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SuperSTat Share is a shareware Statistical Package for analyzing the results of Market surveys and poles. The statistical analysis is very complete. The program is operated by choosing items from menus and filling in forms on the screen. This version allows 25 variables and 50 data columns with up to nine values to the variable. This is a two disk set that requires both to function. System Requirements: 128K, two disk drives, Hercules graphics display, Epson-compatible printer. How to Start: After consulting the NOTES638.TXT and SST.DOC for information, initiate the program by entering SSTMENU at the DOS prompt. Suggested Registration: $35.00; $20.00 for students. File Descriptions: The First Disk Contains: SCATTER EXE Scatter plot program SSTMENU EXE Main menu and system management program FREQ EXE Frequency distribution analysis program CROSS EXE Cross tabulate program SST DEF System configuration file TEST TTL Analysis Module TEST DTA Analysis Module TEST APD Analysis Module TEST VRN Analysis Module INT APD Analysis Module INT DTA Analysis Module INT TTL Analysis Module INT VRN Analysis Module The Second Disk Contains: SSTMENU EXE The menu and system management program SST DEF Configuration file DATAMAN EXE The data management module FILEMAN EXE The file management module CODEMAN EXE The code entry module SST DOC The short form of the SST Manual
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Disk No 639 SST Version 1.00 (Disk 2 of 2) V1 DS2 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- SuperSTat Share is a two disk, shareware Statistical Package for analyzing the results of Market surveys and poles. The statistical analysis is very complete. The program is operated by choosing items from menus and filling in forms on the screen. This version allows 25 variables and 50 data columns with up to nine values to the variable. SSTMENU EXE The menu and system management program SST DEF Configuration file DATAMAN EXE The data management module CODEMAN EXE The code entry module FILEMAN EXE The file management module SST DOC The short form of the SST Manual PC Software Interest Group (PC-SIG) 1030D E. Duane Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (408) 730-9291 (c) Copyright 1986
This disk contains the program: SUPERSTAT Share To find out about this program: "PRINT" or "TYPE" these files: SST.DOC The user's Manual to print the Manual type: PRINT SST.DOC and press ENTER or type: COPY SST.DOC PRT1 and press ENTER To print the other documents, use the same commands with the appropriate file name. PC Software Interest Group (PC-SIG) 1030D E. Duane Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (408) 730-9291 (c) Copyright 1986
Program name: SST v. 1.00 Author name:(C) 1986 Derby Micro-Computer Services, Inc. Address: P.O. Box 220566 Charlotte, NC 28222 Telephone Number: (704) 536-7721 Program Classification: Statistics for Market Surveys Registration Fee: $35.00; students $20.00 A full commercial version is available. Program Description: This is a two disk set. Superstat Share is a shareware Statistical Package for analyzing the results of Market surveys and other questioneers (poles). It allows weighting the data set, encryption of your data and automating analysis by using special batch file commands. The statistical analysis is very complete. The program is operated by choosing items from menus and filling in forms on the screen. This version allows 25 variables and 50 data columns with up to nine values to the variable. The commercial version allows 250 variables and 250 data columns with up to 9 values each. Both versions handle an unlimited number of records. This version of SST runs under MS/PC/DOS 2.0 or higher on any IBM PC/XT/AT or compatible with a color monitor, a monochrome monitor, or a Hercules monochrome graphics card. It needs a hard disk or two floppies and an EPSON compatible printer. There are three analysis modules; FREQ, CROSS, and SCATTER. Graphics is provided in the form of bar and scatter charts. There are measures for nominal to nominal association and significance, ordinal to ordinal association and significance, and nominal to ordinal association and significance. Cramer's V is provided as well, along with the degrees of freedom, N, and missing values. You are also provided row, column, and total percentages and the cells counts as well as complete information on row and column totals and missing values. You are provide stats for bi-variate correlation, regression, and one-way ANOVA, as well as descriptive stats on the individual variables.
SuperStat Short Documentation (C) 1986 Derby Micro-Computer Services, Inc. P.O. Box 220566 Charlotte, NC 28222 (704) 536-7721 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Dr. Gary R. Rassel, University of North Carolina at Charlotte political science department. His comprehensive and insightful knowledge of research and statistics have guided the development of this software from its conception to its documentation. It is with heartfelt appreciation that I thank you for all you have done. Dr. Theodore S. Arrington, University of North Carolina at Charlotte political science department. My senior research professor, Dr. Arrington's advice has been consistently excellent. Without his guidance I am sure I would never have become proficient with research or stats. Ray Twery, University of North Carolina at