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Alan's Text Editor & Spreadsheet is a full screen ASCII text processor program with simple wordprocessing functions, including multi-file capabilities. The program is well supported with documentation and help menus, but does require an understanding of ASCII text editing. The spreadsheet is functional, but clumsy. Sample spreadsheet files include balloon payments, loan mortgages and other simple accounting uses. System Requirements: 128K, two disk drives and monochrome display How to Start: Load DOS and type AE to enter the ASCII editor program. Type AC to enter the spreadsheet program. Consult README and the .DOC files for program documentation. Suggested Registration: $35.00 File Descriptions: AE HLP Help Screens for Alan's Editor AE DOC Documentation for Alan's Editor - printer formatted manual AE EXE Alan's Editor ASCII Text Processor Program -------- --- Alan's Editor BUDGET AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Household Budget Calculations SUMMARY AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Business Budget Summary BALANCE AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Checkbook Balancing exercize MORT AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Amortgage on a loan BALLOON AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Balloon Payments for car purchas AC DOC Documentation for Alan's Calc - printer formatted manual AC EXE Alan's Calc Spreadsheet Program -------- --- Alan's Spreadsheet SHEET2 AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Work Sheet #2 for Summary SHEET1 AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Linked Work Sheet #1 for Summary README Author's Introduction to files on disk. XYZCO AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Financial Data, XYZCO
ALAN'S CALC (C) Alan C. Elliott, 1985 Mission Technologies P.O. Box 1169 Cedar Hill, Texas 75104 C_O_N_D_I_T_I_O_N_S_:_ This program is made available through the "user supported" concept. You may copy and distribute this program, but neither it nor any of the documentation may be altered. The program may not be distributed commercially except as a part of a PC user's group or similar organization. You are encouraged to contribute to the support of this program ($35 suggested). This will make you a registered user, and will put you on the update and newsletter mailing list. Site licenses, and source code licenses are also available. Please refer to the order form at the back of this manual. DESCRIPTION of Alan's Calc Alan's Calc (or AC for short) is a simple to use spreadsheet program. It allows you to enter numbers and text on the computer screen, and define relationships between the numbers. Once these relationships are defined, you may change some numbers, and the program will automatically recalculate all of the relationships. With Alan's CALC you san ask those "WHAT IF" questions. It can be used for financial modelling, budget calculations, scientific calculations, and more. PREPARING TO USE AC The only file required to use AC is the file named AC.EXE. Note that you MUST include AC.DOC whenever the program is distributed. However, we will see that there is another file, which you can create, which sets up default values for storage disk, tab settings, and colors. 1 Alan's Calc ____________________________________________________________ Use on Floppy To setup AC for use on a floppy, first format a floppy disk with the "/S" option. Then copy the files AC.EXE, AC.DOC, and all files with an ".AC" extension to the newly formatted diskette. Set up the initialization files as indicated later in thes manual, usually specifying disk "B" as the storage diskette. Use on Hard disk To use AC on a hard disk, copy the files AC.EXE to the hard disk (usually to the ROOT directory) AC.EXE can be placed in any directory (such as ROOT) if the paths are properly set (See the DOS manual). Also, see the section on how to set up initialization files. With AC in the ROOT directory, the PATH should at least be "PATH ;_". To begin the AC program (here from disk C), enter C>AC 2 Alan's Calc ____________________________________________________________ CONTENTS SECTION 1.INTRODUCTION Overview....................................4 Capabilities................................4 Requirements................................4 How To Start AC.............................5 How to Stop The AC..........................5 If Errors Occur.............................5 SECTION 2.Fundamental Concepts Fundamental Concepts........................6 The Table...................................6 Arithmetic Relations Supported..............8 When First You Calc.........................9 Text and Numbers...........................10 Function Options........................11-12 Control Commands...........................13 SECTION 3.How to Use AC Getting Acquainted......................15-16 Formats....................................16 Understanding the Structure.............17-18 Checkbook Balancing........................19 Linking Tables..........................20-23 Printing a Table...........................24 Saving a Table.............................24 Suspending Calculations....................25 Amortization Example....................26-27 Balloon Note Example.......................28 Household Budget Example...................29 Editing the Relations Table................30 APPENDICIES Error conditions...........................31 Specifications.............................32 Initialization file........................33 INDEX......................................35 ORDER FORM.................................36 3 Alan's Calc - Introduction Section One Introduction Overview AC is an electronic spreadsheet which allows you to create tables of text and numeric relations. Once such a table is designed, changing one or more numbers in the table causes all related numbers to be recalculated before your eyes. Each table consists of 14 columns and 60 rows of cells. Each cell is 9 characters wide. Tables may be linked together to form larger models. AC is designed to be simple and straightforward to use. The time required to learn to use AC is generally less than one hour. No previous computer experience is required. This manual consists of step-by-step instructions, and a wide variety of examples to get you started. Many of the examples may be used immediately for your household or business needs. Capabilities AC may be used to design applications from simple household budgets to complex mathematical and scientific models. Basic arithmetic relations are available as well as scientific mathematical functions such as SINE, COSINE, TANGENTS, EXPONENTIATION, and others. Requirements Requires an IBM Personal Computer with 128K or more of memory and DOS. Monochrome or color monitor is supported. Keep Backups We recommend that you keep the original AC diskette in a safe place, as a backup of the program diskette. Keep backups of all files you create to avoid accidental loss of valuable information. 4 Alan's Calc - Introduction INITIALIZATION FILE Default conditions pertaining to storage disk and color selections for the table are set in a file named AC.INI. This procedure is described in the APPENDIX. It is not necessary for you to set up this file to operate AC. However, it allows you to pre-set some initial(default) conditions which may be handy. HOW TO START With the working copy of AC in the A disk drive, the command to begin AC is A>AC HOW TO STOP Once Spread is running, you may stop the program by pressing the Esc key, and answering the question End (Y/N) _ by pressing the "Y" key. IF ERRORS OCCUR If errors occur, an error message will appear on the screen. Usually, you may simply press the ENTER key to recover. Appendix 1 explains the error messages, and gives more details. 5 Alan's Calc - Introduction Section Two Fundamental Concepts Spread is an electronic spreadsheet. It allows you to create tables of text and numeric relationships, which allows you to analyze budgets, loans, cost estimates, etc. on the computer screen. After relationships have been established, changing one or more numbers will cause all related numbers to be recalculated automatically. This gives you the power to quickly answer questions about "What if a certain number were different?" Several definitions need to be established to understand the instructions in this manual. THE TABLE The word "table" will refer to the "spreadsheet" which is displayed on the computer monitor. CELL A "cell" is a block of nine characters located in the table and referred to by a "letter-number" name such as A1 or N60. POSITION Each cell is identified by a position. This position consists of the column and row designation (the location) of the cell. The columns are labeled from A to N, and the rows are labeled from 1 to 60. RELATIONS This word will refer to arithmetic relations such as A1+G2 or Log(E4). STRUCTURE The structure of a table is the text and arithmetic relations which determine the function and appearance of the table. 6 Alan's Calc - Introduction The Table CELL:A1 ENTER |---A---||---B---||---C---||---D---||---E---||---F---||---G---||---H---| 1 : _ 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 : 6 : 7 : 8 : 9 : 10 : 11 : 12 : 13 : 14 : 15 : 16 : 17 : 18 : 19 : 20 : 1-Save 2-Get 3-Copy 4-Review 5-Options 6-Fetch 7-window 8-Clr 9-Print 10-Frmat ESC-End CTRL A-Alpha C-Cancl D-DelRw I-InsRw L-Lck R-RJ S-Susp Calc > DISK:B Columns are lettered from A to N and rows are numbered from 1 to 60. Each cell is referenced by a Column Row designation. The upper left cell is A1, to its right is B1, etc. Only a portion of the table is displayed at any time. See page 10 for moving the table vertically or horizontally. 7 Alan's Calc - Introduction Arithmetic Relations Supported The following relationships are available as pairwise operators. + : addition - : subtraction / : division * : multiplication ^ : exponentiation Since these operators must be used pairwise, A1+B1 is a legal operation, whereas A1+B1+C1 is not. This is no problem, since the latter can be handled by stacking operations, which will be discussed later. In addition to the arithmetic relationships defined, the following mathematical functions are also available. LOG : natural logarithm SQR : square root EXP : exponential function SIN : sine function COS : cosine function TAN : tanget ATN : arctanget INT : returns integral part of a number ABS : returns absolute value of a number Example : LOG(A1), SIN(3.14), etc. Special Functions SUMCOL or SUMROW - Sums numbers below or to the left of the appropriate command. SUM(N#-N#) - Sums a range of numbers vertically or horizontally. 