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READABILITY PLUS is the ideal complement to any grammar checker, such as Grammatik or RightWriter. Unlike grammar checkers, this program assumes that what it's been asked to analyze is mechanically correct. Rather than look for errors, it looks for sentences and words that aren't used appropriately for the writer's intended audience. Comparing the text to any of nine writing style models, READABILITY PLUS guides the writer in ``aligning'' the style of the draft with the style model chosen. For example, by using the magazine style model for company reports, writers can produce more interesting and easier-to-understand documents. READABILITY PLUS can read documents produced with WordPerfect, WordStar, Microsoft Word, and all ASCII (text) files.
⌠ A page from our Readability brochure. ⌡ Every so often a program comes along that changes the way we do things. Spelling checkers have made typos a venial sin, Now, thanks to Readability, there's no excuse for writing a report or article that isn't suited to its audience. Although style checkers have been around since the early 1980's, none gave become smash best sellers. Why? Because buyers have recognized that they've all had a major flaw. Until now, all style checkers have implicitly assumed that "good writing is good writing." They haven't been programmed to ask the writers why something has been written, and they haven't been able to take the purpose into account in their calculations. This has caused the analyses produced by these programs to have a disturbing "sameness" about them. In fact, the "advice" these programs give is the same whether they're evaluating a bedtime story for 8-year olds, or a treatise for Ph.D.'s. Readability solves this problem. It's the first style checker programmed to recognize that there's no such thing as an "ideal" writing style. It "knows" that different writing styles are needed for different audiences and purposes. Like the other programs it can produce an analysis based on a model of what's called all-purpose writing. But it can also do analyses based on ideal models for newspaper articles, advertising copy, novels, magazine feature stories, children's books and technical reports. It even includes 2 models for which the objective is to score as low as possible. These are government reports and bureaucratic gobbledygook. Although you may be a bureaucrat, dean, or vice president, you needn't write like one! Readability is unique in many other ways. Rather than just compute a single readability index, it computes 6 different ones. For instance, it computes a "bricks to mortar ratio." "Bricks" are the more difficult information-laden words and "mortar" are the 400 most common words in the English language. In general purpose writing about 60% of the words you use should be "mortar." But if you're writing for students or blue collar workers, that percentage should be even higher. Readability also looks at the way you've mixed long and short sentences in your text, and the percentage of sentences containing only short words. Controlling these factors may determine whether the reader goes beyond page 1. Finally, Readability looks at each of your sentences individually. It classifies each as being one of nine types. Some types, like Simple and Elegant, are almost always desirable. Others, such as Complicated and Pompous, should usually be changed. "All this sounds really good, but are these claims true? Can this program possibly be as useful and as easy-to-use as you claim?" Thanks to our 30-day unconditional money-back guarantee, you can easily find out. Call our 24-hour toll free order line, 1-800-288-SCAN, Ext. 982, and order a copy for 74.90 ($69.95 plus $4.95 for shipping a& handling). We accept Mastercard, Visa and American Express. When Readability arrives a few days later, see for yourself. If you're disappointed, send it back. We'll mail your refund the same day we receive the package. But if it's as good as we say, tell others in your organization about it. They'll bee amazed what it can do for them.
⌠ Summary of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Redesign ⌡ The 16 clearinghouses acquire, review and disseminate documents, prepare indexes and abstracts which are entered into the ERIC database. Each clearinghouse also prepares periodic reports, digests, and other documents that cover research in the areas assigned to the clearinghouse. The clearinghouse configuration follows: Adult, Career, and Vocational Education. Covers adult, continuing, career and vocational educational and related areas such as proprietary schools. Includes all levels of adult and continuing education from basic literacy training through professional skill upgrading; vocational and technical education covering all service areas for secondary, postsecondary, and adult populations; career education and career development programs for all ages and populations in educational, institutional commercial, and industrial settings. Counseling and Personnel. Covers preparation, practice, and supervision of counselors at all educational levels and in all settings; theoretical development of counseling and guidance; personnel procedures such as testing and interviewing and the analysis and dissemination of the resultant information; group work and case work; nature of pupil, student, and adult characteristics; personnel workers and their relation to career planning, family consultations and student orientation activities. Educational Management. Covers leadership, management, finance, governance, and structure of public and private secondary schools. Includes schools, school districts, and other educational agencies with emphasis on training, practice and theory of administration, inservice and preservice preparation of administrators; methods and varieties of organizations; organizational change and finance; and research on the components of effective schooling. Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Covers physical, cognitive, social, educational and cultural development of children from birth through early adolescence. Includes learning theory, research and practice related to the development of young children. Handicapped and Gifted Children. Covers education and development of the special child, including prevention, identification, assessment, intervention and enrichment. Includes areas relevant to both handicapped and gifted populations including early childhood education, curriculum, teaching methods, administration, career education, teacher preparation, legislative and judicial requirements, program development and evaluation, and related services.
⌠ RIBSY BECOMES A MASCOT, BEVERLY CLEARY, P.110-111 ⌡ "Never mind, Danny. You showed him, and that is enough." His mother spoke sharply before she escaped from the classroom with Frisky safe inside the box. It was all over. The class slid back into their seats and waited to see what Mr. Woody would say about the interesting time they had had when they were supposed to be learning arithmetic. The principal came to the front of the room and gave Ribsy a stern look. Then he faced the expectant class. "Boys and girls." Mr. Woody sounded very serious. "Dogs are not allowed on the school grounds." The class looked guilty. They all knew this, but it was Mr. Woody himself who had called the dog their mascot. "And I'm afraid I made a mistake in making an exception -" Mr. Woody looked once more at Ribsy. Now Ribsy looked guilty. He understood he had done something wrong, but he was not sure what it was. He thought dogs were supposed to chase squirrels and get rid of them. "- but this dog looked like such a friendly dog," continued Mr. Woody, "and he seemed so well behaved that I overlooked the rule." Ribsy waved his tail wistfully to show that he did not mean to do anything wrong, that he was really a very nice dog. "Now we know," said Mr. Woody, "that a dog does not make a good mascot and that the rule is right. This should be a lesson for all of us. I'm afraid the dog will have to go." "Oh-" The class made a sad sound. They loved their mascot and did not want him to go. Neither did they want this morning, which had been such fun, turned into a lesson in obeying rules. When Mr. Woody looked at Ribsy, the dog stopped waving his tail and let it droop. He knew he had not succeeded in making everything all right again. He hung his head and looked dejected. "Come on, boy," said Mr. Woody kindly, and took hold of Ribsy's collar. "Come along with me."
