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Here 's a project management program that features Gantt charts, outline mode, risk analysis, pro-forma financial statements, ROI/ATO analysis and cash flow analysis. This is not a fancy-looking program -- there are no flashy screens or displays -- but it's a very workable one. The program is run by command lines throughout its various different screens, each with a prompt line that explains the purpose of the highlighted item. SIMPLE PROJECT could prove to be an invaluable tool for a project manager or a student of the field.
Easy Project User's Manual Easy Project Version 1.0 December 13, 1989 Published by: William H. Roetzheim & Association 13518 Jamul Drive Jamul, CA 92035 (619) 669-6970Table of Contents 1. Terms and Conditions Shareware Concept Other Software Available Copyright Limited Warranty License Agreement 2. Introduction How to Use This Manual Easy Project Overview Hardware Requirements Installing Easy Project Comments, Suggestions, Bugs, Etc. 3. Getting Started Running Easy Project Using the Menu Easy Project Functional Flow Easy Project Screen Oriented Data Entry 4. Setup Organization Display Version Reproduce 5. Plan/WBS Add Modify Delete Range View Goto 6. Plan/Cost Project Standard Product Labor Intensive 7. Plan/Dependencies Modify Designate 8. Plan/Risk 9. Plan/Schedule Modify Range Shift View 10. Track Timesheets Expenses Report Post 11. File 12. Report Options WBS Cost Dependencies Risk Schedule Evaluate 13. Reference Terms and Conditions Shareware Concept Shareware is software which is distributed free (or almost free) so that you can try it. If the software is useful to you, you are then asked to send a small payment directly to the author of the software. The entire concept of shareware software will only work if people are honest in forwarding the payments to the individual who worked to develop the software in the first place. If you find this program useful, please send $25 along with your name and address to William H. Roetzheim, 13518 Jamul Drive, Jamul, CA 92035. Registering your copy of the software entitles you to customer support and a free subscription to our project management newsletter. For an additional $10 ($35 total) you will receive these benefits plus the complete source code to Easy Project version. Other Products William H. Roetzheim & Associates also offers an advanced project management program that features: o Graphical, iconic user interface with mouse support o Up to 10,000 tasks. o Outline Mode o Full support for DOD-STD-2167A and C/SCSC cost accounting o LAN Support o Graphical reports, including histograms and PERT plots o Much, much more For more information, call (619) 669-6970 for descriptive literature. Copyright Copyright 1988 by William H. Roetzheim and Associates. All rights reserved worldwide. This document, and the program material included with it, are the exclusive property of William H. Roetzheim and Associates. You are granted the right to reproduce this document and the program disk with the following constraints: o No part of the program may be sold (although a nominal duplication fee is permissible). o The files EASYPROJ.EXE, EASYPROJ.DOC, and XXXX0001 must be included with any copy distributed, and no changes may be made to these files. o Package distributions (i.e. bundling the software with hardware or other software) must pay a license fee of $5 per copy to William H. Roetzheim & Associates. Limited Warranty This program is sold strictly "as is", with no warranties express or implied. We will not be liable for any damages, including consequential, indirect, or special damages (including loss of profits or any other commercial damage).Introduction How to Use This Manual This manual assumes that you are familiar with the basics of your computer's operating system, the keyboard layout of your computer, and basic concepts of project management. If necessary, begin by reviewing your computers owner's manual for basics about your computer. If you are not an experienced project manager, you may want to refer to the book "Structured Computer Project Management" (Prentice-Hall, 1988). Easy Project makes extensive use of command line menus. When we are describing a specific menu option, we will describe it using the complete path from the top level menu. For example, if a menu is reached by selecting Plan from the top menu followed by WBS from the next menu level, we would show this option as Plan/WBS. By all means, read this manual while sitting in front of your computer. Easy project displays hundreds of different screens. When writing this manual, we assume that you will be following along with the text by pressing the appropriate options on your computer. Easy Project Overview Easy project is a project management tool specifically designed to assist computer professionals in the following areas: o Evaluating projects to determine risk, financial attractiveness, and cash flow. o Planning all aspects of a project, including task decomposition (work breakdown structure), labor and financial requirements, task inter-relationships (dependencies), risk, and the actual schedule. o Tracking expenditures, including both hours and dollars, as they are incurred. Predicting overruns or underruns as early as possible. To the greatest extent possible, we provide these capabilities in a user friendly, flexible fashion which simplifies the process of entering and maintaining project information. Some of the more innovative Easy Project features in this area are: o Use of a hierarchical approach to entering and viewing project information. o Project windowing support. o Screen oriented data entry with field specific prompts displayed. Hardware Requirements Easy Project supports the IBM-PC and fully compatible computers equipped with at least one disk drive and 320 Kbytes of available RAM. The more memory you have installed the larger your project can be. Remember that memory resident programs subtract from available memory and reduce the number of tasks you can have in your project. The exact number of tasks you may create on your system is displayed on the Plan/WBS screen, and will be about 1,000 for a system with 640 Kbytes of RAM. Easy Project supports both monochrome and color displays. Because many users may switch between computers with monochrome and color displays, the program senses the type of display and automatically displays either colors or black and white as appropriate. If you are using a monochrome display which acts like a color display using shades of green (or amber), you will want to use the DOS mode command to put your display in the black and white mode (mode BW80 or mode mono) prior to running Easy Project. Easy project supports any printer which is capable of displaying the IBM enhanced character set. This includes the IBM Pro-Printer and most Epson printers. If your printer does not support the IBM enhanced character set, all reports should work except Report/WBS/Hierarchy and Report/Schedule/Gantt. The Setup/Organization menu options lets you designate if reports should be sent to the parallel port (default) or the serial port. If you are using lpt2: or com2: rather than lpt1:/com1:, you must use the DOS mode command to redirect printer output to the appropriate communication port prior to running Easy Project. Installing Easy Project Easy Project is distributed on a single disk, which is not copy protected. As with all software, begin by making a backup copy of the Easy Project distribution disk and putting the original away in a save place (diskcopy or copy *.* work fine). If you have a hard disk, create a new directory called \easyproj (mkdir c:\easyproj) and copy the Easy Project files into this directory. Comments, Suggestions, Bugs, Etc. If you would like to see improvements, tell us your ideas. If you wish that Easy Project interfaced with your favorite program, let us know exactly what type of information you would like to transfer. Of course, we are always grateful for any information you can provide us which will help us find any program defects (bugs). When writing to us, please include as much specific information as possible. For defects, try to isolate the program to the point where you can consistently reproduce the symptoms. Then give us specific instructions which will allow us to see the problem ourselves. You may want to send us a disk with a sample data file on it if this is necessary to see the problem. When writing, our address is: William H. Roetzheim & Associates 13518 Jamul Drive, Jamul, CA 92035 (619) 669-6970Getting Started Running Easy Project While it runs, Easy Project creates temporary files on the default drive. For this reason, you should ensure that your default drive is the drive/directory containing the Easy Project program. On floppy disk systems, this can be accomplished by setting the drive to the appropriate floppy designator (i.e. A:). On hard disk systems, you would type in C: followed by changing directories to the Easy Project directory (i.e. cd \EASYPROJ). Easy project uses your system date as set within DOS. It is important that your computer date is accurate. If this is not automatically set for you, use the DOS date command to set the correct date prior to running Easy Project. If your computer has a color display card (EGA, VGA or CGA) but a black and white monitor, you should use the DOS mode command to set your display to black and white mode. To run Easy Project, type in EASYPROJ <cr>. Using the Menu At this point, you may want to run Easy Project and follow along on your computer as you read the manual. All top level choices in Easy Project are made using a command line menu displayed at the top of your screen. The current choice is the highlighted item. You may change the current choice using the arrow keys or the space bar. Line three on your screen displays a specific summary of what that option is used for. Use the arrow keys now to see how this works. You may select a menu item by highlighting it and pressing return, or by pressing the keyboard key matching the first letter of your choice (i.e. to choose Plan you would press 'P'). Quit always brings you to the next higher level in the menu hierarchy. Pressing ESC (escape) is the same as pressing quit. Easy Project Functional Flow The Easy Project top menu contains the following choices: o Plan o Track o File o Report o Setup o Quit Setup is used for operations which are normally performed only rarely, including system initialization. We will look at the Setup option in more depth in the following chapter as part of our Easy Project system initialization, but Setup is not part of the normal project management functional flow. The normal project planning flow looks like this: Plan - Report - Track You plan a project, print reports based on your plan, then continuously track the project during its life (printing periodic reports based on the project's progress). Obviously, you use File to save and retrieve your project to disk during its life. When planning a project, we have found that it is best to perform the work in five distinct steps, as follows: 1. Plan/WBS 2. Plan/Costs 3. Plan/Dependencies 4. Plan/Risk 5. Plan/Schedule Plan/WBS allows you to generate a hierarchical work breakdown structure (WBS) describing all tasks to be performed and hardware to be delivered. This initial thinking process should not be clouded by cost considerations. After a WBS is roughed out, specific costs and resource requirements can be estimated for each task using Plan/Costs. Dependencies and