8 Alan's Calc - Introduction When First You CALC After preparing the diskette in a manner described earlier in these instructions, you may begin AC with the command... A>AC Find the arrow keys on the numeric pad to the right of the keyboard. Notice that by pressing the down arrow key, the cursor moves down a column, and by the right arrow key the cursor moves to the right one cell. The cursor is initially positioned at the beginning of a cell. Pressing the "Home" key moves the cursor to the upper left corner. Pressing the "End" key moves the cursor horizontally to the last cell on the screen. The Upper Right Corner Notice the word ENTER in the upper right corner of the screen. This tells you that AC is ready for you to begin entry of text. When you begin entry, this designation will change to "Entry in progress", and the field in which the entry is being made will be displayed in reverse video. The o_n_l_y_ way to end an entry is by pressing the ENTER key, or canceling the entry with a CTRL-C command. Corrections to the entry before you press the enter key may be made with the backup key (<--) located next to the "=" key. After the entry of text or numbers, the upper right designation will be "Please Wait". During this time, text is being stored, or calculations are being performed. You must wait for the "ENTER" designation to resume entering text. 9 Alan's Calc - Introduction The Difference Between Text and Numbers A NUMBER In this program, a NUMBER is text which matches the standard notions of a number. Any text containing a letter, such as 10E1 is not recognized as a number. A RELATION A RELATION is any expression other than a number that contains a "+", "-", "/", "*", or "^". In addition, a relation can be "XXX( )" where XXX is one of 9 functions previously listed. Also, the words SUMCOL, SUMROW or SUM(..) are relations. Relations must not contain any blanks. For example, A1+B1 is correct, whereas A1 + B1 is not. TEXT If an entry is neither a number nor a relation, it is assumed to be text. CTRL-A Forces ALPHA Mode By pressing CTRL-A, an entry will be automatically treated as text, no matter what it contains. As an example, enter 3+4 on the screen. The number 7 will be displayed. Now press CTRL-A and enter the same text. This time the entry is not changed ... it was treated as text. Entering text which contains a relation operator such as + or / will force AC to check for a relation. If none is found, the entry is assumed to be text. This may cause a long "please wait". Using the F3 key may avoid this delay. 10 Alan's Calc - Introduction Function Options ESC - End Ends AC program ,and returns you to the DOS system. F1 - Save This function allows you to save the s_t_r_u_c_t_u_r_e_ of the AC table. By this we mean that all of the text and numeric relations are saved in a file, and may be retrieved at a later date for future use. F2 - Get This function allows you to get a table which has previously been saved using the F1 option. F3 - Copy This function allows copying of row or columns. This replication allows you to enter a row containing relations, and to copy that row to another place, in which you want the same type of relations. F4 - Review Relations This function allows you to review, delete or copy the relations that have been set up in the AC Table. F5 - Options This function allows you to change cursor direction, set a password, get a directory of files on disk, delete files, and change the storage disk. F6 - Define Fetch Files This function allows you to define fetch files (which will be covered in detail later.) F7 - Window This function allows you to select a vertical window position which will cause the table to the left of some selected column to always be displayed no matter where in the table you are working. 11 Alan's Calc - Introduction F8 - Clear This function clears the current contents of the AC table. All text and relations will be cleared, and a blank table will appear. F9 - Print This function allows you to print a copy of the table to a file or to a printer. You will be given an opportunity to specify the dimensions of the table you wish to be printed (print only part of a table). Printing a copy of the table to a file allows it to be used in word processing programs such as VersaText. F10 - Format This function allows you to specify the format to be used in printing the table. Specifically, you may choose to force numbers to appear to two decimal places (such as dollars and cents). Very large or very small numbers may be printed in a format chosen by the program. PgUp and PgDn These keys, located on the numeric pad, allow you to move the table up or down. Pressing CTRL-PgUp will cause the uppermost portion of the table to be displayed. Likewise, pressing CTRL-PgDn will cause the bottom of the table to be displayed. Horizontal Move When the cursor is in the far right field, pressing the right arrow key will cause the table to move in such a way to display two more columns to the right (until the limit is reached). Likewise, moving the cursor to the left, and pressing the left arrow key will cause the table to move horizontally to the right. Pressing the Ctrl backspace key (the <-- key located next to the "Num Lock" key) will take you to the far left of the table, and pressing the Ctrl-End key will take you to the far right of the table. CTRL-Home will move you to the upper left "home" position of the table. 12 Alan's Calc - Introduction Control (CTRL) Commands CTRL-A Set ALPHA mode - entry will automatically be treated as text. CTRL-C Cancel an entry which is in progress. CTRL-D CTRL-D allows you to delete a row of the table. A row which contains numbers or relations may not be deleted. CTRL-I CTRL-I allows you to insert a blank row in the table, provided the 60th row is blank. All rows below the inserted row will be moved down, with relations intact. CTRL-L This command locks the cell from further entry. This can be used to protect cells containing relations from being accidentally changed. If a cell is alread locked, CTRL-L unlocks it. CTRL-R Turns on/off right justify. When on, this causes textual entries less than 9 characters in length to be right justified within the cell. CTRL-S CTRL-S suspends calculation. This may be used when a number of changes are to be made to a table, and you do not wish to wait for calculations to take place for each changed variable. A following example will illustrate the use of CTRL-S. 13 AC - How To Use It Section Three How to Use AC A Getting Acquainted Tutorial In this section we will put AC through its paces, and see what it can do. As mentioned earlier, AC is started by issuing the command "AC" at the "A>" DOS prompt. (or ">C" when using a hard disk) A>AC If this does not work properly, please consult the instructions at the first of the manual. Putting AC Through its Paces Once AC screen has appeared, move the cursor around on the screen with the arrow keys located on the number pad to the right of the keyboard. Notice that the cursor always jumps to the beginning of a cell, and that the name of the cell always appears in the upper left corner of the screen. If the cursor is moved to the far right of the screen, a new screen, (the table moved one cell to the left) will appear. Moving the cursor to the extreme right will cause the portion of the table in view to move to the right (until the limit of the table is reached). Similarly, the PgUp and PgDn keys on the numeric pad may be used to move the table up and down. Other Fancy Moves The Home key places the cursor in the upper left cell, and the End key places the cursor in the last cell of a particular row. Many of the move commands can be made to take the table to its extremes. These commands require you to jointly press the Ctrl key down (like a shift key), and press the command key once. Thus, no matter where you are in the table, the command Ctrl-Home will place you in the upper left corner. Expresso Use the Ctrl-End to go to the cell at the extreme right of the table. The Ctrl-"Backspace" (The key next to Num Lock) 14 AC - How To Use It command will bring you back to the extreme left. Use the Ctrl-PgDn to go to the bottom of the table, and the Ctrl-PgUp to come back up. Relations and Text Let's enter a simple example to learn how to use AC. First, make sure you have a cleared table (this may be done with the F8 key). Let's say you want to know how much (proportionally) an item (such as a coin in a coin collection) has increased in value over the past year. You know the price last year, and the price this year. Place the cursor in A1, and enter "Last Year's Price". In A2 enter "This Year's Price". In A3 enter the text "Net change", and in A4 enter "Proportion Change". The formula for proportion change is T_h_i_s_ _Y_e_a_r_'_s_ _P_r_i_c_e_ _-_ _L_a_s_t_ _Y_e_a_r_'_s_ _P_r_i_c_e_ Last Year's Price Breaking that down into pairwise relations, we have Net Change= Last Year's Price - This Year's Price Proportion Change = Net Change/Last Year's Price Assuming that last year's Price for a coin was $100, we enter the number 100 in cell C1. This year's Price is $125, so we enter the number 125 in cell C2. To calculate Net Change in cell C3, we enter the relation C2-C1. The number 25 will appear. To calculate proportion change in cell C4, we enter the relation C3/C1, and 0.25 will appear. Changing Values If we change the value of Last Year's Price or This Year's Price, the Net Change and Proportion Change will automatically be recalculated. For instance, change the This Year's Price to 200, by moving the cursor to the C2 position, entering 200, and pressing ENTER. Observe the changes in Net Change and Proportion Change. Short Stack If you prefer to see percentages rather than proportions, stack another relation at C4 to multiply the proportion by 100. Place the cursor at C4, and type in the relation C4*100. This causes whatever is in cell C4 to be multiplied by 100. Change the text "Proportion Change" to "Percent Change". 15 AC - How To Use It Here is How the Table Should Look |---A---||---B---||---C---|| 1: Last Year's Price 100.0 2: This Year's Price 125.0 3: Net Change 25.0 4: Percent Change 25.0 After changing Last Year's Price to 30 and This Year's Price to 45, the table will look like this |---A---||---B---||---C---|| 1: Last Year's Price 30.0 2: This Year's Price 45.0 3: Net Change 15.0 4: Percent Change 50.0 Formats Formats may be chosen, using the F10 function key, to select the format in which numbers will be printed. The six choices are 1) Default - AC decides how to display a number. 2) Display numbers with two decimal places ( such as 100.00 instead of 100.0) 3) Display numbers with commas signifying thousands, such as 1,000.00 instead of 1000.0 4) Display numbers as dollars, such as $100.00. 5) Display whole numbers, such as 1000 instead of 1000.05. 