⌠ What is a Word Processing Program? ⌡ You can consider your word processing system (program plus computer) as a typewriter equipped with built-in scissors, paste and correction fluid and designed to function as a copier as well. This means that you'll never have to rewrite a page because it contained an error. Instead, you simply correct the error. And if you want to send the same letter to a number of people, the word processing program will copy the letter for you. All you have to do is change the name and address. Sounds great, doesn't it? You'll be surprised to find how much time and work your word processing program will save. Generally speaking, a word processing program functions in the same way as a highly sophisticated typewriter. You don't have to interrupt your work in any way when a line fills up or a page becomes full. Your word processing program advances automatically to a new line or a new page. And by using the many special effects available on your printer - such as italics, boldface, underlining and special characters - you can create professional, attractively styled letters. Moreover, it's easy to indent text, provide a straight right- hand margin, center text, etc. And you can look over your work before you print a single page, since your letter is shown on the screen. What's more, you can rearrange it as desired before printing. This means that in the future, you'll never have to check-read texts that have been written by others, corrected by others and (perhaps) delayed by others. Thanks to your word processing program, you'll now be able to control the entire process yourself.
Disk No: 2333 Disk Title: Readability Plus PC-SIG Version: S1 Program Title: Readability Plus Author Version: 2.0 Author Registration: $25.00 Special Requirements: None. READABILITY PLUS is the ideal complement to any grammar checker, such as Grammatik or RightWriter. Unlike grammar checkers, this program assumes that what it's asked to analyze is mechanically correct. Rather than look for errors, it looks for sentences and words that aren't appropriat for the writer's intended audience. It compares the text to any of nine writing style models provided with the program, and guides the writer in "aligning" the style of the draft with the writing style model chosen. For example, by using the magazine style model for company reports, writers can produce documents that are more interesting and easier to understand. READABILITY PLUS can read documents produced with Word Perfect, WordStar, Microsoft Word, and all ASCII (text) files. PC-SIG 1030D East Duane Avenue Sunnyvale Ca. 94086 (408) 730-9291 (c) Copyright 1989 PC-SIG, Inc.
╔═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗ ║ <<<<PC-SIG DISK #2333 READABILITY PLUS >>>> ║ ╠═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╣ ║ ║ ║ To start the program, type: READ ║ ║ ║ ║ To print the documentation, type: COPY READ.DOC PRN ║ ║ ║ ║ ║ ╚═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╝ (c) Copyright 1990, PC-SIG Inc.
⌠ Tax Guide for Small Business, page 72 Publication 334 (Rev. Nov. 87) ⌡ Exchange for Corporate Stocks. In certain cases, exchanges for corporate stock are nontaxable. The rules for these nontaxable exchanges are given below. A corporation's own stock. A corporation may dispose of its own stock, including treasury stock, without having a recognized gain of loss. For options acquired or lapsed after July 18, 1984, there is no recognized gain or loss by a corporation as to any lapse or acquisition of an option to buy or sell its own stock, including treasury stock. Stock for stock of the same corporation. You may exchange common stock in the same corporation, or preferred stock for preferred stock in the same corporation, without having recognized gain or loss. Convertible stocks and bonds. If you convert bonds into stock, or preferred stock into common stock, there is no recognized gain or loss. For this rule to apply, the stock you receive must be in the same corporation as the bond or preferred stock you convert. The conversion also must be made according to the terms of the bond or preferred stock certificate. Property for stock. If you transfer property to a corporation in exchange for stock or securities in that corporation, and immediately afterwards you are in control of the corporation, the exchange is usually nontaxable. This rule applies both to individual investors and groups of investors who transfer property to a corporation. However, if the property exchanged includes depreciable property, you may be taxed on ordinary gain because of depreciation. See Chapter 23. Control of a corporation. To be in control of the corporation, you or your group of investors must own, immediately after the exchange, at least 80% of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and at least 80% of the outstanding shares of each class of nonvoting stock. Example. You and Bill Jones transfer property having a basis of $100,00 to a corporation for stock having a fair market value of $300,00. However, this represents only 75% of each class of stock of that corporation. The other 25% already had been issued to someone else. You and Bill recognized a taxable gain of $200,000 on the transaction. Services rendered. The term property does not include services rendered or to be rendered to the issuing corporation. Therefore, stock received for services is income to the recipient. Example. You transfer property worth $35,000 and render services valued at $3,000 to a corporation in exchange for stock valued at $38,000. Right after the exchange you own 85% of the outstanding stock. No gain is recognized on the exchange of property; however, you will recognize ordinary income of $3,000 as payment for services you rendered. Property of relatively small value. The term property does not include property that is of relatively small value when it is compared to the value of stock and securities already owned or to be received for services by the transferor, if the main purpose of the transfer is the nonrecognition of gain or loss by other transferrers. Property transferred will not be considered to be of relatively small value if the fair market value of the property transferred is at least 10% of the fair market value of the stock and securities already owned or to be received for services by such person. Stock Received in disproportion to property transferred. If a group of investors exchange property for corporate stock, each investor does not have to receive stock in proportion to his or her interest in the property transferred. However,, if a disproportionate transfer takes place, it will be treated for tax purposes in accordance with its true nature. It may be treated as if the stock and securities had been received in proportion and then some of it had been used to make gifts, to pay compensation for services, or to satisfy obligations of the transferor. Money or other Property. If, in a nontaxable exchange of property for corporate stock, you also receive money or property other than stock, you may have a taxable gain. However, you are taxed only up to the amount of money plus the fair market value of the other property you receive. The rules for figuring gain in this situation generally follow those for a Partially nontaxable exchange discussed earlier under Like-kind exchanges. No loss is recognized.