risks are specified using Plan/Dependencies and Plan/Risk respectively. Finally, all of this information serves as an input to preparation of a reasonable project schedule using Plan/Schedule. With this general view of project mangement in mind, the Easy Project menu hierarchy shown below should make sense. Items followed by an asterick (*) contain menu levels not shown. Plan WBS (*) Costs (*) Dependencies (*) Risk (*) Schedule (*) Track Timesheets Expenses Report Timesheets Employee Project Costs Supplier Project Post File Save Recall Purge Directory Report WBS Hierarchy Detail Cost Dollars Hours Loading Dependencies Risk Schedule Task Gantt Evaluate ROI/ATO Balance Sheet Income Options Print_Queue Activate Print Deactivate Destination Screen Printer Disk Setup Organization Display Version Reproduce Easy Project Screen Oriented Data Entry Throughout the program, Easy Project uses a screen oriented data entry approach. Although we won't actually setup our organizational parameters until the next chapter, let's use this screen as a sample of Easy Project's general approach to data entry. From the main menu, select Setup/Organization. Ignore the meaning behind the displayed fields for the moment. A data entry screen consists of multiple data entry fields. You can use the up and down arrow keys on your keyboard to advance from field to field. Try this now. Notice that at the bottom of the screen, down arrow takes you to the top of the screen. Similarly, an up arrow key from the first field will take you to the bottom of the screen. Return (<cr>) and TAB work the same as down arrow. Back TAB (shifted TAB) works like an up arrow. From all data entry screens, your keyboard's HOME key will take you to the first valid field. END takes you to the last valid field. Try this. Some data entry field access an array of information. On the Setup/Organization screen, this applies to the fields associated with employees, suppliers, and lease (at the bottom). Move your cursor down to the employee # field at this point (it should currently have a value of zero). Notice that if you leave the field value at zero and press down arrow, you skip the fields for employee name and cost. This is because employee zero is not used. Move back to the employee # field and change the zero to 1. Now, pressing down arrow allows you to enter a value for the Name and Cost of employee number 1. Moving back to the employee # field, you can enter the number 2 to enter data for the second employee. By entering a number between 1 and 249 in the employee # field you can enter data for up to 249 different employees. Use the HOME key to move your cursor back to the first field on the screen (Name). Let's look at some of the editing features available to us within a specific field: o For fields which may not be obvious, the upper right corner of your screen displays a prompt window. You may have noticed that as you moved your cursor around the form, the prompt displayed in this window matched the active field. o The field length shows you how many characters you may type. Your cursor will not advance past the end of the data entry field. o By default, data is entered in the overwrite mode. Pressing the INSERT key on your keyboard toggles between insert and overwrite mode. o BACKSPACE deletes the character to the left of your cursor (like a typewriter). DEL deletes the character under your cursor. o Pressing <cr>, up arrow, down arrow, TAB, or backtab accepts the field and advances the cursor (active field). When the field is accepted, the system automatically checks the field for validity and formats your entry if appropriate. When you are done entering data into a form, you can take two possible actions. If you changed your mind and would like to exit without making any of your changes permanent, you can press ESC. If you would like to exit and save your changes, you must press the F10 key (function key 10). F10 is used throughout Easy Project as an 'accept screen' key. Press ESC at this point to exit Setup/Organization without making any changes permanent. In the following chapter we will actually enter the proper values.Setup Setup contains options which are used relatively infrequently. Selecting Setup from the main menu displays the following sub-menu: o Organization o Display o Version o Reproduce o Quit Each of these options will be discussed individually in the following sections of this chapter. Organization This option allows you to set system parameters which are used by Easy Project for all projects. The fields have the following meanings: o Name/Addr: These four free-form fields are used to enter your company name and address. The last line may be used for the company phone number, if desired. These four lines are printed at the top of all reports output by Easy Project. o Optimum Constant 1 and 2: Easy Project uses the total man- power requirements for each task to determine an optimum task duration in days. For extremely small tasks, the optimum duration is based on one person working full time on the task. For larger tasks, the optimum duration is calculated as follows: Optimum = constant_1 * mean ** constant_2 You can think of constant 1 as a scaling factor, and constant 2 as a number which determines what happens as tasks get bigger. Raising or lowering constant 1 will raise or lower the optimum duration for all tasks. Seting constant 2 to 1.0 will result in task durations being linearly related to manpower requirements. A number less than 1.0 says that bigger tasks should have more people working on them and thus take less time per man-hour. Our experience has shown that a value of 4.0 for constant 1 and 0.60 for constant 2 works well for most companies. o Penalty Constant 1 and 2: If desired, Easy Project will predict cost penalties associated with completing a task in less than the optimal duration (crashing the project). This option is discussed fully in the chapter of this manual covering Plan/Schedule. The core of the calculation looks at the following ratio: Optimum duration ** constant_1 ------------------------------- Actual duration ** constant_2 We have found that a value of 2.0 for constants 1 and 2 matches observed project performance well for most companies. o Discount Rate: This number is entered to allow calculation of discounted cash flows, discounted ROI/ROA, etc. You may use your estimate of the future inflation rate as an approximation. o System Printer: This field should normally be left at lpt1:. If you use a serial printer (RS-232), set this field to com1:. You must use the DOS mode command to redirect output if you wish to use lpt2: or com2:. o Average AP and AR Delay: Easy Project uses these values when preparing pro-forma financial statements and profit analysis. AP delay is the average number of months you delay paying your bills for hardware (Easy Project assumes that your employees are paid in the month they work). AR delay is the average number of months you expect your customer to delay paying your invoices sent to them (this applies to hardware and labor). AR delay should include any acceptance periods required by the contract. o Burden Rates: When using Easy Project, you will enter direct costs for items (actual employee salaries, your cost for equipment, etc.) All companies then add a burden (overhead) charge to the direct cost to determine their burdened cost. Most companies have more than one burden rate. For example, hardware might be burdened at a rate of 1.20, labor at a rate of 2.1, maintenance activities at 1.7, and inter-company work at 1.05. Burden category 0 (which is valid) is always 1.0, i.e no burden applied. On this screen, you can modify the other five burden categories to match those in your company. See your accountant for the actual values to use, if necessary. o Markup Rates: When using Easy Project, your price to the customer is determined by applying a markup to your burdened cost for an item. As with burden rates, markup category 0 is 1.0 (i.e. no markup). The other five markup categories can be entered using this screen. Once again, see your accountant for the actual values to use. o Employees: By entering various employee numbers, you can enter up to 249 different employees (names and hourly cost). The hourly cost is entered as dollars and cents. We recommend that you use the first 20 numbers for generic categories of employees (programmer, system analyst, etc.) and the remainder of the numbers for actual employees (Jane Doe). In this way you can initially plan a project in generic terms, substituting individual names as you assign people to tasks. Note that these employee reference numbers will normally be different than your company employee numbers used for accounting purposes. o Suppliers: You can enter up to 99 different supplier names. These are used when recording expenses charged to your project. o Lease: If you will never deal with sales of hardware as part of your project, or all hardware is sold (not leased), you can skip this area completely. If your project may include leasing some hardware to your customer, these fields are used to define the lease terms. The month you deliver the hardware is month one. For that month and all subsequent months of the lease, you will need to enter the percentage of the price which you bill as the monthly lease payment and the percentage of your cost which you depreciate as leasehold inventory depreciation. For a five year lease, you do this for months 1 through 60. Easy Project handles leases of up to 10 years. Note that if you make multiple deliveries during the project, each will be analyzed for the entire lease term starting with the delivery date. Remember, press F10 to accept the screen and save the data, ESC to exit without saving. Display Easy Project automatically senses if you are using a color or monochrome display. If you are using a monochrome display which displays shades of gray, you may need to use the DOS mode command to set your display into black and white mode for optimum clarity. If you are using a color display, you may use this option to modify the display colors used by Easy Project. The colors modified apply to the following: o Screen: Normal screen display o Report: Used when printing reports to the CRT o Input: Used for data input windows o Prompt: Used for prompt windows o Error: Used for error windows o Level 0 - 9: Used for WBS displays from various plan menus (Plan/WBS, Plan/Costs, etc.) Level 0 would be the project, level 9 would be the most low level, detail sub-task in the hierarchy. The following table might be helpful when changing colors: ForegroundBackground Color 0 0 Black 1 16 Blue 2 32 Green 3 48 Cyan 4 64 Red 5 80 Magenta 6 96 Brown 7 112 White To use the table, simply pick a desired foreground and background color, add the two values together, and enter this value in Easy Project. After you change each value, the foreground and background color selected is displayed next to your entry on the screen. Version This option displays your version number and an address to write with comments, suggestions, etc. This is also the address to use when registering your copy of Easy Project ($25 to register, $35 to register and receive source code). Registration includes a free subscription to our newsletter. Reproduce If this is a restricted (limited capability) version, this option allows you to make a reproduction for use by a friend. If this is a full version of Easy Project, this option does not do anything.Plan/WBS The first step in planning a project is to quantify the specific tasks to be performed (and