Charlotte mathmatics department. If the others have inspired me to write theoretically correct research code, Mr. Twery has made sure the calculations were correct. Sherry Hicks, Charlotte Market Research Group. Sherry has used SuperStat in all its various forms for the past two years. She has done everything from small focus group tabulations to massive public opinion survey analysis with the package. She has supported a growing and deservedly very busy research business with SuperStat alone when other packages would have, in comparison to SuperStat's earlier versions, been easier on her and done a better job. At the same time she has regularly let me know what the problems were and how it SHOULD as well as could be improved. For this I am eternally grateful. I could never have duplicated the extensive real world testing she has done for me. Due to her work, the package is easier to use, more straightforward in approach, and fast enough to meet tight deadlines. Paula Schneiderman, Charlotte Market Research Group. For trusting and believing in the product. Paula gave me the chance to put this package to work and never backed away. Mike Derby DISCLAIMERS Epson is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. Introduction Welcome to SuperStat Share, the shareware version of SuperStat 1.00. We hope you will find this program useful. If you do, we request a $35 contribution, students are asked to contribute $20 and send a copy of their student ID. This version of SuperStat doubles as a demo for the larger and more powerful commercial version. When you register, you are entitled to a 35$ discount on the purchase of commercial SuperStat. The essential difference between the two versions is this: the shareware version allows 25 variables and 50 data columns with up to nine values to the variable. The commercial version allows 250 variables and 250 data columns with up to 9 values each. Both versions handle an unlimited number of records. As with all shareware, you are allowed to copy and share the program (in unmodified form) with anyone. You may not charge a fee for the software. You should provide the entire package of eight modules and the documentation. CONFIGURING YOUR SYSTEM To start SuperStat, place your Utilities disk in the default drive, type SSTMENU and press <ENTER> (or return as it is also known). The menu will allow you to configure your system and call the other modules of SuperStat. If you are using a color monitor, you may set colors for use with all modules. If you are using a monochrome monitor, you can tell the computer it is a color monitor and use reverse video or bright white as your foreground color. If you are using a Hercules monochrome graphics card, set it to DIAG and use it as if it were a regular monochrome monitor, or set the system to Hercules mode and all color statements will be skipped. If you are using a hard disk, you may specify drive A: as the default DATA drive and use drive C: etc. as your PROGRAM drive. If you are using a serial printer you may specify it as the default printer along with the baud rate and etc. SuperStat will use any of the five print/com ports you specify for output. SuperStat uses EPSON compatible printer commands to compress print in large cross-tabulations (over 5 x 5) and also to squeeze 100 x 100 scatter plots (squeezing is vertical compression). Check your printer manual for the appropriate printer codes and use SSTMENU to change them if necessary. If you wish to change the defaults to the "factory setting," a menu choice is there to reset the original defaults. You may use SSTMENU to call the other modules or you may type the name of the module at the DOS prompt and press <ENTER>. The names are self-explanatory. ex. A>SCATTER <ENTER> This command will load and execute the scatter plot module. SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS You need two disk drives, 256 K main memory, and an ASCII compatible printer. SuperStat uses the Epson standard command set for compressing print. SSTMENU creates a file called SST.DEF. If it is not present when you run other modules, the "factory" defaults will be in effect. COMPATIBLE COMPUTERS SuperStat has been tested successfully on a wide range of compatible computers, including some piecemeal systems with very obscure BIOS origins. However, the TANDY line of compatible computers produce strange results when the <NUMLOCK> or function keys are pressed. To avoid these problems on TANDY computers, load DOS, press the <NUMLOCK> key, then load SuperStat, and DO NOT press the <NUMLOCK> or function keys again until you return to DOS. CODEBOOK ENTRY Start with your codebook. This way, you can enter the codebook filename in the data entry module and it will set the number of columns you need and keep track of your maximum and minimum values (if you have interval level variables in your data set). CODEMAN is the name of the module. It stands for codebook manager. FILENAME ENTRY It first asks you for your codebook filename. Follow standard file naming conventions (explained in your DOS manual) but do not enter an extension. Actually, SuperStat won't let you use a period (.) here. You may use directory naming conventions (paths) if you need them but remember, the default drive is always your filename prefix UNLESS you enter one explicitly. To do this, enter b:\dir\filename. When the second character of the filename string is a colon (:), the default