⌠ Planning Paper I Toward Informed Decision-Making On Retirement Policy: A Portfolio Of Studies Related To The Retirement Decision pages 17-18 III. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES AND SUBSTANTIVE APPLICATIONS ⌡ The goals emerging from this portfolio (see p. 6-7) are ambitious ones: to improve forecasts of retirement and related trends, and to evaluate options for influnecing when people choose to retire. But what problems need to be solved to improve forecasts, and what options should be evaluated? This section considers these two questions. In addition, it can be applied to help resolve issues in each of the four substantive areas corresponding to federal objectives for the retired elderly. ⌠ Forecasting the Retirement Decision: What Problems Should Be Addressed? ⌡ In our review of the literature on retirement, we identified over 50 factors that appear to influence the retirement decision. These factors can be organized into three categories. The first consists of government programs such as social security, the personal income tax, and various regulations governing employer practices. The second category is comprised of individual-level factors, such as demographic and family-related characteristics, private pension coverage and other financial matters, health, and attitudes toward work and retirement. Finally, there are factors related to the employer and the market place, such as the employer's size and industry, type of pension plan provided, policies about retaining older workers, and concerns about productivity, costs, and upward mobility for younger employees. Also included in this last category are macro-economic conditions such as inflation and unemployment. Research about the effect of these factors on the retirement decision is summarized in Appendix B. What is the importance of these factors (and the retirement decision in general) in making predictions about retirement trends, the needs and status of retirement systems, and the like? As described earlier (page 3), the retirement decision figures most heavily in long-range forecasts, since these are highly sensitive to shifts in the demographic characteristics of the population, whereas short-term forecasts, in contrast, are most sensitive to economic changes. Long-range forecasting models tend to be micro-simulations, while the short-range ones are macro-economic or actuarial in nature. (Specif examples of all three types of models are provided in Appendix C). One example of how the factors influencing the retirement decision are typically handled in these microeconomic simulations is seen in the DYNASIM 2 model developed by the Urban Institute. From existing survey data (in this case, the Longitudinal Retirement History Survey), a regression anaalysis is done to model the extent to which factors such as demographic characteristics, health, and financial status have affected current retirement decisions. This model is then used in conjunction with other models which were developed to exlain or predict employment patterns, occupational and demographic changes, and pension coverage and benefits. The final set of models, DYNASIM, is then applied to a new sample of individuals to forecast interatively annual changes, such as in the decision to withdraw from the labor force.
⌠ Family Ties, Laura Fissinger ⌡ Naomi's the mother, Wynonna's the daughter. Mother is beautiful, daughter is handsome. Naomi, christened Diana, chose her new name from the Bible. Wynonna, christened Christina, chose her new name from a rock tune called "Route 66." Naomi sings harmony and countermelodies, Wynonna takes the lead. Naomi, 41, is orderly, pragmatic, iron willed, funny and prone to spats. Wynonna, 23 is messy, daydreamy, iron willed, funny and prone to spats. Both women live with emotions naked enough to startle unsuspecting new acquaintances. Tomorrow is their debut at New York's tony Lincoln Center, so today part of what's naked is nervousness. When Naomi gets nervous she reverts to a tradition of her rural Kentucky roots. She speaks her mind before her mind has a chance to censor itself. "I'm known for my candor," Naomi says, smiling. "We wear our hearts on our sleeves, and I've said our interviews are governed by our hormones -" "I do not wear my heart on my sleeve," says Wynonna, who gets serious when nervous. "Speak for yourself." "Oceans of emotion over here." Naomi winks and nods toward Wynonna. "I remember the time this guy started out an interview by saying, 'So where'd y'all meet:' and I said, 'We met at the wrestling matches. We were sitting on either side of a little old lady who kept screaming, "Awww, squeeze their brains out!" ' " Wynonna wants to talk business. (Naomi gets a lot of memos about her candor.)"It's very hard, in a world that's so big sometimes, for you to feel there's a place for you in it," says the elder Judd. "I'm starting to feel that country music, even at the Grammys is becoming bigger and brighter than ever. They're giving slots to country performers right next to, like, Billy Idol. To me, that says country music is coming out of the closet." As for the Judds, they're pushing themselves out. Their third LP, Heartland, takes on a jazz song (Ella Fitzgerald's "Cow Cow Boogie"), a pot cut cowritten by a favorite Tina Turner writer Graham Lyle ("Maybe Your Baby's Got the Blues"), a timeless mountain hymn ("The Sweetest Gift") and Elvis Presley's "Don't Be Cruel." "Brent [Maher, the Judds' producer] said, 'I think you girls can get away with this,' " says Wynonna of the Elvis cover. Maher also arranged for the Jordanaires to sing background parts, as they did for Elvis. Naomi glances up from painting her fingernails snow white. "We're Elvis's biggest fans in the universe," she says. "Anyway, Gordon from the Jordanaires, he and Wy were talking, and he interrupted and said, 'You know what just occurred to me, getting to know you two? If Elvis were still alive the three of you would be fast friends.' I said, 'Oh, noooo, don't say that!'" Wynonna studies her mother's suddenly serious face. "It would have been great. We could have gone bowling." The two of them lean against each other and laugh. Elvis acquitted himself nicely as a country and rock crooner; it's when he went pop that he went wrong. When Nashville went pop in the seventies, country music went wrong. Ironically, county music is crossing over more now that