items to be delivered). This is done using the Plan/WBS menu option from the main menu. When selecting Plan/WBS, Easy Project checks to see if a project is already in memory (already entered or loaded with the File/Restore option). If not, a new project is created and you are asked to fill in a project definition screen. Select Plan/WBS and complete the project definition form (Name, Short name, Manager, Priority, and Description). Use the name "Project Test" for the project name. Remember to use the prompt window for explanations of specific fields. When you are done, press F10 to accept the screen. Let's take a minute and examine the Plan/WBS screen. The top three lines are our familiar command line menu (although the options are new). The bottom line of the display is an informational line, and currently shows us the maximum number of tasks we can enter (determined by our available RAM) and the current display view (described later in this chapter). The center of our screen shows a WBS data entry/display area with the following information displayed: o #: Sequential task number o T: Task type. Limited to 'P' for project name, 'S' for standard products (non-labor related deliverables), or 'L' for labor intensive tasks. o Name: Task name. We will see that the tasks at different levels in our project hierarchy are automatically indented appropriately. o WBS Number: Based on the WBS hierarchy, WBS numbers are automatically assigned. As you delete, move, add, or copy tasks the WBS numbers are automatically kept up to date. o CHRG: Automatically assigned charge number. Unlike the sequential number (which changes as tasks are inserted or deleted), the task charge number will stay matched to a given task throughout the life of the project. When tracking expenses, this number will be used to record dollars spent. Note that these Easy Project charge numbers will probably not be the same as the charge numbers your company uses for accounting purposes. o Category: We will see that Easy Project uses a sophisticated method of categorizing computer related tasks. This column shows the category designation for each task. Notice that one task in the WBS is highlighted. This is the current WBS task, and we will refer to this as the WBS cursor in this document. As you enter tasks in your WBS, you will find the following keys useful: o Right arrow, left arrow, space: Continue to move the current command line menu choice. o <cr>: Continues to accept the highlighted command line menu choice. o First letter of menu choice: Continues to accept that specific command line menu choice. o Up arrow and Down Arrow: Move the WBS cursor up or down one task (as appropriate). o HOME and END: Move the WBS cursor to the first or last task in the hierarchy. o PAGE UP and PAGE DOWNP: Display the next or previous page of the hierarchy. o Control PAGE UP (^PAGE UP) and Control PAGE DOWN (^PAGE DOWN): Move the WBS cursor to the next or previous task at the same level as the current task. This option is userful when moving down the hierarchy looking at top level tasks only. o DEL and INS: Works the same as selecting Delete and Add/Labor-Intensive from the menu. The command line menu for the Plan/WBS option of Easy Project offers the following choices: o Add o Modify o Delete o Range o View o Goto o Quit We will describe each of these options in detail in the sections which follow. Add A project consists of two basic types of tasks. Standard Products are items which you company purchases for a fixed cost, marks up, and sells to the customer. There is no chargeable labor associated with these items. Examples are computers, disks, some sub-contracted maintenance, off the shelf software, etc. Labor Intensive tasks include all tasks in which you charge labor hours to the task/project. Examples include installation, software development, training, etc. Let's begin by entering a standard task called 'Mini-computer'. use the Add/Standard-Product menu choice to display the data entry form. Enter each field (Name, Short Name, Priority, Description, Milestone), using the prompt window for assistance as needed. Note that the category field is automatically set to standard product, and that Easy Project attempts to automatically come up with a reasonable abbreviation to be used in the short name field. When you have entered all fields, press F10. Easy project then assumes that we would like to enter another standard product task at the same level. Press ESC to terminate data entry. Your task is now displayed on the screen. HINT: The description field can be used for part numbers, government contract CDRL numbers, or externally defined WBS or task numbers. Now let's try entering another standard product called 'Operating System'. Position the WBS cursor on 'Mini-Computer' and select Add/Standard-Product. The computer then asks you to show the proper level for the new task. The right and left arrow keys move the cursor in the small display window. Leaving the cursor in column 1 will place the new task at the same level as the task 'Mini-computer'. We want to put our new task at the same level as 'Mini-computer', so we will leave the cursor to the left. Press <cr> or F10 when you have selected the proper location for your new task. Complete the data entry form, press F10 to accept the entry, and press ESC to terminate data entry. Addint labor intensive tasks works exactly the same way except that you are required to enter the task's category. Cost reports will show the cost (actual and percentage) for each category of work. This information is useful when checking the validity of cost estimates. Labor intensive categories are a bit tricky at first, because they must abide by the following four rules: 1. At the top of your hierarchy, categories consist of one or more levels of tasks falling into one of the following categories: hardware; software; training; installation; support; maintenance; or other. 2. For all categories exept software, all lower levels are automatically set to the same category as the parent. 3. Under a software task, lower level tasks can be any of the following categories: system design; detail design; code; unit testing; integration; system test; or user doc. 4. Under each of the softwrae specific categories (code, unit testing, etc.), you may use a free-form name. For example, under code you may have tasks with categories of 'Report modules', 'Data entry modules', 'Inventory modules', etc. HINT: The task categories have been defined as shown for a reason. Many project managers forget to properly plan tasks in one or more of these areas. Use the available categories list as a checklist to be sure that you are not forgetting something. Enter the following short WBS into the system using Add/Standard- Product and Add/Labor-intensive. Project Test P system Mini-Computer S Std. product Computer S Std. Product Disk S Std. Product Terminals S Std. Product Operating System S Std. Product Develop Application L Software Design application L system design Code application L code Test application L system test Develope IO card L Hardware Note that, although the system will not prevent you from putting labor intensive tasks as sub-tasks of standard products (or vice versa), this should not be done. HINT: When defining your WBS, it is normally best to begin by defining all project tasks at level one first (i.e. start by thinking of the big picture). When you are comfortable that all areas have been covered, then begin adding subtasks at ever increasing levels of detail. Modify Selecting Modify allows you to change a task which you have already entered. Simply move your WBS cursor to the task you wish to modify and select Modify from the command line menu. Delete You may delete tasks by pressing Delete from the command line menu, or by pressing the DEL key on your keyboard. The task under the WBS cursor is deleted and the WBS is automatically renumbered. Note that the system does not automatically delete sub-tasks when you delete a task. Range The Range features of Easy Project allow you to perform various actions on a range (contiguous set) of tasks. Selecting Range from the command line menu displays the following sub-menu: o Flag o Move o Copy o Delete o Insert o Extract o Shift o Unflag These options perform the following actions: o Flag: Flag is used to designate a range. Flag is pressed once to indicate one end point of the range (at the current WBS cursor location), the WBS cursor is moved to the other end point, and flag is pressed again. Note that the current range is shown in the 'T' column of the WBS screen. The range remains flagged until you press Unflag. o Move: To move a range of tasks you should flag the range, move the WBS cursor to the task directly above the desired new location, and press Move. o Copy: Copy range works exactly like move range, except the tasks are copied to the new location. o Delete: The range of tasks is deleted. o Insert: You will be prompted for a file anem (optionally including a drive and path). The file must be a task file which was created using the Range/Extract option (below). The system will then attempt to load the file into the WBS directly under the WBS cursor. o Extract: After entering a file name, the flagged range of tasks is copied to the named file. o Shift: Shift allows you to change the level of indentation in the hierarchy for a range of tasks. o Unflag: Clears all range flags. HINT: Range/Extract and Range/Insert can be used to move blocks of tasks from one project to another. These options may also be used to build a library of project tasks which can be inserted and modified as required. View Options under View control the way the project information is displayed on your screen. Selecting View makes the following sub-menus available: o Increase o Decrease o All o Window - Split - Clear - Jump When describing these options, the word level will be used to describe a task's level in the hierarchy. Tasks are at levels zero (the project top) through nine (the lowest, most detailed sub-task). o Increase: By default, Easy Project displays your entire task hierarchy. This is often inconvenient when attempting to get an overview. The current view displayed in the lower right corner of your screen is the lowest level task which will be displayed. The default is 99 (i.e. display all tasks). Increase is used to increase the level of detail displayed (after it has been decreased). Use decrease to decrease the view all the way down to 1 to see how this works. o Decrease: This option decreases the level of task detail shown. Continuing to press decrease will reduce the view to 1. o All: This option sets the display view to 99 (display all). o Window: The WBS screen may be split into two independent windows. View/Window/Split splits the screen into two windows. View/Window/Jump moves the WBS cursor from one window to the other. View/Window/Clear clears the window and restores the screen to a single display. HINT: Using the window feature and move or copy range, you can jump back and forth in your hierarchy to easily perform cut and paste operations. Goto Goto is used to reposition the WBS cursor directly on a specific task. Simply enter the sequential number of the task of interest.Plan/Cost After you have defined the project tasks using Plan/WBS, you need to allocate resources (dollars and man-hours) to the project tasks. This is accomplished using Plan/Costs. Select Plan/Cost at this point. As you can see, the data entry/display screen is very similar to the Plan/WBS screen. The informational line on the bottom of the display no longer displays the maximum number of tasks allowed (you can't enter new tasks from this screen). Instead, this line now displays the total project direct cost, burdened cost, and price. This is handy when estimating costs to ensure that your total cost will make sense. Four new columns have been added to the main display: Cost; B; M; and Price. Cost is your entered direct cost for this particular task. B is the burden category, and M is the markup category to be applied to this task. A value of 0 for B or M signified no burden/markup. A value of 1 through 5 will apply the appropriate burden/markup rate as entered in the Setup/Organization screen. Price is the final price to the customer after applying the burden and markup. The command line menu is also somewhat different, offering these choices: o Modify o View - Increase - Decrease - All - Window * Split * Clear * Jump View and Goto work exactly as described for Plan/WBS. Modify is used to enter resource estimates for each task in the project hierarchy. The specific data entered varies based on the task type ('T' column) for the current WBS cursor position. The three general categories are: o P: Project o S: Standard Product o L: Labor Intensive The following sections of this chapter address each of these three possibilities individually. Project Move your WBS cursor to the top task (pressing HOME will do this) and press Modify. Customers typically pay for labor related work using one of the following four methods: 1. Payment in full on delivery of the final product. 