drive is over ridden. This is true of all modules. Now the menu appears. You may now choose to enter a new codebook file. NUMBER OF VARIABLES You are then asked to enter the number of variables. This is the number of questions if you are analyzing a questionnaire. Be careful, researchers often number the questions and then alphabetize the other sub-questions. The sub-questions count as variables in SuperStat. If you skip a variable, create a one variable codebook and either merge it to the end of your larger codebook, or split the larger codebook, merge the single variable, and finally, merge the latter half of the original codebook. Merging and splitting is accomplished with FILEMAN, which will be explained later. TITLE OF THE VARIABLE Now you will begin to enter the codebook. You are first prompted for the title of the variable (up to 32 characters), it can be any combination of characters except the carat (^), the ampersand (&), the underline (_), the tilde (~) and the at sign (@). INSERT AND DELETE The carat and the ampersand are reserved as additional delete and insert keys respectively. This is so because SuperStat is set up to allow the use of the ten-key pad for ten-key punch. When <NUMLOCK> is not active you may use the <INS> and <DEL> keys on the ten-key pad. CURSOR MOVEMENT The backspace key will move the cursor from the right to the left one space at a time but will not erase what is there. The <TAB> key moves the cursor from the left to the right one space at a time. When the <NUMLOCK> key is not active you may use the <RIGHT> and <LEFT> cursor keys on the ten-key pad. CAUTION: When you backspace over a character it is no longer a part of the input string unless otherwise noted. Every character from the cursor right is ignored. The character remains on the screen so you can tab back over and re-include it. TYPE OF VARIABLE After you enter the name of the variable you are prompted for the type of variable, either nominal/(O)rdinal, (I)nterval, or (M)ultiple response. The capital letters in parentheses indicate the key you press to specify the type of variable. INTERVAL LEVEL VARIABLES If you specify an interval level variable, you are then asked for the number of data columns this variable will require. You may use from one to twelve columns for the variable. SuperStat Share does calculations to the 32nd decimal place in floating point but if you enter too many large numbers you CAN cause an overflow. MULTIPLE RESPONSE VARIABLES There are two types of multiple response variables (MRV), a stand alone multiple response variable and a multiple tabulation of a single value of other variables. A MRV may have up to nine values and use up to ten data columns with its required missing value switch. The number of columns required by a MRV may be computed by adding the number of values to the variable (1-9) plus one. If you specify a MRV you will then be prompted for the number of columns the variable will require. This is the number of values to the variable plus one. THE MULTIPLE RESPONSE MISSING VALUE SWITCH Multiple response variables use the first columns of their field in the data set as a missing value switch. When the first column of a MRV is a one, then the case is present. If the first column contains a zero, the case is not present and is a missing value. Missing values may be included or not included in the table calculations depending upon your needs. However, if the first column is zero, the case will always be considered a missing value, even if other columns of the field contain responses. STAND ALONE MULTIPLE RESPONSE VARIABLES Stand Alone MRV's are coded one or zero only. A one indicates a response, a zero represents a non-response. TAB-OF-OTHER MULTIPLE RESPONSE VARIABLES Tab-of-Other MRV's have a single column missing value switch but may tabulate up to nine other variables and will allow the tabulation of any value of the other variables in the range of 1-9. As the missing value switch is always in the first column of the MRV field, and all fields in the data set must be contiguous, the other variables must immediately follow the switch. MULTIPLE RESPONSE VALUE LABELS After you specify the number of columns, you are then prompted for the value labels of the variable, in turn, one at a time. If the MRV stands alone, this is usually some abbreviation of the response category. If this MRV is a tab of other variables, the labels are usually some abbreviation of the other variable's titles. As you enter the labels, you are told which column each label is associated with. Notice that the first label is associated with the second column of the MRV field. NOMINAL-ORDINAL VARIABLES Nominal and ordinal (NO) variables are treated the same by the analysis modules so it saves time and programming to group them in the type of variable prompt. If you specify a NO variable you will then be prompted for the number of values to the variable. Then you will be prompted to enter the value labels, in turn, one at a time. If this is an ordinal variable, be sure to enter the codes in their proper order. The labels may contain any combination of characters except the carat and ampersand. LINE ENTRY "Any combination of characters" means any ASCII character with a code between 32 and 126 except the ^, the &, the ~, the _, and the @. Periods are sometimes dis-allowed, as are commas, depending upon the error prevention needs of the program at a given