so many of its young stars are new traditionalists, like Dwight Yoakam, Steve Earle, Rosanne Cash, the O'Kanes - and the Judds. In the three years of professional music making, Wynonna and Naomi have passed by many of their more experienced peers: two platinum LPs (Why Not Me and Rockin' with the Rhythm), eight Number One country singles, three Grammys and umpteen country-music awards. Their records have started to do some serious charting in Europe. And they're set to star in an NBC-TV sitcom pilot loosely based on the Judds' own small-town-girls-meet-big-changes saga (working title: Why Not Me), to be aired in the fall. Wynonna's younger sister, Ashley, 18, is also a cast member. "Ashley's the number-one reason [for doing the pilot] in a lot of ways," says Naomi, who's been known to get tears in her eyes when contemplating all the time she and Ashley have been apart in the last three years. Finally, they can have her with them. If the pilot becomes a series, the Judds will probably scoop up new fans for Judd music - not that their demographics could get any more diverse. The duo's acoustic-based coalescence of Patsy Cline country, early rock, Forties jazz, bluegrass and folk pulls admirers from all factions. Wynonna's longtime idol Bonnie Raitt is now a fan and friend. Sammy Davis Jr. brought his instamatic to one of the Reno shows. In a Fargo, North Dakota, hotel, the heavy-metal group Ratt shouted out Judd song titles every time they spotted a Judd in the hallway. Merle Haggard has told Wynonna that she's his favorite female singer, that every line she sings "is like a confession." Steve Winwood and Anita Baker confessed fanhood backstage at this year's Grammys. Robert Palmer has sent Naomi a flower ("He's dangerously suave," she says). Judge William H. Webster, the new director of the CIA, comes to their shows with his Secret Service men and has asked the Judds to dinner. The duo recently played a gig with James Brown, who recited a list of TV shows he'd seen them on. And something of a mutual-admiration society had developed between U2 and the Judds, and the two groups are planning to meet. Naomi looks up from her nails as Elvis, Wynonna's dachshund, scuttles across the plush carpeting of the Manhattan hotel penthouse. Her expression is pure rascal. "But is Keokuk, Iowa, going to understand?" One of the Judds' biggest hits to date is a requiem to the world's lost innocence called "Grandpa (Tell Me 'bout the Good Old Days)." Naomi's paternal grandfather was the illegitimate farmer son of a Kentucky circuit doctor; he died while reading his Bible. Her maternal grandfather "excused himself from the dinner table when Mama was twelve, walked in the back and blew his brains out. Every generation on my mother's side has a suicide....But I lived a Walton-type existence." "I don't see your world as being Walton at all, Mom," Wynonna says. Little brother Brian was Naomi's best pal. One day when the family was coming in from swimming, somebody noticed a lump on Brian's shoulder. They wrote it off to the heavy bag he lugged around on his paper route. It turned out to be cancer. Glen and Polly Judd spent a couple of years taking Brian around to specialists, looking for a commutation of the death sentence. Naomi went from being an honor student and Sunday- school teacher to being the pinch-hitting head of the household. Following Brian's death, the family splintered. No one talked about Brian. Glen Judd became an alcoholic and left his wife for a woman in her early thirties. Naomi impulsively married a longtime suitor and became pregnant right away. Wynonna was born during Naomi's high-school-graduation week. The family moved to Los Angeles. Naomi doesn't talk about what soured the marriage. Wynonna was eight and Ashley four when the divorce became final. For a while, Naomi did secretarial and modeling jobs to support the family. The poverty was a grind, but the lack of Kentucky values in Hollyweird bothered Naomi even more. She relocated them to a mountaintop house in Morrill, Kentucky, with no phone and no electricity. A cheap plastic guitar given by a friend was co-opted by Wynonna. At first, making music was just something to do. When it became virtually all she wanted to do. "I left Morrill the night before I was supposed to testify against my father in their divorce trial," Naomi says. "Mom needed all of us kids to take sides with her against Daddy, because the kids were the only investment she'd made in her life." Another mother-daughter war escalated in California. Ashley was even-tempered, easygoing; Naomi and Wynonna were not, and they fought with gloves off. Some days their only communication was singing together while Wy played the guitar. A nursing degree in hand, Naomi moved the gang again, this time to an exurb of Nashville called Franklin. Wynonna wouldn't help around the house, her grades were iffy, her attitude lousy. Music was the only thing she gave herself to. Naomi figured a shot at a music career might help her grow up. The first few years in Franklin weren't much easier than the ones that preceded them. Naomi and her mother were still on the outs; she and her musician boyfriend Larry Strickland (who used to sing with Presley) broke up and reunited on a too-regular basis. Money was in extremely short supply. At one of the lowest points, Naomi contemplated killing herself. But she didn't. ":Because I had kids," she says. "Because until my dying breath I"m going to be around to aggravate them." Naomi's grin is rueful. Wynonna thought about ending it all after a fight so serious that her mother had said, "Don't even bother coming home....You're no longer my daughter." For two months Wy lived with her father in Florida. Larry brought Wynonna her things when his band was in the area. "Larry said, 'Your mother loves you. You guys are meant to be.'...I knew if I went home, it would be on her terms." Soon after, Wynonna drank a little and went driving and looking for an accident to get into. Her speed kept increasing. "I was driving real fast....I literally came this close to doing it. And I didn't....I put on the brakes real fast and did a 360 spin." Back in Franklin, an uneasy peace was maintained as Naomi took their homemade demo tapes around to Nashville producers. Brent Maher's daughter was one of Naomi's nursing patients. When the girl was released from the hospital, Naomi gave a tape to Maher.