6) Whole numbers, with commas signifying thousands. 7) Numbers displayed to four decimal places. Using the table you have just created, experiment with the different available formats. Note, that you can select to choose a format for the entire table, for a single cell, or for a range of cells. 16 AC - How To Use It Understanding the Structure In order to make effective use of the AC, it is important to understand clearly how the tables are formed. To clarify this, consider the table below. |---A---||---B---||---C---||---D---||---E---| 1: Numbers Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 2: ============================================ 3: 1st Num. 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 <-- (B3+D3) 4: 2nd Num. 200.0 400.0 200.0 400.0 <-- (B4+D4) 5: 3rd Num. 300.0 100.0 500.0 400.0 <-- (B5+C5) 6: --------------------------------------------- 7: Totals 600.0 700.0 1000.0 1200.0 To construct this table, clear the current table (if there is one) by using the F8 function key. You will be asked "Clear Table (Y/N)?" Answer Y and a blank table will appear. Begin Entry Place the cursor at A1 and type in line 1. There is no need to press the ENTER key until the entire line is typed. Now type in line 2, using the equal "=" symbol. A_f_t_e_r_ reading the rest of this paragraph, type in rows 3 to 5 one field at a time. That is, type in "1st Num." and press the ENTER key, type in "100" and press the ENTER key, etc. Do not type in the numbers in column "E". The numbers in column E will be calculated according to relations we will type in later. Enter Relations for Column E The relations for column E are noted in parentheses next to the numbers. Place the cursor in cell E3 and type in B3+D3. The number 400 will appear. Do the same for cell E4 and E5. Enter line 6, a series of dashes. Next, We Sum the Columns Place the cursor in cell A7, type in "Totals",and press the ENTER key. Next, place the cursor in cell B7 and type in "SUMCOL". The number 600 will appear. Enter "SUMCOL" in columns C, D and E also. See What We Have Done Press the F4 "Review" function key, and the following relations, which we have entered, will be displayed. 17 AC - How To Use It 1. E3=B3+D3 2. E4=B4+D4 3. E5=B5+C5 4. B7=SUMCOL 5. C7=SUMCOL 6. D7=SUMCOL 7. E7=SUMCOL If your list of relations does not match this list, please begin the example over again. To Correct a "Mistake" Suppose you made a mistake in entering the relation in cell E5. That is, suppose you r_e_a_l_l_y_ wanted to enter the relation "B5+D5" instead of the present "B5+C5". Place the cursor at E5, and enter the desired relation, B5+D5. Notice that the correct sum of 800 appears. However, notice that the sum of column E is now incorrect! Moreover, if we changed numbers in the body of the table, the total would still come up wrong. A quick check of the relations table will solve the problem. Look at the Relations Press the F4 key, and you should see the following table. 1. E3=B3+D3 2. E4=B4+D4 3. E5=B5+C5 4. B7=SUMCOL 5. C7=SUMCOL 6. D7=SUMCOL 7. E7=SUMCOL 8. E5=B5+D5 Calculations Take Place in Logical Order Since calculations take place in the same order as they are created, we can see that the sum of column E occurred before the last summation (B5+D5) took place. All can be made well by deleting the relations "E5=B5+C5" and "E7=SUMCOL", and then entering the SUMCOL in cell E7 again. Correct this table by making these changes. 18 AC - How to Use It Checkbook Balancing Act An example AC table on your disk is called BALANCE. To get it, press the F2 key, and enter BALANCE. This table can be used to balance your checkbook. It requires that you enter your bank statement amount, outstanding checks and fees, and outstanding deposits and interest. From this, it gives you the amount which should appear in your checkbook, as the current balance. Checkbook Account Reconciliation Form Enter Outstanding Checks Enter Outstanding Deposits Enter Balance (debts) here: (credits) here: from statement Reference Amount Reference Amount here $ 716.41 100 23.34 Dep 11/2 230.33 101 125.00 Dep 11/4 1200.00 ----RESULTS------ 102 12.54 Balance in 103 432.00 Checkbook should be = $ 1553.86 Total Outstanding Checks and fees are = $ 592.88 Total Outstanding Deps. and Int. are = $ 1430.33 Notice that input of outstanding checks and deposits are in columns B and E respectively. These columns are totaled on row 50, which you can verify by paging down to the bottom of the table (using Ctrl-PgDn). Your checkbook balance should be Previous Balance-Debt+Credits, which appears under the RESULTS sign. A total of outstanding Debts and Credits are also given under the RESULTS sign. For your personal use, you can enter your numbers over the sample numbers already entered. Can You Do It? As an exercise to learn about how to create a AC table, enter this table from a blank screen. In fact, all of the examples in this manual have been created to use a variety of AC's capabilities. Understanding how the examples were created will help you design tables for your own needs. 19 AC - How to Use It Linking Tables Numbers in tables may be "linked" together by calling them from one table to another. For example, you may develop a budget for several departments, and then create a summary budget table by fetching the subtotals from the various department budgets. If you will not be using this feature, this section may be skipped without loss of additional information. Defining Files Before you can fetch data from other tables, you must first define which files you will be using. This is performed with the F6 function key. Each file will be referred to by number. One Time and Dynamic Fetch You may fetch a number from a file on a one time basis, which means that if it is changed in the original file, it will n_o_t_ be affected in the new file. You may also define a "dynamic" fetch. This type of fetch will be updated if the number in the original file is changed. Step-By-step (1) Decide from which files you wish to fetch information from, and specify them using the F6 function key, responding to program prompts. (2) Place the cursor in the cell where you want the fetched number to be placed, and issue the fetch command. The structure for these commands are: !(#:NAME) - one time fetch @(#:NAME) - dynamic fetch where # is the number assigned to the file name by the F6 procedure, and where NAME refers to the cell name of the number in the fetch file, such as A1, N50 or C23. That's all there is to it. The following pages give an example of the use of the fetch commands. 20 AC - How to Use It Dynamic Fetch Example Suppose you wanted to create a budget in which each section was stored in a different table. Perhaps budgets are by department, or category. Each budget could be developed on individual tables, and a summary budget table could be calculated using the dynamic fetch command. Here is a simple example of how that works. Suppose you create a budget sheet for salaries which looks like this... Budget Sheet #1 - Salaries Employee Salary William Carver 50000 Bill Engle 26300 Fred Fisher 24000 Muriel Mayberry 35000 Annette Williams 26000 Total Salaries 161300 The total, 161300, is in cell E13 for this example. Next you create another sheet which contains expenses. It looks like... Budget Sheet #2 - Expenses Item Yearly Cost Rent 14000.00 Utilities 2500.00 Postage 5000.00 Supplies 12000.00 Repairs 3600.00 Telephone 2400.00 Printing 2400.00 Misc 3000.00 Total Expenses 44900.00 This time the total falls in cell E14. 21 AC - How to Use It The Summary Sheet The summary sheet is created by fetching the two totals from sheet1 and sheet2 by first defining the two fetch files (using function key F6) where sheet1 is file 1 and sheet2 is file 2. The fetch is accomplished by placing the cursor in the location where you wish the number to appear, and issuing the command @(1:E13) to fetch the total from sheet1 and @(2:E14) to fetch the total from sheet2. The resulting summary table looks like... Summary Budget Table combining Sheet1 and Sheet2 Total Salaries from sheet 1 161300.0 Total Expenses from sheet 2 44900.0 ========= Total Expenses 206200.0 After All is Set Up After such tables are set up, a change in one of the tables sheet1 or sheet2 will result in an updated amount in the summary table. These files are included on your AC diskette for you to review. They are: SHEET1 - Salary Information SHEET2 - Expenses SUMMARY - The Budget Summary Table As an example, change a value on sheet1 or sheet2, and observe the update which is made in the summary table. Note that the dynamic fetch (which uses the "@" command) will be updated, whereas the one time fetch command (using the "!") will not be updated when the original file is changed. On the next page, observe that one of the numbers in the salary table has been changed. Notice that this change has caused an update of the summary table. 22 AC - How to Use It Note The Salary Change: Budget Sheet #1 - Salaries Employee Salary William Carver 50000 Bill Engle 30000 <--Changed Fred Fisher 24000 Muriel Mayberry 35000 Annette Williams 26000 Total Salaries 165000 <-- New Total Note The Updated Summary Table Summary Budget Table combining Sheet1 and Sheet2 Total Salaries from sheet 1 165000.0 <-- Updated Total Expenses from sheet 2 44900.0 ========= Total Expenses 209900.0 A maximum of 20 files may be accessed at any one time with the fetch command. 23 AC - How To Use It Output to Printer or to a File Using the F9 option, you may print a table to a printer or to a file. When you press F9, you will be given an opportunity to specify which part of the table is to be printed. A table indicates the part of the current table to be printed... PRINT CRITERIA Beginning Column A Ending Column H Beginning Row 1 Ending Row 20 ASCII code to printer 0 The cursor will be located on the "Beginning Column" criteria. You may enter a different column letter, or press ENTER to continue to the next criteria. The ASCII code criteria calls for printer codes such as 27+49, which signals the printer to enter a special mode (such as condensed printing). Notice that is multiple number are to be send, they should be separate by plus (+) signs. Once you have gone down to the bottom of the criteria list, you may choose to: (R)eturn to table (P)rint (F)ile (C)hange options Return will return you to the table without printing, Print will begin the printing process, File will send a "picture" of the table to a file, in which you will be asked to specify a file name, and Change will return you to the Beginning Column criteria and allow you to change any of the criteria. If the table is printed to a file, it may be merged into word processing or other programs which will read standard ASCII files (such as the VersaText Word Processing System). Two Ways to Save a Table Please note that when a table is saved using the F2 option, the S_T_R_U_C_T_U_R_E_ of the table is saved, not a picture of what appears on the screen. This F9 option WILL create a file containing a picture of the table. 