place. All data entry in SuperStat is line entry. One piece of information at a time, as it is needed, only if it is needed, with no backing up. All prompts have error checks to ensure valid entries, although the program cannot, and does not check for every possible error, just the most common, or the only ones possible at a given place. Full screen editing is nice and we are sure you have a favorite word processor. Just learn the format of a SuperStat codebook file and then use an ASCII word processor to enter and edit the codes. We fully expect experienced users to eventually by-pass our "hand holding" entry modules. Go ahead, we've made it easy for you. FORMAT OF CODEBOOK FILES Two files are created by CODEMAN, ".TTL" files and ".VRN" files. The VRN file contains: Ex. 5,22,5 | | | | | -> total variables | -> first column of next variable -> next variable number When the first and third number are equal, the codebook has been completed. The TTL file contains the codes. The first line contains the specifications for the variable to follow. ----------> Type of variable (must be in double quotes) | ------> Number of first column in data field | | ----> Number of columns used by this variable | | | --> Number of labels for the variable | | | | | | | | "NO",1,1,4 Title of the variable label-1 label-2 label-3 label-4 The format for MRV's is functionally equal. "MSA",2,5,4 ("MSA means stand alone) Title of the variable ("MTO" means a Tab-of-Others) label-1 label-2 label-3 label-4 The format for interval variables is slightly different. |-> DIFFERENCE = values always equal 2 "I",7,3,2 Title of the variable Maximum value (always initialized to zero) Minimum value (always initialized to nines, if three columns, then 3 nines) Ex. "I",7,3,2 Age of Respondent 0 999 TAKING A BREAK If you want to take a break from code entry, just press <ESC>ape at the title of the variable prompt. This will close the file and return you to the menu. Information is always saved after each variable is entered so you don't need to worry about explicitly saving files. ADDING TO INCOMPLETE CODEBOOKS When you come back to your data entry, choose the second menu item, "add to existing codebook." The routine is the same as above. PRINTING A CODEBOOK You may print your codebook to a disk or printer. It comes up on screen as you do so. Press <CTRL> and <NUMLOCK> together to slow the process down. Press any key to resume printing. If you print to disk, you will be prompted for an output filename. Follow the same conventions as always. Remember your default drive specification is still in effect. If you print to a printer other than LPT1:, be sure to change the system defaults with SSTMENU. Any ASCII compatible printer should work fine. EDITING A CODEBOOK Press (4) when you see the CODEMAN menu. First the variables that have been entered so far are displayed. You are then prompted for the NUMBER of the VARIABLE you wish to edit. After you have chosen a variable the screen clears and the variable title and labels are displayed. A prompt line allows you to edit the titles, labels, level, columns, maximum and minimum, save the changes or <ESC> to the menu. If you do not change anything, the program will not save the codebook to disk, even if you tell it to. You must explicitly save the changes to disk at the prompt. If you change something and then change your mind, press <ESC>ape. This will take you back to the menu without saving the changes. All changes are lost. DATA ENTRY Data entry is accomplished with the DATAMAN module which, you might have guessed, stands for "data manager." You may call the module from the main menu or you may type the module name at the DOS prompt. First you will be asked for a data filename. Use standard file naming conventions and remember that your default DATA drive is in effect. Next you are prompted to enter your codebook filename. The data manager will look at your VRN file to determine the number of columns required, keep track of maximum and minimum values of interval level variables and save the changes (if any) when you leave the input routine. The menu now appears. Press (1) to begin the entry of a new data set. If you have not entered the codebook filename you will first be prompted to specify the number of data columns required. This is the middle number of the VRN file minus one. Next you will see a data entry record line. It specifies the record number and provides a marked field to ease data entry. Above it is a column counter and below it lies several help statements. Ex. Column 1 Record #1 ____+____|__ Fill the field completely and press <ENTER>. Missing Values (blanks) are zero (0) for Nominal/Ordinal and asterisks (*) for Interval/Ratio variables. Press <ESC> when finished or to return to menu. Use (^) for delete and (&) for insert. INSERT AND DELETE The carat (^) and the ampersand (&) keys have been changed respectively to delete and insert to allow full use of the ten-key pad. MISSING VALUES Missing Values (blanks) are zero (0) for Nominal/Ordinal and asterisks (*) for Interval/Ratio variables. No blank spaces are allowed. Missing values are always zero for nominal/ordinal variables. If you forget and enter asterisks, or just prefer them, don't worry. They are functionally equivalent to zeroes in SuperStat WHERE IT MATTERS. Namely, in FREQ and CROSS. In SCATTER, where interval level variables are processed, zeroes are important numbers. Therefore, asterisks