2. Monthly payments of cost plus profit during the project (based on actual expenditures). 3. Monthly payment of costs during the project, payment of profit on delivery (common on cost plus fixed fee government contracts). 4. Payment of the final price in periodic installments during the work. This data entry screen allows you to select which of these methods is appropriate for your project. If you select periodic installments, this option also allows you to enter the number of installments agreed to in the contract (1 - 9). This information is used when preparing pro-forma financial statements and for modeling project financial performance. Press ESC or F10 to exit this screen. Standard Product Move your WBS cursor to a standard product WBS element and press Modify. Let's start by explaining the cost box displayed in the upper left corner of your screen. o Line 1 tells you if the task being modified is a node or not. A node simply means that the task has no sub-tasks defined. o Line 2 tells you the cost for this task's parent in the hierarchy. If the selected task is level 1 (i.e. the parent is the project), this line will tell you that the task is level one. o Line 3 tells you the cost for siblings of this task. This number can be used with the displayed parent cost when performing top down costing (or design to cost). You basically modify the cost estimate for all siblings until they equal the already estimated cost for the parent. o Line 4 tells you the cost for this task's children. This number is used when performing bottom up cost estimating (you estimate the children first, then set this task equal to the total cost for the children). Now let's look at the bottom half of the screen, looking at the fields in the data entry form. The following fields are user fields (the others are display only): o Unit Cost: This is the cost for one of the described items. o Quantity: This is the quantity to be sold. This field multiplied by the unit cost (above) determines the net cost. The quantity field can only be entered for nodes. o B-cat and M-cat: These fields show the burden and markup category to be applied to this task. These fields can be changed only for level one tasks. All lower level tasks automatically have the same burden and markup category as their level one parent. HINT: If you have two markup categories with different profit rates (7.5% and 10%, for example), you can easily perform what-if planning by varying the markup rate field for level one tasks. o Lease: This field also applies only to level 1 tasks (sub-tasks are automatically set accordingly). An 'n' in this field implies that the product is sold, a 'y' in this field implies that the product is leased to the customer. Leased items are modeled (financially) using the lease terms defined in Setup/Organization. Press ESC or F10 to terminate entry for standard product cost estimates. Labor Intensive Move your WBS cursor to a labor intensive task which is also a node (no children) and press Modify. The financial information displayed in the upper left corner of the screen is identical, but the data entry form now includes a resource matrix. The fields for cost, B-cat, Burdened cost, M-cat, and price are identical to those described for a standard product. As before, the burden and markup category can only be entered for level one tasks. The field labeled "P:" is the penalty factor applied to your cost. This penalty factor is based on inefficient scheduling, and is described fully in the Plan/Schedule chapter of this manual. The field labeled Crashed Cost is the basic cost times the penalty factor, and it is this crashed cost which is used when applying markup and burden rates. For now, simply note that a value of 1.0 for penalty is no penalty, so the crashed cost should equal the base cost. IMPORTANT NOTE: Before going any further, we will want to have information entered in Easy Project for at least one employee. If you have not completed the Setup/Organization procedure, go back now and enter data for at least one employee. Be sure to include the employee's hourly wage. The resource matrix is only available for labor intensive nodes (non- nodes have the array automatically filled in with the sum of their children's resource requirements). Use the down arrow key to move your cursor to the first field in the resource array (#:). This is where you would enter the employee number (or labor category number). Enter a number for which you have entered some employee data already (probably 1). You are now asked to enter three manpower estimates (in hours) for this employee (or labor category) working on this task. The low estimate should be a number which you are 95% sure will be the minimum hours worked. The expected estimate should be your most likely estimate. The high estimate should be a number which you are 95% sure will be the worst case requirement. These numbers are used to compute the mean requirement (and also used for various probabilistic functions in other parts of the program). mean = [low + (4 * expect) + high] / 6 You can enter information for up to five different employees for each task. As you enter resource information, the field labeled "Expected Resource Costs" displays the total dollars allocated in the resource array (for each employee, the mean man-hour estimate times the employee's hourly wage). Note that if the resource number entered on the screen is a resource which does not have a valid hourly wage entered (in Setup/Organization) the resource cost will be zero. If the task has a penalty factor attached, the field for Penalized Costs is equal to the expected Resource Costs times the penalty factor (this penalty stuff really is cleared up in Plan/Schedule, we promise!). HINT: When doing bottom up costing, enter the labor estimates, then use the Expected Resource Costs to enter a valid cost in the cost field. When doing top down costing (design to cost), adjust your resource array until it matches the previously entered cost field. To save some effort when entering resource estimates, you may use the following shorthand: 2d = 2 days = 16 hours 2w = 2 weeks = 80 hours 2m = 2 months = 320 hours In other words, enter an integer followed by the letter d, w, or m and the system will convert the number to the appropriate number of man-hours. IMPORTANT NOTE: When you are done, the cost field for each task should exactly equal the sum of the cost fields for the task's children. You should ensure that this is true during your planning process.Plan/Dependencies Easy Project handles dependencies by defining predecessor tasks only (successor links are implied by the predecessor links). Easy Project allows you to specify the percent which the predecessor must be complete prior to beginning the successor. For example, the detail design stage of software is normally dependent on the system design state, and we would say that system design is a predecessor of detail design. If the system design does not need to be 100% done before we start detail design, we might say that system design is a predecessor of detail design, and that system design should be 50% complete prior to starting detail design. Select the Plan/Dependencies option. The WBS display window now displays a new column labeled Dependencies. For each task, this column will have an X for each predecessor link defined. Because you may define up to eight predecessors for each task, this column may contain up to eight Xs. The command line menu should look relatively familiar at this point. The actual menu structure is as follows: o Modify o Designate - Select - Add-Link - Remove-Link - Disconnect o View - Increase - Decrease - All - Window * Split * Clear * Jump o Goto Modify Move your cursor to a task and press Modify. From this screen you can designate up to eight predecessors to this task using the sequential number (not charge number) of each predecessor. The Percent field is your estimate of the percent the predecessor must be complete prior to this task starting. You can also enter the rigidity of the dependency link (1 - 9). Designate You may designate most dependency links using Designate, if you desire. Move the WBS cursor to the successor task and press Select (the 'T' column shows the task selected). You may now move the WBS cursor to each predecessor and press Add-Link. If you make a mistake, move the WBS cursor to the improper predecessor and press Remove-Link. Moveing the WBS cursor to a task and pressing Disconnect removes all predecessor links defined for that task, and searches the WBS hierarchy to remove links defined by other tasks to the now disconnected task (i.e. disconnects all links to/from this task). All links defined using Add-Link assume a rigidity of 9 and a percent complete required of 100%. You can then use Modify to change these numbers, if desired.Plan/Risk One vital area of project management which is often ignored (at your own peril) is risk management. Easy Project simplified the process of estimating risk. Select the Plan/Risk option. All risk estimates are numbers from 1 to 99, with 1 being extremely low risk and 99 being extremely high risk. The columns labeled NR, TR, SR, and OR have the following meanings: o NR: This number defines the network related risk for this task. o TR: This number defined the technical risk for this task. o SR: This number defines the schedule related risk for this task. o OR: This number is the average of the other three, and gives some indication of the task's overall risk. Now, move your WBS cursor to any task and press Modify. We will describe each field individually. o Network LOF: The network likelihood of failure is an indication of the likelihood of problems caused by this task's predecessor tasks not being completed on time. This number is automatically calculated based on the number of predecessor links defined. o Network COF: The network consequence of failure is an indication of how many other tasks may be adversly affected by slips in this task. This number is automatically calculated based on the number of other tasks which have this tasks as a predecessor. o Network Overall: This is the average of the Network LOF and Network COF, and is the number displayed on the main screen as NR. This field is automatically calculated. o Tech LOF - HM: This is a user entered field for the technical likelihood of failure due to hardware maturity. 