24 AC - How To Use It SUSPEND CALCULATIONS This page covers an advanced feature of AC. You may skip it without loss of information until you need this feature. The Ctrl-S option, which suspends calculations, has several uses. When a number of changes are to be made in the numeric entries in a table, this command will permit faster turnaround between "Please Wait" and "ENTER". Another use of this command is illustrated as follows. Constant Update Place the cursor in A1 and enter the number 22. Now place the cursor in B1 and enter the relation B1+A1. The number 22 will appear. Move the cursor to A1 again, and enter the number 10. B1 will change to 32. In effect, B1 is adding itself to A1 every time a new entry is made. Now move the cursor to C1 and enter any number. Notice that B1 is again updated by the 10 currently in A1, and becomes 42. This is called constant update. Whenever any number is entered into the table, B1 updates itself. A Particular Use Suppose you create an "invoice maker" as a AC table, and you want to keep a running total of the day's activities. By creating a constantly updating total, you can do this. However, you only want the total update once per invoice. Therefore, while the invoice is being written, you want to suspend calculations. When the entries are all placed in the invoice, you turn calculations back on, which performs the invoice calculations, and updates the day's total. 25 AC - How To Use It AMORTIZATION EXAMPLE An amortization table is a table which gives the amount of principal and interest paid on a loan at the end of each payment interval. The balance due at such time is also tabled. In this example we demonstrate how AC can be used to construct an amortization table. It's Out There To display this table on the screen, press the F2 key, and specify the table MORT. The following table will be displayed. >---A---<>---B---><---C---><---D---><---E---><---F---><---G---><---H--- 1 : LOAN ANALYSIS FOR AN AMORITIZED LOAN 2 : Sched.For next 12 periods 3 :Description..... House Loan Amounts Principal Int Bal 4 :======================================================================== 5 :Enter amount of loan 65000.00 15.73 690.62 64984.27 6 :Enter interest rate per year 12.75 15.89 690.46 64968.38 7 :Enter number of years 30.00 16.06 690.29 64952.32 8 :Enter number of payments per year 12.00 16.23 690.12 64936.09 9 :Enter number of payments (N) made 0 16.41 689.95 64919.68 10 :--------------------------------------------- 16.58 689.77 64903.10 11 :Total number of payments 360 16.76 689.59 64886.34 12 :Amount of payment 706.35 16.93 689.42 64869.41 13 :Number of payments remaining 360 17.11 689.24 64852.30 14 :Payoff bal after 0.00th pmt. 65000.00 17.30 689.05 64835.00 15 :Total amount paid to date 0.00 17.48 688.87 64817.52 16 :Principal paid to date 0.00 17.67 688.69 64799.86 17 :Interest paid to date 0.00 ======= ======== ======== 18 : AMORTIZATION TABLE TOTALS 200.15 8276.06 NA The table as it now appears shows the monthly payment required to payoff a $65000 loan in 30 years. It also shows the total principal and interest paid, and gives a twelve month amortization schedule. Note that all of the rows above the single dotted line allow an entry on your part so that you can obtain all of the information below the line for a variety of loan amounts, interest rates, length of loan, etc. To see this, change the loan above from monthly payments (12 payments a year) to quarterly payments (4 payments per year) by changing the number on line eight from 12 to 4. 26 AC - How To Use It Enter Your "Favorite" Loan Use this table to enter your favorite loan amount. Recall that you may only change numbers ABOVE the dashed line. Changing values below that line will destroy the relationships set up to perform these calculations. Of course, if you do this by mistake, you may always get the table again using the F2 key. The Formula This table is based on the following formula: i P= A* ------------ -n 1-(1+i) where P is the payment, A is the amount borrowed, n is the number of payments, and i is the interest rate per pay period. If you are mathematically inclined, review the relations table to see if you can follow the steps in calculating P from the above formula. Principal and Interest Row 16 contains principal paid to date as specified by the number of payments given in row 9. Similarly, interest to date is in row 17. To find total interest, enter the total number of payments in row 9. (This number is calculated for you in row 11). 27 AC - How To Use It Balloon Note Example In the previous example, we demonstrated how AC can be used to build an amortization schedule. This is a good example of how AC can be used to tabulate virtually any finance problem. This example is similar, except that it allows you to choose the payment you want, which forces the last payment to be a "balloon" payment (the payoff). This is popular among used car salesmen. Any number above the dashed line may be changed. LOAN ANALYSIS FOR AN AMORITIZED LOAN,N-1 EQUAL PAYMENTS ,1 UNEQUAL PMT. Description: Joe's Used Car (1964 Studebaker) ======================================================================== Enter amount of loan 1400.00 Enter interest rate in % per year 18.00 % Enter number of years(N) 2.00 Enter number of payments per year 12.00 Enter amount of equal payment 50.00 Enter number of equal pmts. made to date 1.00 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Total number of equal payments 23.00 Number of equal payments remaining 22.00 Amount of final payment 619.63 Payoff bal after 1.00th equal pmt 1371.00 Total amount paid to date 50.00 Principal paid to date 29.00 Interest paid to date 21.00 Notice that for a loan on a 1964 Studebaker from Joe's Used Car Sales, we have selected a monthly payment of $50.00 on a 2 year loan. The "Amount of final payment" is 619.63. This is the balloon payment which is due as the 24th payment. 28 AC - How To Use It Household Budget Example Finally, the last example explained in this manual is named BUDGET. This table is a simple example of how you could plan a household budget using AC. Example of Monthly Budget Table Amount available for this month's use is... 2000.00 Loan Payments Bills House 450.00 VISA 150.00 Car 150.00 M.C. 35.00 Home Imp 125.00 Elect. 78.23 Furn. 56.75 Water 14.44 Gas 33.23 Phone 43.55 --------- --------- Subtot#1 781.75 Subtot#2 354.45 Total amount of money needed to pay bills= 1136.20 Amount of money available after bills paid= 863.80 This is a simple table to produce. Each column of payments is summed using SUMCOL. The "Total amount needed" is the sum of each column, and the "Amount available after" is the amount available minus the amount spent. 29 AC - How To Use It Editing the Relations Table The F4 function key displays the list of relations currently established in a table. They could be thought of as a simple computer program. While creating a table, it may be necessary to alter this list of relations to achieve the desired results. Two options are available to do this. COPY RELATIONS The F4 option allows you to copy an existing relation anywhere in the relations list. If, for instance, you wish to copy sixth relation so that it appeared as the third relation, you may do so. This will cause the existing third relation to be moved to four, four to five, etc. Thus, this procedure allows you to rearrange the relations so they will take place in the desired order. The copied relation remains in the table. DELETE RELATIONS Another editing feature is the ability to delete relations. This may be done by deleting one relation, or a range. After choosing DELETE in the F4 option, you may enter a single number, such as 6, or a range of numbers such as 6-12. After deleting, relations below the deleted relations are moved up an appropriate amount so that the relations always remain in an unbroken consecutive order. As you become more familiar with AC, these editing features will allow you to create and edit complex tables with ease. 30 AC - APPENDICES When Errors Occur When an error is encountered, the following type of notice will appear on the screen. Error Detected Number 61 Reference 1000 This indicates that the program has encountered a barrier to execution. Many times by simply pressing the ENTER key, the program will recover. If the program does not recover, please make a note of the error number and reference. The meaning of the error codes may be found in the IBM Personal Computer BASIC manual, appendix A. For instance, code 61 indicates that the diskette on which a file is to be stored is full. Most errors such as this may be corrected by simple action on your part. If a puzzling error occurs, please make a note of the number and reference, and contact Mission Technologies by mail. The following is an abbreviated list of error codes. Common Errors 24- Device Timeout (Printer is off) 25- Device Fault (Printer has malfunctioned) 27- Out of Paper 61- Disk full (diskette has used all available space) 67- Too many files (diskette contains maximum number of files) 70- Disk Write Protected 71- Disk Not Ready (Is the drive door closed?) 72- Disk Media Error (Your diskette may be bad) It is possible to define impossible mathematical relations such as 10/0, which may cause an "overflow" or "undeflow" error. If recovery is not possible, you may press CTRL-Break to end the program, or CTRL-Alt-Del to reboot. 31 AC - APPENDICES SPECIFICATIONS 1) Maximum number of relations: 200 2) Maximum number of "fetch" files defined at any one time is 20. Extensions to names When a table is saved without a filename extension, the extension ".AC" is attached. Also, when a table is requested in a "GET", the filename extension ".AC" is assumed when none is given. A name may be given an extension such as "TABLE.EXT", and it will be saved and retrieved as such. When a default disk is specified in the INITIAL program, the names of tables with the extension ".AC" will automatically be displayed on the screen when a "GET" or "DIRECTORY" is requested. 32 AC - APPENDICES Setting up the initialization file The fil AC.INI may be created, which will tell Calc which default disky to use for storage, and what colors to use in the program Default Disk Once a default diskette is defined, all saves and gets will automatically assume that the table to get or save is on the default diskette. Thus, if the default disk is B, you may get the table "TABLE" instead of having to request "B:TABLE". This may be overridden at any time by use of the disk specification such as "A:TABLE". The default disk may be changed by pressing the "OPTIONS" (F5) key. COLORS The INI file specifies the colors for... 1. The table outline. 