are considered missing values and are automatically not included. DATA FILES DATAMAN creates two files, the ".DTA" file, which holds your raw data, and the ".APD" file. Example APD file: 250,12 | | | -> number of columns -----> number of records Example record in DTA file: 67864236181298367432 SAVING RECORDS Each record is automatically saved each time you press <ENTER> and the APD file is updated. This is done to prevent any loss of data. It will be a bit slow for you if you never have records over 10 to 15 columns long. But losing data is no fun and we prefer the extra second it takes to save one record and move on the next. Each record is saved in ASCII format so you can transfer it to different programs, or from your favorite word processor to SuperStat. Just use a fixed format in the manner of DATAMAN, and the analysis modules should have no trouble picking it up. CAUTION: Some word processors do not allow non-document processing and inbed spaces in front of your records. Some word processors imbed characters invisible to you but apparent to the computer. These problems can cause unpredictable results. SuperStat uses fixed field format to save space on the disks for large data sets. Commas take up a lot of room. SuperStat writes data to the disk SEQUENTIALLY. That is, one record at a time, one after the other, from the first to the last. It reads data the same way. Except when editing, this is the faster way to manipulate the data. TAKING A BREAK Just press <ESC>ape at the beginning of the next line and you will return to the menu. When you come back to your data entry, choose menu item (2) to add more data. DATAMAN will pick up where you left off and work just as it is explained above. PRINTING DATA Choose menu item (3) to print a copy of your data set. You will print to the default printer. EDITING DATA Choose menu item (4) to edit the data. It is best to keep a list of records with errors so that you can go through the data set sequentially. You can't back up so if you skip a record you need to edit, you'll have to begin again. This is when sequential file manipulation gets slow. You have to organize your editing to overcome it. The edit routine will ask you for the record you wish to edit and then load it. It will put the old record on that familiar data entry line and position the cursor at column one. You need only correct the mistake and press enter. Unlike other line entry in SuperStat, this one routine allows you to press <ENTER> from anywhere on the line (except column one) without ignoring all characters from the cursor, right, to the end of the line prompt. MANAGING FILES After you have completed your codebook and data entry, there may be some manipulations you would like to do to your files as a whole. The FILEMAN module provides a number of options for working with your data to whittle it down or build it up. You may, for instance, wish to have more than one person enter your data to facilitate processing. FILEMAN will join the various files together into a single whole for further processing and analysis. In general, you are first asked for a first source filename and if needed, a second source filename. You are then prompted for a new output filename. It is assumed that you do NOT want your original data altered (except when encrypting). ENCRYPTING DATA The first menu option allows you to encrypt your data based on a single letter encryption key in the range of 1-9, a-z, and A-Z. It is the ASCII code that is operative. Therefore, you have 62 possible keys. You are also prompted for a password. The password is also encrypted so that snoops cannot decipher it. If you forget either your key or your password, your data is lost. The analysis modules cannot work with the encrypted data and we cannot decrypt your data for you. If you keep an un-encrypted version of the data, you defeat the purpose of encryption. The source file is destroyed but could probably be un-deleted with one of the utilities available on the market. Therefore, if you really wish to hide the data, encryt the data, then back up the encrypted file, and finally, reformat the original data disk and any backup data disks. Before you reformat, be sure any other important files on the disk are backed up. Consult your DOS disk for more information on formatting diskettes. APPENDING DATA FILES The second menu option allows you to append data files (add records from one file to another). This is useful when more than two people are entering data on different machines. The records must be the same length. The files may have different numbers of records in them. If you are working with two large files, read the data from one disk and write to another. SuperStat will write the data wherever you wish so if you have three disks, you can read one file from A:, another from B:, and write to C:. If your data fills both source disks, you will have no choice in this matter. Ex. How data files are appended. 123123123123123 1st source data file /|\ | 987987987987987 2nd source data file MERGING DATA AND CODEBOOK FILES The third menu option allows you to merge data and codebook files (add variables). If you only wish to do one or the other (presumably because one set of files, either data or codebook, are not yet entered), a prompt gives you that option. If you have both sets of files entered, merge them at the same time. SuperStat does most of the gritty work of keeping track of specifications for you and prevents mistakes if it can. Your data files must contain the same number of records to use this feature. Ex. How data files are merged. 