99 would be appropriate for development using experimental hardware which has not been adequately tested. 1 might be appropriate when using well established hardware you are extremely familiar with. o Tech LOF - SM: This user entered field is similar, but looks at the likelihood of failure due to softare maturity. 99 would be appropriate for state of the art development using innovative techniques, while 1 might be appropriate for routine modifications to a COBOL program. o Tech LOF - HC: This user entered field measures the likelihood of failure due to the complexity of the hardware you must work with. Large network type applications are probably a 99, while simple, single user systems might be a 1. o Tech LOF - SC: This user entered field measures the likelihood of failure due to software complexity. Large, complex tasks would clearly be 99. Small modules with few outside interactions would be 1. o Technical LOF: This field is automatically computed, and is the average of the four Tech LOF factors just entered. o Technical COF: This user entered field describes the technical consequence of failure. If this task is basically stand-alone and of relatively low importance, the technical consequence of failure will be quite low. If the entire project will not work unless this task works, the technical consequences of failure for this module are quite high. o Technical Risk (Overall): This field is automatically computed and is the average of the Technical LOF and the Technical COF. This is the number for TR displayed on the main screen. o Cost/Schedule Risk: This number is automatically computed based on the duration used for the task. Tasks which are scheduled for their optimum duration will have a value of 50 here. Tasks which are scheduled to take longer than their optimum duration will have a number lower than 50. Tasks which are crashed (scheduled duration shorter than optimum duration) will have a number over 50.Plan/Schedule From the main menu, select Plan/Schedule. The main window now displays a Gantt chart used for scheduling. Let's begin by looking at the Gantt (bar) chart in some detail. The Gantt chart is divided into 8 columns. Each column represents one week, month, or one quarter. The current scale is shown in the lower left corner of your screen. Standard product nodes are shown on the Gantt chart as an asterick (*) corresponding to the product's delivery date to the customer. Labor intensive tasks are shown as a bar. You may notice that the Gantt bars are not all the same. Various levels of sub-tasks are shown by different bar types to differentiate between top level tasks and their sub-tasks. You might notice one slightly subtle change in the "T" column of your WBS. If a task is scheduled to begin before its predecessor tasks are sufficiently complete, the L or S label is replaced by a double arrow. In addition to your normal WBS cursor movement keys, the Plan/Schedule option allows you to use control right arrow and control left arrow to scroll the Gantt window in time. Try this. Notice that the column labels at the top of the Gantt window show the month. With that overview complete, let's look at the menu options available from Plan/Schedule: o Modify o Range o Shift o View o Goto Modify Modify performs differently for: Projects (task 0); standard products; or labor intensive tasks. Pressing Modify while your WBS cursor is on task 0 lets you enter the following general schedule information: o Start date: The project's calendar start date is entered here. All other dates entered are relative to this absolute start date. This solves the problem of planning a project based on a 1 January start date, actually starting the project on 15 February, and needing to change the dates for every task in the project. With Easy Project, you would simply change the project start date and reprint all reports with the proper dates. You can use shift to schedule tasks for specific calendar dates, because the shift option shows the actual dates scheduled in the upper left corner of the screen. o Working hours/week: This is obviously normally 40. Reducing this number might allow for projects done on a part time or at low priority (internal projects). All task durations will automatically increase in direct proportion to the reduced hours worked per week. Increasing the number might allow for high priority projects in which overtime has been authorized. All task durations will automatically decrease in direct proportion to the reduced hours worked per week. Changing the working hours per week does not affect penalty, if applicable (See next paragraph). o Estimate type: There are two fundamentally different approaches to estimating software work, and many overruns are incurred by not recognizing which type you are using. Fixed price estimating (f) is simple, and is normally appropriate for fixed price contracts, design to cost projects, and projects with ample time for completing the work. On a fixed price contract, your cost and man-hour estimates for each task are fixed. Crashing a project (scheduling the work in a non-optimal fashion) will reduce the probability of successfully meeting the schedule (the schedule risk), but will not affect the costs for individual tasks. Optimal scheduling is more complex, but also more realistic for many projects. This technique says that all cost and man-hour estimates were made assuming the tasks would be performed with adequate time. If the tasks are crashed, the cost for each task will increase. Easy Project will automatically calculate the schedule related cost penalty for crashing tasks if the Estimate Type field is set to 'o'. For reasonable schedule changes, you will notice that the schedule risk does not change, but the costs go up. For drastic schedule changes, both the cost and schedule risk will increase (i.e. no matter how much money you spend, you can't develop 1 man-year of software in 1 day!) As an example, assume you plan out a project to develop a new accounting system. Your plan shows that the project will require 18 months to complete. The customer insists that you complete the work in 12 months. You have three choices: 1. Your best bet is to reduce the scope of work to a point where 12 months is the optimal delivery time. This is not always possible. 2. If the money available is fixed, you would used fixed type estimating. After reducing the schedule, you could deliver the schedule to the customer and explain that there is only a 14% chance of meeting the deadlines. 3. If sufficient funds are available, you would use optimal type estimating. After reducing the schedule, you could deliver the schedule to the customer and explain that the schedule changes have increased the cost from $155,000 to $315,000. o Percent Complete: This is your estimate of the project's current percent complete. Pressing Modify while your WBS cursor is on a standard product node allows you to enter the delivery date in days from project start. Pressing Modify while your WBS cursor is on a labor intensive task allows you to enter the following two fields: o Duration: This is the task duration in calendar days. Changing the duration will automatically change the schedule risk. If the estimate type is 'o' (optimal) the penalty and net cost will also automatically change as you modify the duration. Notice that setting the duration equal to the optimum duration (displayed) sets the schedule risk to 50 and the penalty to 1.0 (no penalty). Changing the duration of a task automatically changes the duration of the task's children by a proportional amount. o Percent Complete: This is your estimate of the percent this task is complete. This number is used when predicting dollars/man-hours required to complete the work. Setting this field to 100 marks a task as complete. Range This option works similar to the Range option in Plan/WBS. Flag is used to mark the top and bottom of the range (the flagged range is shown in the "T" column). Unflag is used to clear the range markers. Shift allows you to shift the flagged range on the Gantt chart. Shifting is accomplished using the right and left arrow keys (control right and left arrow for faster movement). Shifting is terminated by pressing ESC, up arrow, or down arrow. Shift Shift is used to shift individual tasks. As with shift range, the right and left arrow keys are used to shift the task (control right and left arrow for faster movement). As you shift a labor intensive task, all children of the task are automatically shifted. In the upper left corner of the screen, the task start date, end date, schedule risk, and penalty is displayed. In the information line (bottom of display), the total man-power loading for the project is displayed for each time period displayed on the Gantt chart. Manpower loading is shown in man-weeks/months/quarters. In other words, this is the total number of people you will need to have working on the project during this period of time to meet your schedule. As you shift tasks, dependency links are automatically checked and a double arrow will be displayed in the "T" column if the task is scheduled before at least one of its predecessor tasks is sufficiently complete. Pressing HOME while shiftint a task allows you to enter the task start date in terms of the number of days from project start. Because sub-tasks should be scheduled within the time period scheduled for their parent task, tasks can not be shifted past the start/end date of their parent task. This restriction is also built into the use of the HOME key (paragraph above). Shift is terminated by pressing ESC, up arrow, or down arrow. NOTE: Shifting task zero shifts the Gantt window. View In addition to the normal options available using View, you can select View/Format to modify the Gantt scale. The Gantt chart can be scaled so that each column is one week, one month, or one quarter. HINT: Scheduling should normally be accomplished in a top down fashion. Set the view to 1 and schedule all level 1 tasks (with the Gantt chart set to an appropriate scale). When this top level schedule looks OK, set the view to 2 and schedule all level 2 tasks (changing the Gantt scale if appropriate). Repeat this process until all tasks have been scheduled.Track After a project has started, you need to record chanrges (labor and materials), normally on a weekly basis. The Track option is used for this. The Track top level menu looks like this: o Timesheets o Expenses o Report o Post o Quit Timesheets is used to enter periodic (normally weekly) employee timesheets for all projects. Expenses is used to enter material charges (invoices) for all projects. Report is used to print timesheet and expense related reports. Post is used to transfer charges directly to appropriate project tasks. We will discuss each of these options individually in the sections that follow. Timesheets You will normally enter timesheets weekly (bi-weekly in some companies). Before beginning, you will need an appropriate timesheet filled out for each employee. For each project task the employee worked on during the reporting period, the timesheet should specific the project name, the task charge number, and the hours billed. Optionally, you may