2. Negative numbers. 3. Positive numbers. 4. Text. You may, for instance choose to display negative numbers as red on a color monitor, or in high intensity on a monochrome monitor. You may change these color choices at any time without affecting the operation of the table (except for color). To create the AC.INI file, use a standard ASCII text file editor such as Alan's Editor or EDLIN. The first line in the file should continan the letter of the default disk, such as B or C. The following four lines should contain four color indications for the specifications above. Each color specification is two numbers separated by a comma. Look up what colors are available in your BASIC manual, under the COLOR statement. For example, your file may look like this: C 0,7 0,7 7,0 7,0 33 AC - APPENDICES INDEX AMORTIZATION EXAMPLE 26 PRINT 12,24 ARITHMETIC RELATIONS 8 PRINTER CODES 24 BACKUPS 4 RELATIONS 6,10,15,18 BALLOON NOTE 28 REQUIREMENTS 3,32 BUDGET 29 REVIEW RELATIONS 11 CELL 6 ROW COPY 13 CHECKBOOK 19 SAVE 11,24 COLOR 33 SPECIFICATIONS 32 CONTROL COMMANDS 12,13 STOP 5 COPY 13,30 STRUCTURE 6,17 DELETE 13,30 SUMCOL 8,17 DEFAULT DISK 32,33 SUMROW 8 DYNAMIC FETCH 20,21 SUSPEND CALCULATIONS 13,25 EDITING RELATIONS 30 TEXT MODE 10,11 END 11 TUTORIAL 14 ERRORS 4,31 VERTICAL MOVES 12,14 FETCH FILES 10,20 FORMAT 12,16 FUNCTIONS 8 FUNCTION OPTIONS 11,12 GET 11 HORIZONAL MOVE 12 INSERT 13 INITIAL SETUP 4,33 LINKING TABLES 20-23 LOANS 26-28 ONE TIME FETCH 20 ORDER OF CALCULATION 18 OUTPUT TO DISK FILE 24 34 AC - APPENDICES ORDER FORM AND REQUEST FOR REGISTRATION - Alan's Calc I want to be on the mailing list for new Mission Tech- nologies Programs. I am enclosing registration fee (contribution suggested at $35) in the amount of $________. If paying by Credit Card: check _____VISA ______MC Card Number:__________________________ Exp Date:_____________ Signature:___________________________________________________ Check if applicable: ______ Send information on site licenses. ______ Send information on source code license. NAME:____________________________________________________ ADDRESS:_________________________________________________ CITY:_____________________STATE:_________ZIP:____________ PHONE #:_________________________________________________ ------------------------------------------------------------------ Comments and suggestions:(Attach extra sheet if necessary) ------------------------------------------------------------------ Send to :Mission Technologies PO BOX 1169 Cedar Hill, TX 75104 Phone:214-291-2115 (We cannot return long distance phone calls, but we can take VISA and MC orders over the phone.) If requesting technical help, please send a self addressed return envelope, and we will reply as soon as possible. 35
ALAN'S EDITOR (C) Alan C. Elliott, 1985 Mission Technologies P.O. Box 1169 Cedar Hill, Texas 75104 C_O_N_D_I_T_I_O_N_S_:_ This program is made available through the "user supported" concept. You may copy and distribute this program, but neither it nor any of the documentation may be altered. The program may not be distributed commercially except as a part of a PC user's group or similar organization. You are encouraged to contribute to the support of this program ($35 suggested). This will make you a registered user, and will put you on the update and newsletter mailing list. Site licenses, and source code licenses are also available. Please refer to the order form at the back of this manual. DESCRIPTION of Alan's Editor Alan's Editor (or AE for short) is a standard ASCII text editor. This means that it creates standard text files, which can be read by most computer programs. It is suitable for writing source code (FORTRAN, etc), for writing BATCH files (.bat), creating data files, and for creating memos and documents to print or merge with other programs, In essence, AE makes the computer screen into a notepad. You can type text onto the screen -- copy it -- delete it -- or save it for future use. PREPARING TO USE AE The only files required to use AE are the files named AE.EXE and AE.HLP. Note that you MUST include AE.DOC whenever the program is distributed. However, we will see that there is another file, which you can create, which sets up default values for storage disk, tab settings, and colors. 1 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ Use on Floppy To setup AE for use on a floppy, first format a floppy disk with the "/S" option. Then copy the files AE.EXE, AE.DOC, and AE.HLP to the newly formatted diskette. Set up the initialization files as indicated later in thes manual, usually specifying disk "B" as the storage diskette. Use on Hard disk To use AE on a hard disk, copy the files AE.EXE to the hard disk (usually to the ROOT directory) AE.EXE can be placed in any directory (such as ROOT) if the paths are properly set (See the DOS manual). However, AE.HLP must be in the ROOT directory. Also, see the section on how to set up initialization files. With AE in the ROOT directory, the PATH should at least be "PATH \;\". To begin the AE program (here from disk C), enter C>AE Optionally, if you are editing an existing document, you may give the command: C>AE FILENAME Where "FILENAME" is the name of the file to edit. You will first see the Mission Technologies screen describing the basics of how the program is made available. Press ENTER. You will now be asked to enter the letter of the storage drive. This refers to the drive which AE will use for its temporary buffer space, and will also specify where you will probably store the resulting file. It must be one character in length. For a hard disk user, the answer will probably be "C". For a two floppy user, the storage disk is most likely going to be "B". You will now see the AE title screen. Press enter, and you are in the editor. Let's examine the screen. The phrase: "F7 is HELP" is at the upper left. Directly underneath the "F" in F7 notice the blinking cursor. This cursor indicates the location at which text can be entered. The number 1,1 appears next to the HELP, indicating the position of the cursor, line 1, column 1. A vertical mark on the top and bottom of the screen indicates the screen line length. This line length is usually initially set at 60 columns. This can be changed. 2 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ You may enter text onto this blank screen in much the same way as you would with a typewriter. A maximum of 22 lines of text can be displayed on the screen at any one time. In this manual, we will discuss three kinds of commands which allow you to manipulate text within AE. They are Numeric Keypad Commands Function Key Commands Control Commands Description of these commands are illustrated in Lessons 1 to 3 in this manual. Numeric Keypad Commands The numeric keypad is located on the right side of the IBM PC keyboard. Note that under the numerals on these keys is a word, abbreviation, or symbol. During the operation of AE, the numeric keypad is in what we call "cursor mode". By this we mean that pressing one of these keys will produce the action indicated at the bottom of the key rather than type the number. If a number is to be entered, use the keys on the top row of your PC keyboard. A description of the cursor mode actions of the numeric keypad follows. Home - Puts the cursor in the upper left hand corner of the screen. Arrow Keys (right, left, up, down) - Moves the cursor in the direction indicated by the arrow. End - Moves the cursor to the end of the current line. PgUp (Page Up) - Moves 11 lines toward the front of the document. Recall that only 22 lines of a document can be displayed at any one time. PgUp allows you to display a new screen in which the 11 lines immediately preceding the text on the original screen are located as the first 11 lines of this new screen followed by the first 11 lines of the original screen. 3 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ PgDn (Page Down) - Moves 11 lines forward in the document. NOTE:by moving the cursor to the bottom of the screen, and pressing the down arrow key makes the document scroll one line at a time. Moving to the top of the screen, and pressing the up arrow makes the screen scroll down one line at a time. Del - Deletes the character at which the cursor is located. CTRL-End does the same thing. Ins - Turns on the character insert mode. Characters typed in will be entered directly preceding the cursor location. As each character is entered, a space is created in which that character can be inserted. Pressing the "Ins" key again or pressing the ENTER key will turn off insert mode. Note that when you are n_o_t_ in insert mode, typing a character will r_e_p_l_a_c_e_ the character which was located at the cursor position. Three Special Keys Three other keys on the IBM PC keyboard have special functions in AE. Destructive Backspace <--- - this is the arrow key on the top row of keys and directly to the right of the "=" key. It moves the cursor one column to the left and d_e_l_e_t_e_s_ the character located there. Tab -->| - Moves the cursor to the next tab position as indicated by the "T"'s on the highlighted bar at the bottom of the screen. (pressing CTRL-K) several times will eventually display these tab settings. Note that tabbing to the left is not currently supported. If no tab marks are set, they may be set with the CTRL-T command in AE, or may be included in the initialization file (described later). 4 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ Esc - End: Allows you to end the editor. A message will appear at the bottom of the screen to double check your motives. You file will NOT be saved. Function Keys The 10 keys marked F1-F10 on the left side of the keyboard are called function keys. They have been programmed so that they produce certain actions within AE. F1 - Save: Stores the current working file onto a disk. After pressing the F1 key, you will be prompted to enter a document name. Simply pressing ENTER without any filename will return you to the screen editor without saving the file. F2 - Get: This allows you to access a previously saved file. You will be asked to enter the name of the file at the bottom of the screen. AE will then display the first 22 lines of the document on the screen, and you are ready to edit. Pressing ENTER without giving a file name will return control to the screen, i.e. to the screen editor with the current working document. If you already have a document in the editor when you do a get, it will append the new document onto the old one at the end of the buffer. F3 - Top: Cursor moves to top of current workspace. If none of the document has been "buffered out", this will be the top of the document. See an explanation of "Buffering Out" later in this manual. See also CTRL-F3. F4 - Bottom: Cursor moves to the last line of the workspace. See CTRL-F4. F5 - Delete: Deletes a specified number of lines beginning at the line on which the cursor is located. You will be prompted to enter the number of lines to delete. Entering 0 (or nothing) will delete no lines. 