1st source data record 2nd source data record 123123123123123123 <------ 987987987987987987 Since you are adding variables to the data set, your codebook (if it exists) must be updated to allow the analysis modules to use the added data. The second source codebook is merged to the end of the first source codebook. Don't let this confuse you. The action of the codebook merge resembles the action of the data append. This is due to the diference in the structure of the data and codebook files. Ex. How codebook files are merged. "NO",1,1,2 Variable Title 1st source codebook Label 1 Label 2 /|\ | | "NO",2,1,3 Variable title Label 1 Label 2 Label 3 FILEMAN keeps track of the number of columns you are using and prevents you from creating a codebook (or data file) larger than SuperStat can handle and re-numbers the merged variables to reflect their new position in the new file. SPLITTING DATA AND CODEBOOK FILES The fourth menu option allows you to separate variables away from each other in the data set. It has an action opposite to that of merging with regard to both data and codebook files. Your original file is not destroyed, two files are simply created where there was only one. Again, the program keeps track of the position of the variables in the new data set. PERMANENT RECODES The fifth menu option allows you to permanently recode your data. If you will be using a variable in its recoded form on a regular basis throughout your analysis, it may be advantageous to recode it permanently and put it, along with all of the other variables, into a separate data file. This will save time and keystrokes later. You must recode both the data file and its codebook for the analysis modules to operate correctly. You are prompted for the number of variables you wish to recode (up to ten at a time), the number of the variable (each in turn), and for each variable, the number of nominal/ordinal categories you wish to create. Then you are prompted for the high and low values of the variable that are to fit into the new categories and in turn, the value label for each new value. You are free to recode any variable except MRV's. You are free to recode zeroes to nines and fives to threes if that is what you need to do. When you complete the recode specifications the new recoded data set is saved to disk under a the new filename you are prompted for. RECODES IN THE ANALYSIS MODULES The operation of all other recode routines is the same with one exception. When recoding a variable in the analysis modules, the recode is transient, that is, it is NOT saved. PERMANENT SELECTIONS The sixth menu option allows you to permanently select a group of records based on one value of up to nine different variables. A new data file is created which uses the original codebook. No data is changed and no variables or records are lost. You simply state your criteria for the new data set and the records of the source file are searched for cases that match the criteria. The matching records are then written to a new file under a filename you are prompted for. You are allowed to make up to 9 selections. The actual selections you make are of the values to variables. You may not select values of Interval or Multiple Response variables. You may, however, recode an interval level variable and then select one of the new categories. You are prompted for the operator on which to base the selection. The operators are AND, OR, and NOT. If you choose AND, all of the selections must match the corresponding values of the case for the case to be selected. Ex. If selected value 1 = corresponding case value AND selected value 2 = corresponding case value AND . . selected value 10 = corresponding case value THEN select the case and write it to the new file. If you choose OR, at least one of the selections must match the corresponding value of the case for the case to be selected. Ex. If selected value 1 = corresponding case value OR selected value 2 = corresponding case value OR . . selected value 10 = corresponding case value THEN select the case and write it to the new file. If you choose NOT, if any of the selections of match the corresponding values of the case, the case will not be selected. The action for NOT is actually AND NOT. Ex. If selected value 1 does NOT = corresponding case value AND selected value 2 does NOT = corresponding case value AND . . selected value 10 does NOT = corresponding case value THEN select the case and write it to the new file. SELECTIONS IN THE ANALYSIS MODULES The operation of all other selection routines is the same with one exception. When selecting a value of a variable in the analysis modules, the selection is transient, that is, it is NOT saved. WEIGHTING THE DATA SET The seventh menu option allows you to weight the data set based on the selection of three weighting criteria. The selection operator is always AND. In other words: If selected value 1 = corresponding case value AND selected value 2 = corresponding case value AND selected value 3 = corresponding case value THEN add another identical case to the data set the number times specified as the weighting factor. You are prompted for the weighting factor. It can be in the range of 0.1 to 9.9. As cases are found that match the weighting criteria, the case