

integer:
A whole number represented in the machine as a 16-bit two's-complement
binary number. A signed integer has a range of -32,768 to 32,767. An
unsigned integer has a range of 0 to 65,535. See "long integer."

I/O:
Abbreviation for input/output.

keyword:
A word with a special, predefined meaning for the C compiler.

label:
A unique name followed by a colon. Labels are used to denote statements to
which a goto statement can branch. See "case label."

library:
A file containing compiled modules. The linker extracts modules from the
library file and combines them with the user-created object file to form an
executable program.

lifetime:
The time, during program execution, that a variable or function exists. An
"automatic" variable has storage and a defined value only in the block where
it is defined or declared. A "static" variable exists for the duration of
the program.

line style:
An unsigned short integer (16 bits) that specifies the pattern with which
lines will be drawn. Each bit specifies whether a corresponding pixel in the
line will be displayed. The default line style is a solid line.

local:
See "visibility."

long integer:
A whole number represented inside the machine as a 32-bit two's-complement
binary number. A signed long integer has a range of -2,147,483,648 to
2,147,483,647. An unsigned long integer has a range of 0 to 4,294,967,295.
See "integer."

low-level input and output routines:
Run-time library routines that perform unbuffered, unformatted I/O
operations, for example, creat, read, write, and lseek.

lvalue:
An expression (such as a variable name) that refers to a memory location and
is required as the left-hand operand of an assignment operation, or as the
single operand of a unary operator.

machine language:
A series of binary numbers that a computer executes as program instructions.


macro:
An identifier defined in a #define preprocessor directive to represent
another series of characters.

main function:
The function with which program execution begins (the program's entry
point).

manifest constant:
See "symbolic constant."

MCGA (Multicolor Graphics Array):
The video subsystem integrated into the PS/2 Model 30. Also, Memory
Controller Gate Array, one of the components of the Model 30's video
subsystem.

member:
One of the elements of a structure or union.

member-of operator:
The dot operator (.), which is used with the name of a structure and one or
more fields to identify a structure member.

mode:
See "video mode."

monochrome display:
A computer monitor capable of showing only two colors─black and a second
color such as white, green, or amber. Some monochrome monitors can also show
the second color with higher intensity or with underlined text.

Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA):
A printed-circuit card that controls the display and can show text only at
medium resolution in one color.

newline character:
The character used to mark the end of a line in a text file, or the escape
sequence (\n) used to represent this character.

null character:
The ASCII character encoded as the value 0, represented as the escape
sequence (\0) in a source file. A null character marks the end of a string.

null pointer:
A pointer to nothing, expressed as the value 0.

one's complement:
The arithmetic operation in which all 1 bits are converted to 0 bits and
vice versa. The tilde character (~) is the one's-complement operator.

operand:
A constant or variable value that is manipulated in an expression.

operator:
One or more symbols that specify how the operand or operands of an
expression are manipulated. See "unary operator," "binary operator," and
"ternary operator."

origin:
The point on the screen at which the x and y coordinates are both equal to
0. On the physical screen, the origin is at the upper left corner.

palette:
The displayable colors for a given video mode. The CGA modes operate with a
set of predetermined palette colors. The EGA, VGA, and MCGA color modes
operate with a redefinable palette of colors.

parameter:
An identifier that receives a value passed to a function.

path:
The name that defines the location of a file or directory. A path may
include a drive name and one or more directory names.

PGA (Professional Graphics Adapter):
Another name for IBM's PGC.

physical coordinates:
The coordinate system defined by the hardware. The physical coordinate
system has the origin (0, 0) at the upper left corner of the screen. The
value of x increases from left to right, and the value of y increases from
top to bottom. See "viewport coordinates."

pixel:
A single dot on the screen. It is the smallest item that may be manipulated
with the graphics library, and it is the basic unit of the
viewport-coordinate system.

pointer:
A variable containing the address of another variable, function, or
constant.

pointer arithmetic:
The use of addition or subtraction to change a pointer's value. Pointer
arithmetic is typically used with array pointers, though it is not illegal
on other kinds of pointers.

pointer-member operator:
The -> operator, used with structure pointers to name a structure member.

pragma:
An instruction to the compiler to perform an action at compile time.

precedence:
The relative position of an operator in the hierarchy that determines the
order in which expressions are evaluated.

preprocessor:
A text processor that manipulates the contents of a C source file during the
first phase of compilation.

preprocessor directive:
See "directive."

prototype:
See "function prototype."

recursion:
The process by which a function calls itself.

register variable:
An integer variable that is placed in a machine register, which may cause
the program to be smaller and faster.

remapping:
The process of assigning new color values to color indexes. Remapping a
color index changes the screen color of any pixels that have been drawn with
that color index.

reserved word:
See "keyword."

return value:
The value that a function returns to the calling function.

run time:
The time during which a previously compiled and linked program is executing.

run-time library:
A file containing the routines needed to implement certain functions of the
Microsoft QuickC language.

scaling:
The mapping of real-window coordinates to viewport coordinates.