also record the actual hours worked if you want to track unpaid overtime, etc. Select Track/Timesheets to display the timesheet data entry form. This is a matrix type form, where entry number refers to the sequential timesheet entry number (0 - 499). If one employee charged to three different tasks, these charges might be recorded as entry numbers 0, 1, and 2. Starting with entry number 0, enter the employee number (1 - 249), the project name, the charge number, the hours worked on that task (optional), and the hours billed to that task. The field for project name will contain the eight character file name in which the project is stored, not the 20 character name entered when you created the project. When you have completed all fields on this form, move your cursor to the first field and set the entry number to 1. This will allow you to make the second entry. Continue this process until you have entered all timesheet charges. Entries can be modified by selecting the appropriate entry number and modifying the displayed field. When you are done entering timesheet information, press F10 to save all entries to disk. Pressing ESC will exit without saving any timesheet entries made during this session. Expenses Select Track/Expenses to enter expense reports (material charges) into the system. Expenses are entered exactly like timesheets, except the entries are limited to 0 - 99. The field for dollars charged refers to your cost, i.e. the amount your supplier invoiced you for the item. Report Reports accessed from this menu are expense and timesheet related and may include information applicable to many projects (i.e. they would cover all timesheet charges, not just those for a specific project). Pressing Timesheet/Report displays the following sub-menu: o Timesheets o Costs (expenses) o Employees o Suppliers Timesheets prints a sorted list of all timesheet entries made since the last posting (Timesheet/Post). Entries may be sorted by employee or project. Costs-(Expenses) prints a sorted list of all expense entries made since the last posting. Entries may be sorted by supplier or project. HINT: Because these reports sort the actual timesheet/expense file, these options can be used to re-order your entered data prior to viewing it using Track/Timesheets or Track/Expenses. Employees prints a list of all valid employee numbers, names, and hourly rates. Suppliers prints a list of all valid supplier numbers and names. All of these reports are printed to the screen by default. To change the print destination, you must use the Report/Options/Destination capability from the main menu. This option allows you to print reports to the screen, the printer, or to a disk file. (See the Report chapter for details of using this capability). Reports printed from this menu can not be queued (See the Report chapter for an explanation of queueing reports). HINT: Use these reports to double check all charges prior to posting. Post After all expenses and timesheets have been entered, printed, and checked for accuracy, they are posted to the appropriate project files on your disk. The project files should be on the default drive (and directory), and should match the project name field in the individual timesheet/expense entries. Selecting Track/Post will post all entries automatically. If any invalid entries are detected during the posting (project name does not match a valid file or charge number does not match a valid task in the project), the entry is left in the timesheet/expense file. All valid entries are cleared from the file after posting to the projects. If invalid entries were detected, you should print out the appropriate file, correct the problems, and perform the posting operation again to post the remaining entries. HINT: Errors in timesheet or expense entries which are detected prior to posting can be corrected by changing the appropriate entry. After posting, errors must be correcting by making an off-setting entry (negative hours or dollars charged).File The File option is used to store/retrieve files to and from disk. When entering file names, it is permissible to specify a drive and/or path name if you are not using the default drive/directory for storage. Pressing File displays the following sub-menu: o Save o Recall o Purge o Directory o Quit Save is used to save the current project to disk. Recall is used to recall a project form disk. Purge is used to delete a project from disk. Directory is used to display a directory of available projects.Report The Report option prints reports relating to a specific project. Pressing Report displays the following sub-menu: o WBS o Cost o Dependencies o Risk o Schedule o Evaluate o Options o Quit We will begin by discussing Options because this choice affects all reports. We will then talk about each available report individually. Options Selecting Report/Options offers the following sub-menus: o Print-Queue - Activate - Print - Deactivate o Destination - Screen - Printer - Disk Most project managers find that they need to print a long series of reports on a regular basis. Print-Queue is used to simplify this process. When you select Activate, then select various reports to be printed, Easy Project stores the list of reports requested but does not actually print any reports. Selecting Print causes all of the the reports in the print queue to be output in the order you selected them. Selecting Deactivate causes reports to be printed immediately as they are selected. Note that Deactivate does not clear the print-queue (Easy Project still remembers the reports you want to output). HINT: If you output the same list of reports every week (or month), you can place these reports in the print-queue one time, then deactivate the print-queue. Every time you want the series of reports output, simply select Report/Options/Print-queue/Print. Destination is used to select the current report destination (including those printed from the print-queue). Reports may be directed to the screen, the printer, or to a disk file called REPORT.ASC. The default is the screen. Reports sent to report.asc are appended to the end of the file. When you select Report/Options/Destination/Disk you will be asked if you want the existing report.asc file cleared. All reports will prompt you for the project name (i.e. the name of the project you want the report for). The project name is the name of the project file, including the drive and path if necessary. Note that printing reports causes the project currently in memory to be over-written. For all operations in which the current project will be over- written or deleted, Easy Project determines if you have made changes since the last save. If so, you are asked if you would like the current project saved prior to continuing. WBS Two WBS related reports are available, Hierarchy and Detail. Hierarchy displays the task hierarchy for the designated project. Detail displays each task's WBS number, Name, Category, Priority, Milestone status, and charge number. Cost Three cost (resource) related reports are available, Dollars, Hours, and Loading. o Dollars: This report displays detailed financial information, in terms of dollars, for each task in the project hierarchy. For each task, the report displays the task name, cost, penalized cost, burdened cost, price, WBS number, amount charged (and posted) to date, dollars available, and predicted dollars to complete. Predicted dollars to complete is only displayed for labor intensive tasks for which you have entered a percent complete (see Plan/Schedule). This report also includes two summary pages. One page displays summary information for each of the primary project categories (hardware, installation, trainging, support, maintenance, other, and software). The second summary screen displays summary information for each of the software sub- categories (system design, detail design, code, unit testing, integration, system test, and user documentation). The displayed percentages can be used to determine if your project plan includes sufficient funds for all required project activities. o Hours: This report displays detailed financial information in terms of man-hours for all labor intensive tasks. For each task, the report displays the total hours planned, hours worked, hours billed, and hours remaining. In addition, nodes will include the specific employee man-hour allocations. o Loading: This report displays the month by month man-power loading for each employee (or employee category) working on the project. Each line of output shows the project year number followed by twelve numbers representing the monthly loading for that year. Numbers shown are in man-months. Dependencies The Dependency report shows all dependency links defined, including the predecessor task number, the rigidity, and the percent complete required. Risk The Risk report shows the detail risk factors for each project task. These factors are Network Likelihood of Failure, Network Consequence of Failure, Overall Network Risk, Technical Likelihood of Failure, Technical Risk, Cost/Schedule Risk, and Total Risk. Schedule Two Schedule reports are available, Task and Gantt. Task shows you the start date, end date and duration for each task in your project hierarchy. Gantt displays the project Gantt chart in the same format used by Plan/Schedule. Note that the scale (weeks, months, or quarters) and the time frame displayed in the Gantt window are set within Plan/Schedule prior to saving the project. Evaluate Three Evaluate reports are available, ROI/ATO, Balance-Sheet, and Income. ROI/ATO calculates and displays the monthly Net Income Before Taxes (NIBT), average assets, monthly Return on Investment (ROI), and monthly Asset Turnover (ATO) throughout the project life. Balance-Sheet calculates and displays the monthly cash balance, accounts receivable balance, inventory balance, cumulative depreciation on leasehold inventory, and accounts payable balance. Negative numbers for cash indicate project financing requirements (internal or through borrowing). Income calculates and displays the monthly sales, cost of sales, depreciation expense, and NIBT throughout the project life.Reference Activate Report/Options/Print-Queue/Activate. All report commands are queued for later execution. The user is prompted if the existing report queue should be cleared when this option is selected. Add Plan/WBS/Add. Add a new task to the project hierarchy. Tasks can be either standard product tasks or labor intensive tasks. Add Link Plan/Dependencies/Designate/Add-Link. Add a new dependency link from the previously selected task to the current task. The current task becomes a predecessor of the previously selected task. Links are added with a rigidity of 9 and a required percent complete of 100, although these may be changed using modify. The screen will display an X in the dependency column for each link added. Addr Organization address field. Accessed from Setup/Organization. Free form field for company address printed at the top of all reports. All Set current view to display all levels of hierarchy. Shown as view of 99 on hierarchyical displays. Arrow Keys Right and left arrow keys select the current default menu choice from command line menus, or move the cursor during screen oriented data entry. Up and down arrows move your WBS cursor on WBS hierarchy displays, or advance to the next/previous field during screen oriented data entry. Control right and left arrow keys scroll the Gantt window on the Plan/Schedule screen. Average AP Delay Average accounts payable delay. The average number of months