⌠ To Kill A Mocking Bird, Harper Lee, P. 16-17 ⌡ Miss Stephanie Crawford said some of the town council told Mr. Radley that if he didn't take Boo back, Boo would die of mold from the damp. Besides, Boo could not live forever on the bounty of the county. Nobody knew what form of intimidation Mr. Radley employed to keep Boo out of sight, but Jem figured that Mr. Radley kept him chained to the bed most of the time. Atticus said no, it wasn't that sort of thing, that there were other ways of making people into ghosts. My memory came alive to see Mrs. Radley occasionally open the front door, walk to the edge of the porch, and pour water on her cannas. But every day Jem and I would see Mr. Radley walking to and from town. He was a thin leathery man with colorless eyes, so colorless they did not reflect light. His cheekbones were sharp and his mouth was wide, with a thin upper lip and a full lower lip. Miss Stephanie Crawford said he was so upright he took the word God as his only law, and we believed her, because Mr. Radley's posture was ramrod straight. He never spoke to us. When he passed we would look at the ground and say, "Good morning, sir," and he would cough in reply. Mr. Radley's elder son lived in Pensacola; he came home at Christmas, and he was one of the few persons we ever saw enter or leave the place. From the day Mr. Radley took Arthur home, people said the house died. But there came a day when Atticus told us he'd wear us out if we made any noise in the yard and commissioned Calpurnia to serve in his absence if she heard a sound out of us. Mr. Radley was dying. He took his time about it. Wooden sawhorses blocked the road at each end of the Radley lot, straw was put down on the sidewalk, traffic was diverted to the back street. Dr. Raynolds parked his car in front of our house and walked to the Radley's every time he called. Jem and I crept around the yard for days. At last the sawhorses were taken away, and we stood watching from the front porch when Mr. Radley made his final journey past our house. "There goes the meanest man ever God blew breath into," murmured Calpurnia, and she spat meditatively into the yard. We looked at her in surprise, for Calpurnia rarely commented on the ways of white people. The neighborhood thought when Mr. Radley went under Boo would come out, but it had another think coming: Boo's elder brother returned from Pensacola and took Mr. Radley's place. The only difference between him and his father was their ages. Jem said Mr. Nathan Radley "bought cotton," too. Mr. Nathan would speak to us, however, when we said good morning, and sometimes we saw him coming from town with a magazine in his hand. The more we told Dill about the Radleys, the more he wanted to know, the longer he would stand hugging the light-pole on the corner, the more he would wonder. "Wonder what he does in there," he would murmur. "Looks like he'd just stick his head out the door." Jem said. "He goes out, all right, when it's pitch dark. Miss Stephanie Crawford said she woke up in the middle of the night one time and saw him looking straight through the window at her...said his head was like a skull lookin' at her. Ain't you ever waked up at night and heard him, Dill. He walks like this-- " Jem slid his feet through gravel. "Why do you think Miss Rachel locks up so tight at night? I've seen his tracks in our back yard many a mornin', and one night I heard him scratching on the back screen, but he was gone time Atticus got there." "Wonder what he looks like?" said Dill. Jem gave a reasonable description of Boo: Boo was about six-and-a-half feet tall, judging from his tracks; he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catch, that's why his hands were bloodstained-if you ate an animal raw, you could never wash the blood off. There was a long jagged scar that ran across his face; what teeth he had were yellow and rotten; his eyes popped, and he drooled most of the time. "Let's try to make him come out," said Dill. "I'd like to see what he looks like." Jem said if Dill wanted to get himself killed, all he had to do was go up and knock on the front door. Our first raid came to pass only because Dill bet Jem The Gray Ghost against two Tom Swifts that Jem wouldn't get any farther than the Radley gate. In all his life, Jem had never declined a dare.
⌠ Pride and joy of his race, Jim Myers ⌡ Some day, Chris Schurz might run away from everyone to all the glories the world can grant to speed and grace. Some day. Today, Schurz is alone, a 17-year-old cross country runner who has sped so far ahead of his peers that few who revere his speed and grace dare guess how far his talents will take him. Schurz, a senior at Mesa's Westwood High, is the only three-time state cross country champion in Arizona history. By most estimations, Schurz--who friends and family call Chuckie--runs for something more than a school, a community, a state. He lives in the Salt River Indian Community, a reservation northeast of Phoenix, next to Scottsdale and Mesa. His mother is Sioux; his father, Pima. The family says word there's a young runner--maybe even a future national or Olympic champion, and Indian champion--has reached Indian communities across the USA. "Yes, people get excited," says his mother, Valerie. "They say, 'He's a Sioux boy, a Pima boy.'"