scope:
The parts of a program in which an item can be referenced by name. The scope
of an item may be limited to the file, function, block, or function
prototype in which it appears.

screen mode:
See "video mode."

single precision:
A real (floating-point) value that occupies four bytes of memory. Single-
precision values are accurate to seven decimal places.

sizeof operator:
A C operator that returns the amount of storage, in bytes, associated with
an identifier or a type.

source file:
A text file containing C language code.

standard error:
The device to which a program sends its error messages unless the error
output is redirected. In normal DOS operation, standard error is the
display. The predefined stream stderr is associated with standard error in
the C language.

standard input:
The device from which a program reads its input unless the input is
redirected. In normal DOS operation, standard input is the keyboard. The
predefined stream stdin is associated with standard input in the C language.

standard output:
The device to which a program sends its output unless the output is
redirected. In normal DOS operation, standard output is the display. The
predefined stream stdout is associated with standard output in the C
language.

static variable:
A variable that keeps its value even after the program exits the block in
which the variable is declared.

stream:
A sequence of bytes flowing into (input) or out of (output) a program.

stream functions:
Run-time library functions that treat data files and data items as "streams"
of individual characters.

string:
An array of characters, terminated by a null character (\0).

string constant:
A string of characters and escape sequences enclosed in double quotes ("").
Every string constant is an array of elements of type char. See "character
constant."

structure:
A set of elements, which may be of different types, grouped under a single
name.

structure member:
One of the elements of a structure.

structure pointer:
A pointer to a structure. Structure pointers identify structure members by
specifying the name of the structure, the pointer-member operator (->), and
the member name.

symbolic constant:
An identifier defined in a #define preprocessor directive to represent a
constant value.

tag:
The name assigned to a structure, union, or enumeration type.

ternary operator:
An operator used in ternary (three-part) expressions. C has one ternary
operator, the conditional operator (? :).

text:
Ordinary, readable characters, including the uppercase and lowercase letters
of the alphabet, the numerals 0-9, and punctuation marks.

text file:
A file of ASCII characters that you can read with the TYPE command or a word
processor.

text format:
A method of disk storage in which all data are converted to ASCII format.

text mode:
See "video mode."

text window:
A window defined in row and column coordinates where text output to the
screen will be displayed. Text printed beyond the edge of the text window is
not visible. The default text window is the whole screen.

two's complement:
A kind of base-2 notation used to represent positive and negative numbers in
which negative values are formed by complementing all bits and adding 1 to
the results.

type:
A description of a set of values. For example, the type char comprises the
256 values in the ASCII character set.

type cast:
An operation in which a value of one type is converted to a value of a
different type.

type checking:
An operation in which the compiler verifies that the operands of an operator
are valid, or that the actual arguments in a function call are of the same
types as the corresponding formal parameters in the function definition and
function prototype.

type declaration:
A declaration that defines the name and members of a structure or union
type, or the name and enumeration set of an enumeration type.

typedef declaration:
A declaration that defines a shorter or more meaningful name for an existing
C data type or for a user-defined data type. Names defined in a typedef
declaration are often referred to as "typedefs."

typeface:
The style of displayed text.

type name:
The name of a data type. See "type."

type qualifier:
The keywords short, long, signed, and unsigned, which modify a basic data
type.

type size:
A measure of the screen area occupied by individual characters in a font,
typically specified in pixels.

unary expression:
An expression consisting of a single operand preceded or followed by a unary
operator.

unary operator:
An operator that takes a single operand. Unary operators in the C language
are the complement operators (- ~ !), indirection operator (*), increment
(++) and decrement (- -) operators, address-of operator (&), and sizeof
operator. The unary plus (+) operator is legal but has no effect.

union:
A set of values of different types that occupy the same storage space.

vector-mapped font:
A font in which each character is defined in terms of lines and arcs.

VGA (Video Graphics Array):
 Many users refer to the video subsystem integrated into the PS/2 Models 50,
60, and 80, as well as the IBM PS/2 Display Adapter, as the "VGA."

video adapter:
A printed-circuit card that generates video output. Well-known IBM PC video
adapters include the MDA, CGA, HGC, EGA, MCGA, and VGA Adapters.

video mode:
An integer that specifies the resolution and other characteristics of video
output. QuickC supports 17 different video modes, although some of them are
available only with certain video adapters.

viewport:
A clipping region in which the origin (0, 0) may be redefined. The initial
origin of a viewport is the upper left corner.

viewport coordinates:
The integer coordinate system defined by the programmer for a specific
viewport. By default, the viewport-coordinate system has the origin (0, 0)
at the upper left corner of the viewport, but this may be changed by a call
to _setvieworg.

visibility:
The parts of the program in which a particular variable or function can be
referenced by name. An item has global visibility if it is visible in all
source files constituting the program and local visibility if its use is
restricted.

white-space character:
A space, tab, line-feed, carriage-return, form-feed, vertical-tab, or
newline character.

window:
An imaginary rectangle on the screen where output takes place. See "text
window" and "window coordinates."

window coordinates:
The coordinate system defined by the programmer.