is duplicated the number of times indicated by the integer part of the weighting factor. The fractional parts are added together each time a match is found until they are greater than or equal to 1, at which time 1 is added to the weighting factor, and the fractional part is reduced by one. The addition of 1 to the weighting factor is a transient addition. You will not end up with a weighting factor of 45 through repeated addition. The weighted data set is written to a new file under a new filename which you are prompted for. ANALYSIS There are three analysis modules supplied with SuperStat Share; FREQ, CROSS, and SCATTER. You may run the programs from SSTMENU or you may type the filename at the DOS prompt. Ex. A>FREQ FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS The frequency distribution module is called FREQ. It will analyze from 1 to 250 variables, display a bar chart, and provide: Value counts Value percentages Mean Ordinal Rank Mode Median Standard Error at 95% confidence level Some of you will wonder why there are no interval level statistics in the module. It is simply because it is set up to handle CODES, not numbers (although the codes themselves are numbers). It is basically a nominal and ordinal level variable analyzer, and based on that fact, higher level statistics are simply inappropriate. If you insist on them in spite of this, use SCATTER, it is the real number analyzer. First you are prompted for the data filename and then the codebook filename. The reason you have to enter both is simple; if you ever repeat a study, you can use your old codebook. The filenames can be the same because the data entry modules give them different filename extentions. FREQ, CROSS, and SCATTER can tell them apart. After your filenames are entered the menu appears. If you wish to make selections or recodes, do so first. The routines are identical to those in FILEMAN except that the changes you make are not saved. Next you may choose to run all of the frequencies or just one. Either way, all of the variables are tabulated, you just have some options about which variables are to be printed and where if you choose to print only one. If you choose to tabulate a single variable, you are first given a display of your variables to choose from. Press <ENTER> to skip the display or the <SPACEBAR> to see subsequent pages. You are then prompted for the NUMBER of the first variable you wish to see. Either way, you are then asked for the value you wish to be used to tabulate multiple responses. If you only have MSA's, this is always one (1). If you have MTO's, your choices are in the range of values common to the variables you specified to be included in each MTO, ie., if the variables each have 6 values, you may choose to tabulate value 4. NOTE: You are only prompted for the multiple response value if you have one in the data set. Either way, you are then asked whether you want missing values included in the calculations. If you do, every calculation will be affected by the higher N. If you do not, every calculation will be affected by the lower N. You are reminded on the output what your choice was. The variables are now tabulated. As FREQ works, it checks for out of range values and if it finds any, it warns you on screen and sets the value to zero (0). If you wish to get a listing of the error messages, use DOS piping to redirect output to a disk file and press <ESC> at the next prompt (consult your DOS manual for more information on DOS piping). If you chose to tabulate a single variable, the variable you chose is displayed first. You are then asked where you want the out put to go; the printer, a disk file, both, or neither. You may also skip a page from the prompt. The program then lets you choose again. If you choose the printer, the output will go to the default printer. If you choose the disk or both, you will be asked for an output filename and the file is then written. If you choose both, it is also printed to the default printer. If you choose neither, you are then asked which variable you wish to see next. If none, press <ESC>. Otherwise, type the number of the variable and press <ENTER>. If you chose to print all the variables, the first variable is displayed and then the print prompt described above. Its operation is the same. You are NOT asked which variable you wish to next. Each variable is displayed, in turn, as it is printed. If you wish to see all the variables but don't want them printed, press (N) for neither and be ready with the <CTRL><NUMLOCK> combination to slow things down. It works so fast you will need to stop it to see anything. PIPING When you have learned the prompts it will be easier for you to get your work done if you use piping to redirect input. Piping fools the modules such that when they look for keystrokes, DOS gives them characters you have typed in a file on disk. Using this method you can fully automate the analysis process. By combining batch files and piped input files, you can set your machine and it will do the work while you do something else. The modules have all been set to allow this to take place and streamline the process. You can literally run thousands of frequencies, crosstabs, and scatter plots on any number of data sets WHILE YOU SLEEP. Just make sure you have the keystrokes correct, and enough paper and disk space to handle the job. For purposes of piping, the following keys have functional equivalents: <ENTER> = tilde (~) <SPACEBAR> = underline (_) <ESC>ape = at sign (@) CAUTION: ALWAYS end your input file with the appropriate "return to DOS" character. Otherwise, the "big red button" will be required to get control of the computer back (also known as the "on/off" switch). CROSS TABULATIONS The crosstabs module is named CROSS. Just as in FREQ, you are first asked for your data and codebook filenames. Then you see the menu. Select and recode works just as in the other modules. You can recode all the values of one variable into a single value and then select that value as an independent variable. You are then shown the menu again and you may then choose to run a crosstab. You are first shown a list of all your variables. You may skip the display by pressing <ENTER> or see other pages by pressing <SPACEBAR>. You are then asked for and independent and dependent variable. Next you must tell the system whether you want missing values included in the calculations. Now CROSS runs through the data, does the calculations and displays a bar chart. You may skip the display of the charts by pressing <ENTER> or you may see the others by pressing the <SPACEBAR>. There are as many charts as there are values of the independent variable. Next you are asked if you want to print the bar charts to the line printer, a file on disk, or not at all. Press the letter in parentheses that corresponds to your choice. If you choose to print to disk you will be prompted for a filename. Next you are asked if you want the table printed to the line printer, a file on disk, or not at all. Press the letter of your choice. You will be asked for a filename if you choose to print to disk. After printing you will return to the menu. You are provided stats for bi-variate association, significance, and chi-square appropriate for nominal and ordinal level variables. Goodman and Kruskals Tau is provided in place of Lambda because it is a more sensitive measure. Where you can SEE some association and Lambda shows none, G & K's Tau will pick it up. There are measures for nominal to nominal association and significance (G & K's Tau and Chi-Square), ordinal to ordinal association and significance (Gamma and Z-Score Gamma), and nominal to ordinal association and significance (Wilcoxons Theta and contingency coefficient). Cramer's V is provided as well, along with the degrees of freedom, N, and missing values. You are also provided row, column, and total percentages and the cells counts as well as complete information on row and column totals and missing values. SCATTERPLOTS The scatterplot module is named SCATTER. It is structured to work very much like FREQ and CROSS. You are asked for your filenames and then you see a menu. You can select and recode just as in the other modules. When you choose to run a scatterplot you are shown your variables and prompted for the independent and dependent variables. Next you choose to consider zero as an absolute minimum or not. If you choose to do so, the minimum value of both variables becomes zeroe (0), thus making your interval level variables ratio variables. Missing values are automatically not included because they are not numbers and SCATTER only works with numbers. Remember that asterisks (*) are missing values in SCATTER. Next SCATTER runs through the data, does the calculations, and displays a 20x50 scatterplot on the screen. Press a key to see the statistics. After viewing the stats you are asked if you want to print a 30x50 scatterplot or a 100x100 scatterplot to the line printer, disk, or not at all. The 30x50 scatterplot is appropriate for daisy wheel printers or disk files. The 100x100 scatterplot is appropriate for dot matrix printers compatible with the Epson standard command set for sqeezing and compressing print. Both formats come very close to being a square plot on their appropriate mediums. You are provide stats for bi-variate correlation, regression, and one-way ANOVA, as well as descriptive stats on the individual variables. REFERENCES Evans, James D., Invitation to Psychological Research. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. New York. 1985 Manheim, Jarol B. and Rich, Richard C. Empirical Political Analysis, Research Methods in Political Science. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1981. Watson, George and McGaw, Dickinson. Statistical Inquiry. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 1980. McClave, James T. and Dietrich, Frank H., II. Statistics Dellen Publishing Co. San Francisco. 1982. Welch, Susan and Comer, John C. Quantitative Methods for Public Administration, Techniques and Applications. The Dorsey Press. Homewood, IL. 1983 Babbie, Earl R. The Practice of Social Research. Wadsworth Publishing Co. Belmont, CA. 1979. Phillips, John L. Statistical Thinking. W.H. Freeman and Co. San Francisco. 1973. Freeman, Linton C. Elementary Applied Statistics. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 1965. Jones, E. Terrence. Conducting Political Research. Harper and Row. New York. 1984. pp. 166 - 167.
Volume in drive A has no label Directory of A:\ CODEMAN EXE 65946 8-23-86 5:56p DATAMAN EXE 52234 8-23-86 3:30p FILEMAN EXE 73898 8-23-86 3:33p FILES639 TXT 959 1-04-80 5:01p GO BAT 28 11-27-86 12:31p GO TXT 490 1-04-80 5:00p NOTES639 TXT 2008 1-04-80 5:04p SST DEF 158 8-23-86 3:14p SST DOC 49589 12-08-86 11:03a SSTMENU EXE 52106 8-23-86 3:05p 10 file(s) 297416 bytes 19456 bytes free