5 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ F6 - Insert: Inserts 1 to 10 blank line(s) above the cursor. If more blank lines are needed, simply repeat the process. F7 - Help: Provides status information, and allows you to request a directory of files on disk and to delete files. F8 - Clear: Clears current workspace, leaving you with a blank screen. Note that the current working document will be lost when the workspace is cleared without first saving the document using the F1 command. However, the text in the copy buffer (see the F9 key) is not lost when the workspace is cleared. This can be used to move information from one file to another. See F9 below. F9 - Mark: Used to mark blocks of text for copying. To mark text for copying, move the cursor to the upper left corner of the rectangular block to be copied, and Press F9. The mark will be noted by a character in reverse video. Move the cursor to the last line of the text to be copied, and then move it to the right at least as far as the length of the longest line to be copied. The block of text will be highlighted in reverse video. Note that text in the copy buffer is not destroyed when the F8-Clear command is issued. This provides a method of transferring blocks of text from one file to another. Marks must be made on ONE screen. The maximum size of a copy buffer is one screen (22 lines). F10- Copy: Used to copy a marked rectangular block of text (see F9 - Mark). Moving the cursor to the position where you wish to insert the text previously marked using the F9 command and pressing F10 will insert the text in the desired position by first inserting enough blank lines for it to fit. A copy which does not insert before copying is CTRL C, explained later. 6 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ Control Commands (CTRL) Control commands are issued by pressing the CTRL key like a shift key, and then simultaneously pressing a single command key such as a D, W or F. Below is a list of the available control commands: CTRL C - Is similar to the F10 function key. However, instead of first inserting blank lines before making a copy, CTRL C will place the copied text in the position specified by the cursor, directly over any text that may happen to exist there. CTRL D - Deletes all characters on the current line which are to the right of the cursor. If the cursor is in column one, the entire line will be deleted, and any text below that line will be moved up on the screen. CTRL F - This command "fills" the text from the current line to the next blank line which starts with a dot "." Each line is filled with as many words as will fit while observing the current line length specifications. CTRL K - The horizontal highlighted bar at the bottom of the screen which initially displays copyright information. Successively pressing CTRL K will display the function key commands, CTRL commands, and tab settings. CTRL L - This command may be used to reset the line length specifications within AE. After pressing CTRL L, you will be prompted to enter the new line length. 7 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ CTRL P - Places text on the current line in centered position with respect to the line length specifications. CTRL R - This command allows you to replace text on the screen. After pressing CTRL R, you will notice a request at the bottom of the screen which says "Old/New". Enter the string of characters to be replaced , followed by a "/", and the new string of characters. For example, responding to the request with wrong/right would result in the replacement of the word "wrong" with "right". Each "wrong" will be highlighted on the screen, and you will be able to replace, skip, end the replace procedure, or select the replacement of all further occurrences of "wrong" with "right" without any more prompting. After checking the first screen for matches, you will be prompted to indicate if you want the replace to continue. Enter Y or N. CTRL S - Will search for a specified text. You will be prompted to enter the text to be located. Each time this text is matched, it will be highlighted on the screen. The search is conducted from the beginning of the current workspace to the end of the current workspace. (See "Buffering Out" in this chapter). CTRL T - Allows you to reset the tab settings by entering up to 20 column numbers at which you wish the tabs to be set. These column numbers should be entered from smallest to largest, should be separated by semicolons, and none should exceed the line length. CTRL W - Deletes text from the position of the cursor to the next blank. This is usually used to delete a word. CTRL X - Splits a line at the position of the cursor, and places the text to the right of the cursor on the next line. This should be used for inserts of more than 8 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ several characters. CTRL F3 - Goes to top of document. This is the same as F3, if no buffering has been done. CTRL F4 - goes to bottom of document. This is the same as F4 is document is short. SUMMARY OF COMMANDS BY ACTION Cursor Movement Arrows - move cursor in direction indicated Home key - move cursor to upper left of screen End key - move cursor to end of current line (Tab) - move cursor to next tab stop Delete Del key - delete character CTRL W - delete word CTRL D - delete to end of line (Also CTRL-END) F5 - delete line(s) <-- - destructive backspace Insert Ins key - insert character(s) F6 - insert line(s) Screen Formatting CTRL F - fill text CTRL L - set line length CTRL P - place text in center of screen CTRL T - set tab stops 9 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ Movement within document F3 - move to top of buffer F4 - move to bottom buffer CTRL-F3 - move to top of document CTRL-F4 - move to bottom of document PgDn - page down 11 lines PgUp - page up 11 lines Search and Replace CTRL S - search for text string - global to end CTRL R - replace text string - can be global to end Block copying F9 - mark text to be placed in rectangular copy buffer F10 - copy rectangular block - non destructive CTRL C - copy rectangular block - destructive Document storage and retrieval F1 - save current working document F2 - get document from disk for editing Miscellaneous CTRL K - change help key at bottom of screen CTRL X - split line F7 - help F8 - clear workspace Esc key- end Alan's Editor Text Buffering and Scrolling The AE screen displays 22 lines of text at a time. The PgUp and PgDn keys allow you to page up and down a document to find the area with which you wish to work. AE was designed so that any document, no matter how long, could be edited. If all text cannot be in memory at one time, it is necessary to bring in a piece of the document at a time. 10 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ "Buffering" Occasionally, you will hear a BEEP, and a message will appear on the screen: "Buffering...please wait". This indicates that part of the document is being sent to a storage buffer (called FILE1.AE on the disk in the default drive) in order to make more space for additional text to be entered. This means that when you issue the F3-top command, you may not return to the top of the document, but rather you will return to the top of the current workspace. What if you want to go back to the beginning of the d_o_c_u_m_e_n_t_ to make some additional changes? Use CTRL-F3. File Structure When a "SAVE" takes place, the current working document is written entirely into FILE1.ae which was discussed previously. You are asked to specify a name for the document which you are saving - let's call it MYFILE.DOC. If MYFILE.DOC already exists, you are asked if you want to replace its contents with the new text. If you respond "N" then the Save does not take place. If you respond "Y", then the previous contents of MYFILE.DOC are written to the backup file MYFILE.BAK, and finally the contents of FILE1.AE are written to MYFILE.DOC. The backup file (filename.BAK) that is created when a document is saved, is a method of retrieving a file as it was before being edited. Notice, however, that the backup files for MYFILE.DOC and MYFILE.LET have the same name, and so the contents of MYFILE.BAK will depend on which of these two files was the last one to be edited. If many files are being created, you may need to erase unneeded backup files to avoid running out of disk space. 11 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ BE CAUTIOUS Text being created and changes being made to an existing file are stored in memory until the F1 "Save" command is issued. So, a power failure or human error could cause you to lose this information. We recommend that you issue the F1 "Save" command periodically to protect your work. TUTORIAL LESSONS The remainder of this manual will be devoted to three lessons to give you a better understanding of the screen editing commands. We recommend that you go through these lessons before attempting to use AE to create your own files. LESSON 1 This lesson will cover most of the function keys. Additional keys will be covered in Lesson 2. Enter Alan's Editor with the command: (The C> prompt is assumed) C>A_E_ Enter the follow text, exactly as it appears here. Do not type the borders. --------------------------------------------------------- | Lesson One | |This text will help you learn about Alan's Edit. | |We will learn how to use most of the functn keys. | | | |These two lines will be copied to other locations | |within this file using the F10 and CTRL C commands. | | | |We will learn how to delete this line. | | | |When text is copied using the F10 command, text at the | |location to which it is being copied is not destroyed. | |However, when CTRL C is used to copy a block of text to | |a new location, it replaces the text there. | | | --------------------------------------------------------- 12 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ E_n_d_i_n_g_ _A_E_ _-_ _E_s_c_ Press the Esc key. You will hear a BEEP. Notice the following request at the bottom of the screen where you are asked to choose: (S)ystem or (R)eturn to Edit This time answer the request by typing an "R" -- no need to press the ENTER key. "S" would have returned you to the DOS system. D_e_l_e_t_i_n_g_ _l_i_n_e_s_ _(_F_5_)_ The F5 key deletes lines of text. Move the cursor to the "W" in "We..." in the fourth sentence of the text on the screen. Press the F5 key. You will