you expect to delay paying your bills after delivery of a component to you. Average AR Delay Average accounts receivable delay. The average number of months you expect your customer to delay paying your invoices after completion of the work. This number should include any required acceptance periods. B-Cat Burden category. Burden category 0 is always 1.0 or no burden applied. Burden categories 1 through 5 are set by the user to yoru companies burden rates from the Setup/Organization data entry screen. Backspace Works like a correcting typewriter backspace during screen oriented data entry. Fills the right most element of the current field with a character which is used to show a blank location. Back tab Shifted TAB. During screen oriented data entry, back tab works the same as up arrow (goto previous field). Balance Sheet Report/Evaluate/Balance-Sheet. Print pro-forma (projected) balance sheets for the desired project from project start until project completion. Basic Cost Entered from Plan/Cost/Modify and displayed on several forms. This is your direct cost for this item prior to applying any burden or profit. Burden Rate Your cost for all items is increased by an overhead charge called burden rate. This includes all indirect costs except profit (R&D costs, handling costs, General and Administrative, overhead, etc.) Easy Project allows you to set up to five different burden rates/categories in Setup/Organization. A burden rate of 1.0 would be no burden at all. Burdened Cost An item's basic cost times the appropriate burden rate. Computed automatically by Easy Project. Carriage Return Used to check and accept the current field during screen oriented data entry, and to accept the highlighted item from the command line menu. Category Task category, entered from the Plan/WBS/Add or Plan/WBS/Modify menu. Automatically set for standard product tasks. For labor intensive tasks, category is used to ensure that appropriate funds are allocated to each task required during development. Charge Number A unique number assigned to each project task entered into Easy Project. This number is used to uniquely identify tasks to Easy Project when entering dollars and hours chargted. This number will normally not be the same as your company designated charge number for accounting purposes. Children Cost The total cost for all children of the current task in the WBS hierarchy. Clear Plan/*/View/Window/Clear. Accessed from each of the plan menus. Closes one WBS window, leaving a single WBS on the display. Control Page Down From any of the Plan screens, moves the WBS cursor down to the next task at the same level in the hierarchy (skipping lower level tasks). Copy Plan/WBS/Range/Copy. After marking a range of tasks and moving the WBS cursor to the desired location, pressing copy will copy the marked range to the point just below the WBS cursor. Cost Plan/Costs. Used to enter cost and resource data for WBS elements. Track/Costs. Used to enter dollars charged to a projects tasks. Report/Cost. Used to print dollars, hours, and loading estimates for the project, including predicted costs to complete each task. The cost field displayed during screen oriented data entry is the item's basic cost times the quantity. Crashed Cost For labor intensive items developed faster than their optimum development time, the crashed cost is the basic cost times the Easy Project calculated penalty factor. The difference between the basic cost and the crashed cost is the efficiency penalty you incur by rushing development. This number will be 1.0 (no penalty) if the estimate type variable is set to "f" (fixed). d When entering hour estimates on the resource matrix of Plan/Costs/Modify, you may enter a number followed immediately by a "d" (days). The system will convert the number from days to hours. Date Easy Project uses the system date extensively, so it is important that you set the system date prior to running Easy Project. This can be accomplished automatically when you boot if your have a batter powered clock (see the instruction manual with your add-in card), or manually using the DOS date command. Deactivate Report/Options/Print-Queue/Deactivate. Turn off the print queue, sending all reports to the printer as they are requested. Reports currently in the queue are retained and can be printed later using the Print option. Decrease Plan/*/View/Decrease. Decrease the current view by 1, down to a minimum of 1. The current view is the highest level in the WBS hierarchy which Easy Project will display. Delete Plan/WBS/Delete. Delete the current WBS task. The WBS hierarchy is automatically renumbered. Plan/WBS/Range/Delete. Delete the flagged range. You are prompted to confirm the deletion. The WBS hierarchy is automatically renumbered. Delete Key (DEL) From the Plan/WBS display, the delete key works like the Plan/WBS/Delete option and deletes the current task. Delivery Date The delivery date for a standard product component, expressed in days from project start. The shift option can be used to see the actual calendar delivery date, if desired. Dependencies Plan/Dependencies. Define task dependencies. Description Task description. Often used to store part numbers, externally defined WBS numbers, and government contract CDRL numbers. Destination Report/Options/Destination. Used to determine if reports are output to the screen, the printer, or to a disk file. Detail Report/WBS/Detail. Print a detailed listing of all tasks in the project plan. Directory File/Directory. Print a listing of all Easy Project project files on the designated device. Disconnect Plan/Dependencies/Designate/Disconnect. Disconnects the current WBS task from the dependency network. All defined predecessors are cleared, and all tasks which reference this task as a predecessor are modified to not reference this task. Discount Rate Your companies discount rate. May be used to calculate discounted cash flow, discounted ROI, etc. Entered from Setup/Organization. Disk Report/Setup/Destination/Disk. Output all reports to the disk file report.asc. New reports are appended to the end of the file. The user is asked if the existing file should be cleared when this option is selected. Display Setup/Display. Used to enter display colors used by Easy Project when running on color systems (Easy Project always uses black and white colors when using a monochrome text card). Dollars Report/WBS/Cost/Dollars. Print a report showing costs to date and predicted costs to completion in terms of dollars. Dollars Charged Entered on the Track/Expenses data entry screen. The dollars charged to a designated project and task. Down Arrow See Arrow Keys Duration Entered on Plan/Schedule data entry screens. Task duration in terms of calendar days. Employee Track/timesheet/Employee. Print a summary of all timesheet entries entered but not posted, sorted by employee. Track/Report/Employees. Print a list of all employees entered into Easy Project. Employee #: Employee number (1 - 250) used to index into Easy Project employee file from Setup/Organization. Note that some employees may actually be classes of employees (e.g. Secretary, Programmer). Employee Cost: Hourly cost (or average hourly cost for employee classes). Entered in dollars and cents from Setup/Organization. Employee Name: Name of employee or employee class. Entered from Setup/Organization. END Key Move cursor to last task in WBS hierarchy, or move cursor to last valid field from a data entry screen. End Date: Task end date in terms of days from project start. Will equal start date plus task duration. Enter Key See Carriage Return. Entry Number A sequential index number used from the Track/Timesheets and Track/Expenses screens. ESC (Escape) Key Used to abort a function. Aborts a data entry screen without making any changes permanent. Aborts a menu level and displays the previous command line menu (works like Quit in this respect). Estimate Type Entered by modifying task one (the project) from Plan/Schedule. Can be "f" for fixed or "o" for optimal. If optimal, allows Easy Project to increase task costs if development is attempted in less than the optimal time for the estimated labor. If fixed, cost estimates will not change but schedule risk will increase significantly faster as a schedule is crashed. Evaluate Report/Evaluate. Used to access reports which predict and evaluate a projects financial performance. Expected Resource Costs Computed by Easy Project and displayed on the data entry screen for Plan/Costs/Modify. Equal to the sum of the mean labor estimates (hours) times the hourly wage for the designated employee number(s). Expenses Track/Expenses. Used to enter non-labor project expenses. Entries are entered into project files using the Post command. Extract Plan/WBS/Range/Extract. Write the marked range of tasks to a disk file. The tasks in the file can be inserted into this project or another project using the Plan/WBS/Range/Insert option. F10 Special Function Key 10. Used to accept a data entry screen. File File. Used to save, retrieve, and purge projects to/from disk. Flag Plan/*/Range/Flag. Used to designate a range. Pressing flag once marks one end of the range. Pressing flag a second time marks the other end of the range. The flagged range is shown in the "T" (type) column on the WBS display. The range remains flagged until unflagged with the Unflag option. Gantt Report/Schedule/Gantt. Print the project's current Gantt chart. The scale used (weeks, months, or quarters) and the gantt window starting and ending date are those used from Plan/Schedule. Goto Plan/*/Goto. Goto a specific task number. The display is recentered with the designated task at the top. Hierarchy Report/WBS/Hierarchy. Print a hierarchy chart for a project. HOME Key From a data entry screen, move the cursor to the first valid field. From a WBS hierarchical screen, move the WBS cursor to the first task. Hours Report/Cost/Hours. For a given project, print the hours expended to date for each task. Hours Billed Entered from Track/Timesheets. The number of labor hours charged to a specific task. Hours Worked Entered from Track/Timesheets. The number of labor hours worked on a specific task. May differ from hours billed because of unpaid overtime, etc. Income Report/Evaluate/Income. Print pro-forma (projected) income statements for a project from start through finish.k Increase Plan/*/View/Increase. Increase the view by one. View can be 1 - 9 or 99 (all). The current view is the maximu hierarchical level which will be displayed. Insert Insert Key: From Plan/WBS works lie Plan/WBS/Add/Labor- Intensive. Plan/WBS/Range/Insert. Inserts a previously extracted disk file into the WBS starting at the location immediately below the WBS cursor. Installments Entered by modifying task zero from Plan/Costs WBS hierarchy. Applies only to payment type 4, periodic installments. Tells Easy Project the number of installments made for each payment. Jump Plan/*/View/Window/Jump. After the WBS is split into two windows, Jump is used to move the WBS cursor from one window to the other. Labor Intensive Tasks in Easy Project are one of three types: Project (task zero); Standard Product; or Labor Intensive. Standard Product tasks are deliverables which do not require any chargeable labor, and normally consist of hardware, pre-packaged software, etc. Labor intensive tasks require chargeable labor and includes software, training, etc. Lease Level one standard product tasks can be sold to the customer (lease = n) or leased to the customer (lease = y). The entry is made for level one standard product tasks from the Plan/Costs/Modify data entry screen. Lease Depreciation The monthly depreciation applied to leasehold inventory. Entered from the Setup/Organization data entry screen. Lease Month The month for which you plan to enter the leasehold depreciation or payment. A number from 1 through 120 (ten year lease). Entered from Setup/Organization. Lease Payment The monthly payment invoiced to the customer for standard products leased. Entered from the Setup/Organization data entry screen. Left Arrow See Arrow Keys Level Task hierarchical level. Task zero (project) is level zero. All other tasks are levels one through nine. Tasks at higher level numbers are subtasks of tasks with lower level numbers (e.g. level 2 tasks are subtasks of level 1 tasks). Loading Report/Cost/Loading. Print report showing resource loading during project. m When entering resource estimates, user may enter a number followed immediately by an "m" (months). Easy Project will convert the entered number from months to hours automatically. M-Cat Markup category. Similar to B-Cat. Designates a task's markup category. 