INTRODUCTION Readability Plus analyzes your writing on the basis of a sophisticated language analysis system that identifies sentences that aren't appropriate for particular kinds of writing. It helps you ensure that what you've written will be interesting and easily understood by your intended audience. It is not a spelling checker or a grammar checker. In fact, it assumes that what you've written is already mechanically correct. It focuses on more than 25 aspects of writing that makes your text "come alive" for your readers. Except for its even more powerful "big brother," Corporate Voice, it is the only IBM-PC program that tailors its suggestions to different styles of writing. And unless you think that a technical manual and a love letter should be written the same way, you'll find Readability Plus to be one of your most valuable writing tools. Even if you're already a good writer, Readability Plus can still provide you with valuable assistance by helping you tailor your writing to the audience you're trying to reach. And if you're not particularly proud of your writing skills, the program can save you hours of revision time and embarrassment by identifying the sentences your manager, teacher, or editor is sure to criticize. Features Readability Plus directly reads files created with WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, WordStar, and WordStar 2000; it can also read any ASCII (text) file. Readability Plus generates four readability indices: the Flesch-Kincaid Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Index, Gunning's Fog Index, and LIX (the technical name for RIX). Readability Plus does a "mortar and bricks" analysis based on the most common English words. There are three measures of "mortar: comparing your writing to the words that comprise 20% of most English text, the 450 words that comprise 60%, and the 2450 words that comprise 80% of most writing. Similarly, Readability Plus will analyze the "bricks" (difficult words) percentages against words not found on the list of the 80% Most Common Words (which has 2450 words). The program's displays include: .. "Teardrop" or style diagram of the text (Display 11) .. Percentages of the nine different types of sentences (Displays 12 and 31). .. Long words per sentence (Displays 13 and 32). .. Words per sentence (Displays 14 and 33). .. Consecutive short words (Display 15). .. Consecutive long words (Display 16). .. Word lengths (Display 21). .. Bricks that have been used in the text (Display 22). .. Ratio of bricks to mortar (Display 23). .. Comments on word choice (Display 24). .. Overall evaluation I (Display 40) .. General evaluation II (Display 41). .. General comments and tips on how to make your writing more readable (Display 42). .. Number of sentences and words in your text (Display 43). YOUR FIRST SESSION If you've made a backup copy of your original diskette, you can proceed with your first Readability Plus session. This section presents instructions on how to conduct a simple analysis of a text and examine the results. If you do not have a hard disk, remember that you should work with a copy of the program diskette and not with the original. PREPARATIONS .. Start the computer. If you only have diskette drives: .. Insert the copy of the Readability Plus diskette in diskette drive A. .. Type: read .. Press Enter. If you have a hard disk, copy the diskette or files to a directory you've already created and named (for instance) READPLUS. Log into that subdirectory and type: read .. Press Enter. When you have successfully loaded the program, the main menu will appear on your screen. BACKING OUT WITH F1 In Readability Plus, you can always try out something to see what will happen. This makes it easier to explore the function keys and menus. If something unexpected happens, you can always back out of the situation very easily by pressing F1. This will take you back where you were without any changes having been made. If you press F1 repeatedly, you will be returned to the main menu. IF YOU NEED HELP Readability Plus has a built-in help function (F10) that provides you with brief, helpful information while you are working. Also, once you register your copy, you can receive additional support by calling 1-301-294-7453 and giving the representative your registration number. BRIEF REVIEW OF THE MAIN MENU You may select options from the main menu in two ways: .. Type the desired number (1, 2, 3, 9 or 0). .. Press Enter. You can, however, speed things up a little by using the function keys: .. Press the desired function key (F1, F2, F3, or F9). Note that if you wish to exit the program, you must still press 0. Option 1 -- How Readability Plus Works When the main menu appears on the screen: .. Press F1. Information about the following will appear: .. The files that you can analyze. .. How you can eliminate parts of a text to improve analysis. Both of the above are discussed in greater detail in the next section. .. Press any key to return to the main menu. Option 2 -- Analyze a Text When you select Option 2 (Analyze a Text), you must type the following: .. Where the program can find the text (disk drive, subdirectory). .. The name of the text (filename). .. Where the results are to be stored. .. Which analysis pattern you wish to have the text compared with. In addition, you can type: .. A title, so that you can easily identify the text when you look at the results later. You can look at a list of all the files that can be analyzed or a list of the files that have been previously analyzed. You can also look at texts located on other disks (hard disk or diskettes) in other drives. Option 3 - Examine Results of Previous Analyses When you select Option 3 (Look at the results of previous analyses), a list appears on the screen. This list contains the names of the results of previous analyses. You can also look at texts located on other disks (hard disk or diskettes) in other drives. Option 9 - Select Background Color If you have a color monitor, you may choose between two color combinations: .. Black background with yellow and green text. .. Blue background with yellow and green text. .. Pressing F9 toggles you between the two color combinations. If you have a single-color monitor, nothing happens when you press F9. Option 0 - Exit From Readability Plus Press 0 to exit from Readability Plus. USEFUL TIPS ON PRINTING If a printer is connected to your computer you may, at any time, obtain a paper copy of the screen content. Proceed as follows: .. Check that the printer is ON-LINE (ready for printing). .. Hold down the Shift key and press PrtSc. The screen content will be copied over onto the printer. On some printers, certain special characters and boxes may not be printed out exactly as they appear on the screen since all printers do not support all of the graphics characters that are used. However, the text should be the same as it appeared on the screen. ANALYZING A TEXT This section explains how to find out which files you can analyze with Readability Plus, how to eliminate parts of texts to improve analysis and how analysis is carried out. It also explains the submenus that appear at the bottom of the screen. Which Files Can You Analyze? Texts that you can analyze must: .. Have been written using WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, WordStar or WordStar 2000. Or .. Have been written using some other word processing program and then saved as, or converted to, an ASCII file. Readability Plus can read directly files created with WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, WordStar, and Word Star 2000 without having to translate them to ASCII. Both WordPerfect (version 5.0 