be asked how many lines to delete. You may enter 0 or more. This time enter 1, and press ENTER. The entire line is deleted. (See also CTRL D). I_n_s_e_r_t_i_n_g_ _c_h_a_r_a_c_t_e_r_s_ _(_I_n_s_)_ Did you notice that the word "function" is misspelled in the example? This can be corrected by moving the cursor to the second "n" in "functn" and pressing the "Ins" key which is located below the numeric pad. Notice the blinking message at the top of the screen. This means that characters entered will be inserted. Insert the missing "i" and then the "o". Pressing the "Ins" key again will turn off the insert mode. The insert mode is meant for SMALL insertions of one or several characters. Otherwise, use the F6 key to insert blank lines before adding text or the CTRL X command to split a line at the point new text is to be added. I_n_s_e_r_t_i_n_g_ _l_i_n_e_s_ _(_F_6_)_ You may insert whole blank lines by using the F6 function key. Move the cursor to the beginning of the second line. Press the F6 key. You will hear a BEEP, and see the following request at the bottom of the screen: Insert how many lines (1-10):_ 13 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ You may insert up to ten blank lines. Type a "2" and press the ENTER key. Notice the insertion of the blank lines on the screen. You may type additional text into these blank lines. Note: Since the keypad is in function mode during screen editing, DO NOT use the numeric keypad to enter numbers during edit -- use the numbers at the top of the keyboard. By using F6 more than once, you may insert more than 10 blank lines. Marking text for copy (F9) Copying text is a two step process. First, mark the text you wish to copy and then specify the location in the text at which you want the marked text to be copied. To mark the text, we specify the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner of the text. Move the cursor to the "T" in "These" in the third sentence. Press the F9 function key. The "T" will be displayed in reverse video. Move the cursor to the period at the end of the sentence and press the F9 key again. Notice that a block of text is highlighted. The text in the highlighted rectangular box is now in the copy buffer and can be copied to other locations using the F10 and CTRL C commands. It will remain there until pressing the F9 key again starts a new pair of marks, or until you "End" editing. It should be mentioned that copy blocks are always rectangular, and the largest possible block is 22 lines by the current line length. M_o_v_i_n_g_ _T_e_x_t_ To move text, simply perform a copy, and then delete the old text. Copying text (F10 and CTRL C) Move the cursor to the line that begins with "When text..." and press the F10 function key. This copies the contents of the copy buffer to the location specified by the current position of the cursor. Notice that the text at the location where the text is being copied is not destroyed. Now, move the cursor to the "H" in "However,..." and enter CTRL C. The two lines of text which formerly occupied this position in the file have been 14 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ replaced by the text in the copy buffer. Notice, however, that characters in these lines which extend beyond the rectangular copy block, still remain. These may be deleted by using, for example, the "Del" key discussed in Lesson 2. LESSON 2 This lesson will cover the use of the function keys F1, F7, F8, the "Home" and "Del" keys. First, clear the edit screen by pressing g F*, and answering "Y". Next, enter the text exactly as it appears below: --------------------------------------------------------- | Lesson Two | | | |In this lesson, we will learn about saving a document for| |future use, the "Help" key, the character ddelete, and | |about the Home key. | --------------------------------------------------------- C_h_a_r_a_c_t_e_r_ _D_e_l_e_t_e_ _(_D_e_l_)_ Notice that there is an extra "d" in the word "delete". Move the cursor (using the arrow keys) to the first "d" in "ddelete". Locate the key below the numeric pad labeled "Del". Press the "Del" key once, and notice that the extra "d" has been deleted. Saving a Document (F1) After creating or correcting a document, we will have to save it in order to use it again. To do this we will use the F1 "Save" function key. Press the F1 key once, and you will hear a BEEP, and see a request at the bottom of the screen. You must now enter a name for the document to be saved. For this example, we will name our file LESS2.TMP to remind us that it is from Lesson Two, and that it is temporary (we will delete it later). See your DOS manual for a discussion of filenames. Type in 15 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ LESS2.TMP and press the ENTER key. Again we are assuming here that this file is to be written to the disk in the default drive. Otherwise, the disk must be specified, i.e. A:LESS2.TMP or B:LESS2.TMP. You will asked whether you want to: (R)eturn to Editor or goto (S)ystem This time enter "R" which will return you to the screen editor so that you may continue working on the current document. Note: If more changes are made to the document, it will have to be saved again in order for these additional changes to be recorded. Clearing the Workspace (F8) The next function key we will discuss is the F8 "Clear" key. This key lets you clear the current working document from the workspace, and starts you all over. BE CAREFUL in choosing to clear your space -- if you have not saved your text with the F1 key, it will be lost. Okay, you want to start all over, so press the function key F8 once. You will be asked (at the bottom of the screen) "Are you sure?" Answering "N" will cancel the request, and an answer of "Y" will cause the clearing to take place. The text on the screen will vanish, and you will see a new blank screen. Text in the copy buffer will NOT be lost. Now, press the F2 key, and get the document "LESS2.TMP". This is the file you saved earlier. Help (F7) The last function key you will learn about in this chapter is F7, the "Help" key. Press the F7 key, and you will see a screen with the following text: To change key at bottom of screen, press CTRL-K while in Edit mode 16 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ Please Choose: (R)eturn to screen (S)how files (D)elete a file (H)elp Choice: The top of the screen reminds you that while in the edit mode, the CTRL K command can be used to obtain brief summaries of the Function and CTRL commands. You are presented with four choices. Press "H" top request that the AE help screens be displayed. These screens display an summary of AE's commands. After looking that these, you return to help mode. Now enter "D" to which the computer will respond: Enter name of file to delete: Respond with LESS2.TMP which was stored on your default disk a minute ago. Choosing "S" will display the names of the documents which are currently saved on disk. This can be helpful if you have forgotten a document name. To request a directory of files on another directory, enter the subdirectory specification, plus file specifications (ie *.* means all files, *.TXT means all files ending with ".TXT"). See the DOS manual for global filename parameters. The Home Key (Home) The function of the "Home" key on the numeric pad is very simple. Move the cursor anywhere on the screen, then press the "Home" key. The cursor will go to the upper left hand corner of the screen. Review this lesson until you feel comfortable with the function keys, and you are on your way to bigger and better things. 17 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ LESSON 3 Enter AE as before or clear the workspace with F8. Before entering text onto the screen, we will discuss commands which relate to the format of the text on the screen. The first of these is the CTRL L key which sets the screen line length. Press the CTRL key and then, while it is still depressed, press the L key. Notice the message at the bottom of the screen: Line length is ## reset at column : This message tells you what the current line length is, i.e. how many characters can be written on a line, and allows you to change it if you wish. Right now, we want the line length to be 60, so respond to this request by typing the number 60. Notice that if the current line length is already 60, there is no need to retype it. You can retain the c_u_r_r_e_n_t_ line length by simply pressing the ENTER key without typing in a number. At the bottom of the screen, the line length is indicated by the "|" marks on the highlighted bar. The line length must be at least 20 and no more than 79. CTRL T You may notice some capital T's on the highlighted bar. If not, press CTRL-K until a mostly blank line appears with a vertical mark toward the right of the screen. The "T's" indicate the current location of the tab stops. CTRL T can be used to reset these tabs. When you press CTRL T, you will see the following prompt at the bottom of the screen: Indicate tab stops, separate with semicolons: You may enter up to 20 column numbers to which you want the cursor to jump when the -->| Tab key is depressed. These column numbers must be separated by semicolons, and should be specified from smallest to largest. Note also that these tab stops should all be less than the line length. Set the tabs at columns 5,10, and 50 by entering 5;10;50 in response to the prompt. Notice the tab markings at the bottom of the screen now reflect these new settings. With the cursor at the far left of the screen, press the Tab key and notice that the cursor jumps to the fifth column. Pressing the Tab key will always move the cursor to the next Tab setting. 