0 implies no markup (profit). 1 - 5 applies a markup rate as defined in Setup/Organization. Manager Project manager. Entered from Plan/WBS/Modify for task zero. Markup Rate Profit rate for a given markup category (1 - 5). Entered from Setup/Organization. Similar to Burden Rate. Milestone Entered when entering or modifying tasks from Plan/WBS. Tells if entered task is a milestone task in the project. Modify Plan/*/Modify. Modify task, cost, risk, etc. for task highlighted in WBS hierarchy. Monochrome When using Easy Project with a color display card (EGA, CGA, or VGTA) and a monochrome monitor, you should use the DOS mode command to set the card's mode to black and white. Alternatively, you may use the Easy Project Setup/Display command to modify the display colors to colors which are easier to see on a monochrome nonitor. Move Plan/WBS/Range/Move. Move the flagged range of tasks to the location just under the WBS cursor. Name Name of project or task. Network COF (Consequences of Failure). Impact on project from failure to complete this task on time. Number between 1 (minimal) and 99 (significant) automnatically set by Easy Project based on defined dependencies. LOF (likelihood of Failure). Same as COF above, but deals with probability of not completing this task on time because of network related problems (predecessors not complete on time). Risk. Overall network risk. Average of COF and LOF. Node Task with no children. NR Network Risk. Optimum Constant Two constants used when determining the optimum task duration based on man-hours of labor required. Modified from Setup/Organization. Optimum Duration The optimum duration, in calendar days, for a given task based on the man-hours of labor involved. Options Report/Options. Used to control the print queue and print destinations. OR See Overall Risk Organization Setup/Organization. Used to initialize company wide variables which apply to all projects. Overall Risk Average of Network Risk, Technical Risk, and Schedule Risk. Page Down Move down one screen page in the WBS hierarchy. Page Up Move up one screen page in the WBS hierarchy. Parent Cost Cost for this task's parent. Applies to tasks level 2 and below only. Payment Type Set by modifying task zero with Plan/Cost/Modify. Can be one of the following: 1. Invoice on delivery; 2. Invoice Monthly during work; 3. Invoice costs monthly during work, invoice for fee (profit) on delivery; or 4. Periodic installments. Penalized Costs Costs after application of the penalty factor. The penalty factor is calculated by Easy Project if the estimate type is 'o', and is a penalty for trying to perform the work in less than the optimal number of calendar days. Penalty Constant Used when calculating the penalty factor for tasks developed in less than the optimal number of calendar days. Set in Setup/Organization. Penalty Factor A penalty applied to task costs which are crashed. A penalty factor of 1.0 is no penalty. Percent Complete Your estimate of what percent complete this task is. A number between 0 and 100, with 100 signifying a completed task. Used to mark tasks as complete and by Easy Project to calculate estimated dollars required to complete the work. Plan Plan menu option, used to define a project. Post Track/Post. Used to enter timesheet and expense data into project files. Successful entries are deleted from the Easy Project timesheet and expense files. Invalid entries must be corrected and the Post operation performed again. Timesheet or expense errors discovered prior to executing Post can be corrected by modifying the timesheet/expense entry. Errors discovered after executing Post must be corrected by entering an offsetting entry. Predecessor Tasks A task which must be complete (at least partially) prior to this task starting. Entered from Plan/Dependencies. Price Your price to the customer for an item. Equals your basic cost times the quantity times the burden rate times the markup rate times the penalty factor. Print Report/Options/Print-Queue/Print. Tells Easy Project to print all reports in the print queue. The queue is not cleared by the print option, so the same series of reports can be printed on a regular basis. Print Queue A list of reports ready to be printed by Easy Project. Printer Easy Project can print reports to the screen, the printer, or the disk (set by Report/Options/Destination). The printer will be the printer set in Setup/Organization. If you are using LPT2: or COM2: you must use the DOS mode command to redirect output from LPT1: to the apropriate port. The printer must support the IBM enhanced character set. Priority Priority for a given task. A number from 1 to 99 with 99 being the highest priority. Set within Plan/WBS/Modify and Plan/WBS/Add. Project The project name and related information. The project information is stored in task zero of the WBS hierarchy. When entering the project name for timesheet and expense charges, the eight character (maximum) project file name must be used. Purge File/Purge. Used to delete a project form the disk. Quantity For standard product tasks, the quantity to be delivered. Applies to nodes only. Entered from Plan/Costs/Add or Plan/Costs/Modify. Range Plan/*/Range. Used to designate and manipulate a range of WBS elements. Recall File/Recall. Retrieve an Easy Project file from disk. Remove-Link Plan/Dependencies/Designate/Remove-Line. Remove a dependency link from the previously selected task to the current WBS task. Report Print Easy Project reports. Reproduce Inactive for fully functioning versions of Easy Project. Resource Entered from Plan/Costs data entry screen for labor intensive nodes only. #: Employee number as defined in Setup/Organization. Expected estimate: The most likely number of man-hours required to complete the task. High estimate: Your worst case estimate (95%) of the number of man-hours required to complete the task. Low estimate: Your best case estimate (95%) of the number of man- hours required to complete the task. Return See Carriage Return. Right Arrow See Arrow Keys. Rigidity The rigitidy of a dependency link. A number from 1 (slight preference) to 9 (rigid requirement). Entered from Plan/Dependencies/Modify. Risk Report/Risk. Report showing risk factors for each task. Also, see individual types of risk (network, technical, schedule, overall). ROI/ATO Return on Investment/Asset Turnover. Report printed via Report/Evaluate/ROI-ATO which shows the predicted return on investment and asset turnover for the project. Save File/Save. Save the current project to disk. Scale Displayed on the bottom of the Plan/Schedule WBS hierarchy. Shows the scale of the Gantt window (weeks, months, or quarters). Schedule Plan/Schedule. Used to enter start and stop dates and calendar durations for tasks. Schedule Risk The amount of schedule risk, with 1 being low risk (high probability of on time completion) and 99 being high risk (low probability of on time completion). Automatically calculated by Easy Project based on man-power requirements and calendar durations. Screen Report/Options/Destination/Screen. Print all Easy Project reports to the screen. Select Plan/Dependencies/Designate/Select. Designate a task of interest. Add-link is then used to define predecessor tasks. Setup Setup. Setup Easy Project system wide variables. Shift Plan/WBS/Range/Shift. Shift the flagged range of tasks to a different hierarchical level. Plan/Schedule/Shift. Shift the highlighted task (and its children) on the Gantt chart. Plan/Schedule/Range/Shift. Shift the flagged range of tasks on the Gantt chart. Short Name An abbreviated name for the task. Sibling Cost The total cost for this task and all of its siblings (i.e. the total cost for all children of this task's parent). Sname See short name. Space Bar On command line menu, advances choice. From data entry screen, enters a space character. Split Plan/*/View/Window/Split. Split the WBS hierarchy into two windows. SR See Schedule Risk Standard Product See Labor Intensive Start Date Project start date in MM/DD/YY form, or task start date in calendar days after project start date. Successor Tasks All tasks which have this task as a predecessor. Successor tasks are not directly entered in Easy Project (i.e. they are implied by designating predecessor links). Supplier A company which supplies items charged to a project. Entered in Setup/Organization. Track/Report/Costs/Supplier. Print all expenses entered into Easy Project but not yet posted, sorted by supplier. Track/Report/Suppliers. Print a list of all suppliers entered into Easy Project. Supplier Name: The name of the supplier. Supplier Number: A sequential number for the supplier (1 - 99). System Printer Easy Project printer address, set in Setup/Organization. See also printer. Tab Advances one field during screen oriented data entry. Task Report/Schedule/Task. Print a detailed report showing the scheduled start and end date for all tasks. Task Name Name of task in Easy Project. Technical Risk Technical risk for a given task. Entered in Plan/Risk/Modify. Timesheets Track/Timesheets. Enter Employee Timesheets. TR See Technical Risk. Track Track. Project tracking features of Easy Project. Type WBS Task type. Can be P (project, task zero only), L (labor intensive task), or S (standard product task). Unflag Plan/*/Range/Unflag. Unflag a range. Unit Cost Direct cost for one item. Up Arrow See Arrow Keys. Version Setup/Version. Print current Easy Project version number and address to send suggestions. View Plan/*/View. Change current display view. The view is the lowest hierarchical level (highest level number) task which will be displayed. Ranges from 1 (display little detail) to 9 (display much detail) and 99 (display all detail). w When entering resource man-hour estimates, user may enter a number followed immediately by a "w" (weeks) and the system will convert the number from weeks to hours. WBS Easy Project calculated hierarchical position. May not match externally set WBS numbers. Window Plan/*/View/Window. Split WBS into two windows. Work Hours Per Week Number of hours worked (per employee) on this project per week. Normally 40. Would be higher if overtime was authorized. Would be lower if employees performed work part time. When changed, automatically sets all task durations to optimum duration for new work schedule.
Volume in drive A has no label Directory of A:\ EASYPROJ DOC 105824 12-13-89 6:18p EASYPROJ EXE 245401 12-12-89 2:18p XXXX0001 9278 10-02-90 4:44a 3 file(s) 360503 bytes 0 bytes free