and above) and Microsoft Word (version 4.0 and above) place header records at the beginning of files they create that tell programs such as Readability Plus which word processor created them. Therefore if you're using one of these packages, you don't have to do a thing. Readability Plus will "know" which format to use and will do the necessary translation on its own. If your document was not created with one of those packages, just before the analysis begins, Readability Plus will display a message that says: FILE FORMAT Please select your file format from one of the following: 1. ASCII file 2. WordPerfect Version 4 3. WordStar 4. WordStar 2000 All you need to do in this case is press the corresponding key (1-4), and the program will begin the analysis. Analyzing ASCII or Text Files When you save a text in ASCII format, all or most of the special characters are eliminated. These can include the markings used for headings, bolding and underlining. The specific special characters that are eliminated will depend on which word processing program you were using. Most word processing programs include a program called "Convert" or something similar. This program can be used to automatically eliminate the control characters that would otherwise disturb the Readability Plus analysis. The converted file is called an ASCII file, although the word processing program in question may call it "DOS text", "plain text", "output file" or something similar. Remember that it if you convert a text file to ASCII format, you should also save it in its original form. This can be done using the "Save as" function in your word processing program or by first copying the file and then converting the copy. You should keep a copy of the original since when you convert to ASCII, you will loose most of or all of the special formatting codes that have been entered into the text. Consequently, if you were to use it in your word processing program again, you would have to re-do a lot of work. You can use the DOS command TYPE to see whether or not a file has become an ASCII file. To look at the text file named EXAMPLE.ASC (which must be on the diskette in the default drive or in the default subdirectory on a hard disk) you can do as follows: .. Type: type example.asc .. Press Enter. The text file named EXAMPLE.ASC will now be written on the screen if it's an ASCII file. If you see strange characters, you haven't converted the file to ASCII properly. READABILITY PLUS AND HEADINGS You should always eliminate headings so that your analysis will be accurate. If you do not do so, each heading may be chained to the sentence that immediately follows. This is because Readability Plus defines the end of a sentence as follows: .. Period followed by an upper case letter. .. Colon followed by an upper case letter. .. Question mark followed by an upper case letter. .. Exclamation point followed by an upper case letter. .. Semicolon. Since a period does not normally follow a heading, the heading is chained to the next sentence. This causes the program to rate the sentence as being longer (and thus more difficult) than it really is. However, if you put a period after the heading, the heading itself will be considered a sentence. HOW TO ELIMINATE PARTS OF A TEXT It is not necessary to analyze an entire text. You can eliminate part of the text or different parts of the text. This may be done by marking the parts of the text that are to be analyzed by means of special characters before starting analysis. If you do not wish to eliminate one or more parts of your text, you may proceed to the section headed Starting Analysis. If you do wish to eliminate one or more parts of your text, you should work with a copy of the text and not with the original. If you work with the original, it means that you may have to change it back to its original form again. If you work with a copy, the original will remain unchanged. If Readability Plus has been loaded into your computer, the first thing to do is exit from the program. To do this, proceed as follows: .. Press F1, whereupon the main menu will appear. .. Press F10 to exit from Readability Plus. Start your word processing program and load (retrieve) the text that you are going to analyze. If you are not using WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, WordStar or WordStar 2000, you should retrieve the ASCII file that you have created. .. Move the cursor to the location immediately preceding the text you wish to eliminate. .. Hold down the Alt key and enter the following on the numerical keypad located at right on most keyboards): 244 .. Release the Alt key. You have now marked the beginning of the part of the text that is not to be analyzed with the ASCII "fish hook" character. The end of the part of the text that is not to be analyzed must also be marked, but using a different character. .. Move the cursor to the location immediately after the part of the text that is not to be analyzed. .. Hold down the Alt key and type the following on the numerical keypad at right: 245 .. Release the Alt key. You can use the same procedure again if you wish to eliminate additional parts of the text before starting the analysis. HOW TO ANALYZE A TEXT Note! Remember that the screen display examples shown in this manual may differ somewhat from those that actually appear on your screen. The examples included here are for a diskette-drive system. If you have a hard disk, you may see C:\READPLUS\ instead of A:\. This section explains how to find out which files can be analyzed with Readability Plus and how the analysis is car- ried out. It also explains the submenus that appear at the bottom of the screen. SELECTING FILES FOR ANALYSIS When the main menu appears on the screen: .. Press F2. A list of all the drives and a list of all the non-program files in the subdirectory you're logged onto will be shown. PARENT (DIR) may also be displayed. It is Readability Plus' way of telling you that there are directories and subdirectories on the disk that are "superior" (i.e., higher on the DOS tree) to the one you're in. Files having the following filename extensions are not shown on the screen since these files do not normally contain text. .BAK .BAS .COM .EXE .FX .FY .FZ .RDB .SYS Files extended with .FX, .FY and .FZ are created in Readability Plus when it analyzes a file. If the text you are going to analyze is among those whose names are shown on the screen, proceed as follows: .. Use the arrow keys to highlight the desired text. .. Press Enter. If the file is in a directory that's not listed on the screen, first select PARENT (DIR) to get a full listing of the subdirectories, and go on from that display to select first the proper directory and then the file you want to analyze. If your file is on another drive, first select the proper drive letter and then use the procedures described above. If you're using a color monitor, files are presented in yellow, directories in violet, and disk drives in blue. Specifying Where to Store the Analysis Results After you have specified which text you are going to analyze, you must tell the program where to store the analysis results. The following prompt appears: ------------------------------------------------------------ Specify where to store the results (A:\)__ ------------------------------------------------------------ Here, the program makes a proposal that you store your results on the diskette in drive A. If you wish to accept the proposal: .. Press Enter. However, you can also select some other drive or subdirectory. If, for example, you wish to store your results on the diskette in drive A in a subdirectory named SPCREAD: .. Type: a:\spcread\ .. Press