18 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ Now Enter the Text Type in the following text, exactly as it appears below, but do not type in the borders. After entering a line of text, you can move to the first of the next line by pressing the ENTER key. However, the automatic word wrap feature makes this unnecessary in many cases. As you are typing in the first sentence, continue to type without pressing ENTER. You will notice that during the entry of the word "commands" it is erased from the first line and moved to the next. You will find this to be very useful, and the first 5 lines can be typed without ever pressing ENTER. After typing "happens." at the end of the fifth line, pressing ENTER will take you to the beginning of the next line. In order to leave a blank line either press ENTER again or move to the beginning of the next line with the downarrow key. ----------------------------------------------------------- |In this lesson you will learn how several of the control | |commands work. I am going to spell this word wrogn. I am | |going to correct correct this line using CTRL W. I | |recognize the fact that I actually spelled it wrogn again. | |We will split this line with CTRL X, to see what happens. | | | |This is the last sentence in Lesson 3. | ----------------------------------------------------------- CTRL R Notice that the word "wrong" is spelled incorrectly twice. In order to correct this, press the CTRL key and the R key at the same time. You will hear a BEEP. Now answer the request at the bottom of the screen with: Enter OLD/NEW:ogn/ong and press the ENTER key. The phrase "ogn" will light up, and you will be given several options. Choose the "R" option, and the phrase will be replaced with the correct spelling. Notice now that the "ogn" in "recognize" is now highlighted. However, "ogn" appears correctly in this case and we should not change it. So, we respond with "S" that we want to skip this occurrence of the phrase. The cursor then moves to the second occurrence of the misspelling "wrogn". Respond with "R" to replace this text with the correct spelling. Two other options are available to you: you can select "(N)o more prompting" or "(E)nd". Responding with an "N" will cause all further occurrences of the old phrase to be replaced by the new phrase. This example points out, however, that you should be careful about choosing this 19 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ option. Sometimes the old phrase will unexpectedly occur as a correct part of other words. Choosing "E" simply ends the replace request with no further changes being made to the text. If your file is longer, AE will ask of you wish to replace on subsequent screens. CTRL S The CTRL S command can be used to s_e_a_r_c_h_ for a particular phrase. Press CTRL S and notice the prompt at the bottom of the screen: Enter search string : Let's search for the string "spell". Notice that the first occurrence of "spell" is highlighted as with CTRL R. You may choose to continue to search, in which case the next occurrence of "spell", if there is one, will be located, or you may choose to stop searching. It should be noted that CTRL S is similar to the CTRL R except that search strings are located but n_o_t_ replaced. CTRL W Move the cursor to the space before the first "correct" in the third line. Press CTRL W, and the word (to the next blank) will be erased, and the remaining text will be moved over to the left. CTRL X Move the cursor to the line beginning "We will split..." and then place it in the space after "X,". Now enter CTRL X and the line will be split. You may now insert text after "X,". For this example, enter " so that you will be able". Of course, this insertion could have been made using the "Ins" key, but for longer insertions, we recommend using the CTRL X and inserting additional lines with the F6-Insert key if needed. CTRL F Notice that as a result of the manipulations we just went through, the text looks pretty unorganized. In order to make it look nicer, move the cursor to the first line and enter CTRL F. The text now looks better since each line has been 20 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ "filled" with as many words as possible. This filling takes place from the current line to the next blank line or "dot" command. Of course, the length of these lines depends on the current line length setting. For this example, change the line length to 30. If you do not remember how to do this, refer back to CTRL L in this lesson. Place the cursor on the first line and press CTRL F. Notice that the lines are again filled, but this time the lines are shorter. Notice also that the last line was not affected by this action since the filling stopped at the blank line. CTRL P Using the cursor movement keys, place the cursor at the left hand position of a line below the text you entered. Now type in the word "hello". Press CTRL P and notice that this places "hello" centered with respect to the current line length. This is the end of Lesson 3. LIMITATIONS TO AE 1. Maximum length of any line is 79 characters. Files read into AE whose lines are longer than 79 characters in length may be truncated. 2. Maximum length of file is limited only by disk space. However, AE requires that there be sufficient space for buffering. Allow three times the file length of disk space to avoid disk full errors. CREATING THE INITIALIZATION FILE You may set up default values for the storage disk, the line length, tab settings, and colors in an initialization file. This file may be created with AE or with any ASCII text editor. File AE.INI The file AE.INI is used to specify the default settings. Each indication should be on one line, making the file a total of five lines long. For example, to set up the following settings:(See BASIC manual for numbers on color settings) 21 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ Default disk :C Line length :60 Tab setting :at columns 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 Text colors :White on Black Highlight :Bright White on Black Create a file name AE.INI, with the following contents (without borders): ----------------------------- |C | |60 | |5;10;20;30;40 | |7,0 | |15,0 | ----------------------------- PRINTING FILES YOU HAVE CREATED To print files you have created, you may use the DOS PRINT command (See DOS manual). 22 Alan's Editor ____________________________________________________________ ORDER FORM AND REQUEST FOR REGISTRATION I want to be on the mailing list for updates to the AE Editor and other Mission Technologies Programs. I enclose registration fee (contribution suggested at $35) in the amount of $__________ . If paying by Credit Card: check one _____VISA ______MC Card Number:__________________________ Exp Date:_____________ Signature:___________________________________________________ Check those that apply: ____ Please send site license information. ____ Please send source code information. COMPANY:_________________________________________________ NAME:____________________________________________________ ADDRESS:_________________________________________________ CITY:_____________________STATE:_________ZIP:____________ PHONE #:_________________________________________________ ------------------------------------------------------------------ Comments and suggestions:(Attach extra sheet if necessary) ------------------------------------------------------------------ Send to :Mission Technologies PO BOX 1169 Cedar Hill, TX 75104 Phone:214-291-2115 (We cannot return long distance phone calls, but we can take VISA and MC orders over the phone.) If requesting technical help, please send a self addressed return envelope, and we will reply as soon as possible. 23
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Disk No 531 Alan's Text Editor & Spreadsheet V1 DS2 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ALAN'S EDITOR is a full screen ASCII text editor with many word processor capabilities suitable for program source code entry, data file construction, and writing memos. Help Screens are included. ALAN'S CALC is a simple but comprehensive spreadsheet program with many built- in and powerful functions, including multi-file capabilities. ------------ Alan's Editor AE EXE Alan's Editor ASCII Text Processor Program AE DOC Documentation for Alan's Editor - printer formatted manual AE HLP Help Screens for Alan's Editor ------------ Alan's Spreadsheet AC EXE Alan's Calc Spreadsheet Program AC DOC Documentation for Alan's Calc - printer formatted manual BALLOON AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Balloon Payments for car purchase MORT AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Amortgage on a loan BALANCE AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Checkbook Balancing exercize SUMMARY AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Business Budget Summary BUDGET AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Household Budget Calculations SHEET1 AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Linked Work Sheet #1 for Summary SHEET2 AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Work Sheet #2 for Summary XYZCO AC Sample Spreadsheet File - Financial Data, XYZCO README Author's Introduction to files on disk. PC-SIG (Software Interest Group) 1030 East Duane Avenue, Suite D Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (408) 730-9291
Program name: ALAN'S EDITOR/ ALAN'S CALC Author name: Alan C. Elliott Address: Mission Technologies P.O. Box 1169 Cedar Hill, Texas 75104 Telephone Number: (214) 291-2115 Suggested Donation: $35 per program. This gets you on the mailing list for future upgrades and provides access to technical help with a SASE. Program Descriptions: ALAN'S EDITOR is a full screen ASCII text editor that turns the computer screen into a notepad. It is suitable for writing source code, BATCH files (.bat), data files, memos and other documents for printing or mergeing with other pro- grams. Text typed on the screen can be copied, deleted or saved for future use. The major functions of word processing are well supported. Editing is done through the use of three types of command keys: Keypad keys for cursor move- ments, Function keys for file I/O and manipulation, and Control keys for most of the other editing and formatting functions. ALAN'S CALC is an easy to use spreadsheet program that allows you to enter num- bers and text on the screen, and define relationships between fields. Once defined, numbers may be changed and the program will automatically recalculate all of the relationships between the numbers linked by formulas. It allows you to ask those "WHAT IF" questions, and can be used for financial modelling, budget calculations, scientific calculations, and much more. The program supports all of the usual mathematical functions that you would ex- pect in a program of this type, and it also boasts a very powerful feature that allows you to link one or more spreadsheets together by importing values from other worksheets to use in calculations. System requirements are: 128K, one double sided, double density disk drive, and a printer. The documentation for both programs guide you through the learning process with a series of lessons, and is conveniently formatted for the printer as a user manual.
Volume in drive A has no label Directory of A:\ AC DOC 71108 12-29-85 5:02p AC EXE 79104 12-29-85 9:19p AE DOC 55528 12-26-85 9:37p AE EXE 58240 12-26-85 9:11p AE HLP 7552 12-26-85 9:13p BALANCE AC 2176 12-15-83 12:35p BALLOON AC 3968 1-26-84 8:49a BUDGET AC 1664 12-15-83 12:37p FILES531 TXT 1653 6-02-86 8:42a GO BAT 788 6-02-86 8:37a MORT AC 6656 1-25-84 5:26a NOTES531 TXT 2021 1-03-80 5:17a README 640 12-29-85 12:42p SHEET1 AC 768 12-15-83 12:38p SHEET2 AC 768 12-15-83 12:38p SUMMARY AC 640 1-16-84 1:34p XYZCO AC 4864 1-26-84 9:10a 17 file(s) 298138 bytes 17408 bytes free