Enter. Notice that if you wish to store your results in a subdirectory, the subdirectory must have been previously established. If you have analyzed the same text previously, the following appears: ------------------------------------------------------------ Results: b:\text1 already exists. Do you wish to overwrite it (Y/N?) ------------------------------------------------------------ If you have no reason to preserve the previous results, you can write over them. .. Type: y If you wish to preserve the previous results, you must enter another filename for the new results. .. Type: n The program now prompts you as follows: ------------------------------------------------------------ Specify desired filename for results:__ ------------------------------------------------------------ Type in the new filename: .. Type: NEWRES (for example) .. Press Enter. The filename you choose may be any name you wish, however you are limited to eight characters. Specifying a Title for the Results The following now appears on the screen: ------------------------------------------------------------ Title of results: ------------------------------------------------------------ Here, you can enter the title that you wish to give to theresults. You might enter the author's name or a sentence that describes the text. Whatever you enter will appear on the screen as a reference later on when you look at the results. You are permitted to enter a maximum of 53 characters. .. Type the desired title. .. Press Enter. Selecting an Analysis Pattern By now, the text analysis pattern menu should be on your screen. You may choose any of the 9 styles listed against which to analyze your text: 1. General purpose 2. Children's book 3. Newspaper article 4. Advertising copy 5. Novel 6. Magazine articles 7. Technical manuals 8. Government report 9. Bureaucratic If none of patterns 2-9 are suitable for your text, you should probably select pattern 1 (general purpose). PATTERNS 7, 8 AND 9 ARE NOT TO BE CON-SIDERED GOOD EXAMPLES. They are included simply to show how technical manuals, government reports and bureaucratic memorandums are usually written. We hope that your writing will be better than typical examples of these. To write a well crafted technical manual or government report, we suggest that you use style # 6 (magazine), # 3(newspaper) or # 1 (general purpose writing). When the analysis is complete, you can examine the sentences that were found to be outside the selected pattern outline (deviant sentences). Since the text in the example is general in nature, you will select pattern 1 (general purpose). The program uses this as the default response. As a result, all you have to do to select pattern 1 is to press Enter (you do not have to type in 1). Proceed as follows to select pattern 1: .. Press Enter. Sentences that fall within the pattern outline are considered normal by Readability Plus. Any sentence that lies outside the pattern outline is considered deviant, and it is saved by the program in special result files named EXAMPLE.FX, EXAMPLE.FY and EXAMPLE.FZ. After analysis is completed, you will be able to look at the sentences that deviate from the pattern outline. If you wish to use pattern 1 (general purpose): .. Press Enter. If you wish to use any of patterns 2-9: .. Type the pattern number: 2 (For example): .. Press Enter. Checking Your Selections Finally, you are given an opportunity to check the selections you have made. If you have made a mistake, or if you change your mind, it's easy to start again from the beginning: .. Press the Esc key. If everything is OK: .. Press Enter. If you wish to make changes, return to the main menu and begin again. Analysis The program now analyzes the text and saves the results on disk. While this is happening, the "teardrop" diagram appears on the screen and the program enters a dot as each sentence is analyzed. When the program has read and analyzed the entire text, the results are stored on disk (diskette or hard disk) under the filenames EXAMPLE.FX, EXAMPLE.FY and EXAMPLE.FZ. If, for example, your file had been named PROPOSAL.DOC, the names would be PROPOSAL.FX, PROPOSAL.FY, and PROPOSAL.FZ. BRIEF EXPLANATION OF THE ANALYSIS DISPLAY SUBMENU Readability Plus creates a set of analysis displays that can tell you a great deal about your writing. Before proceeding to look at the displays, it might be advisable to quickly review the options available to you on the submenu that appears at the bottom of your screen: ------------------------------------------------------------ 1Menu 2Analys 3Load 4Cntent 5Plot 6Sntnc 7Print 8Tips 9Ideal 10Help ------------------------------------------------------------ To choose a function on the submenu, simply press the corresponding function key. To select 3Load, press F3, etc. The submenu functions are available at any time that the submenu appears on the screen. 5Plot and 6Sntnc only appear when you are looking at the text's teardrop diagram (Display 11). 1Menu This function permits you to exit at any time from the result display that is currently shown and return to the main menu. .. Press F1. 2Analys Permits you to leave the currently shown result display at any time to analyze a new text. .. Press F2. 3Load Permits you to leave the currently shown result display at any time and retrieve (load) a new Readability Plus result display. .. Press F3. 4Cntent Enables you to call up at any time a display showing a list of all of the result displays that are available. .. Press F4. 5Plot When the "teardrop" diagram appears on the screen, each individual sentence is represented by a dot on the diagram. When more than one sentence is represented at the same location on the drawing, the dot grows larger for each sentence that is added. These dots can be replaced with numbers that indicate how many sentences have been plotted at each position. .. Press F5. Pressing F5 toggles between numbers and dots. The highest number that can appear is a 9. This means that a 9 will appear even though more than nine dots have been plotted at the position in question. 6Sntnc Sentences that fall outside the pattern outline that you selected are considered as deviant by the computer. Using the arrow keys, you can move the cursor around in the teardrop diagram to mark deviant sentences. Proceed as follows to mark a deviant sentence. .. Press F6. .. Press Enter. If there is more than one deviant sentence at a single position, you can press Enter repeatedly to see all of the sentences. 7Print .. Press F7. When you select this function, the following submenu appears at the bottom of the screen: ------------------------------------------------------------ F1=Print deviant sentences F2=Print long-word runs F10=Help Esc=exit ------------------------------------------------------------ This gives you an opportunity to print out all deviant sentences in your text on the printer. The printer prints the first words in each deviant sentence together with a page number and line number so you can find it quickly. Proceed as follows to print out a list of the deviant sentences: .. Check that the printer is ON-LINE (ready for printing). .. Press F1. When printing is finished, you can leave this submenu: .. Press Esc. You can also print out a list of all long-word runs on the printer. A word is considered long if it has seven or more letters. A long-word run consists of one or more consecutive long words. Only long-word runs containing three or more words are saved in the results. Here too, the program prints out a page number and line number so that you can quickly locate the long-word runs. Proceed as follows to print out a list of all long-word runs: .. Check that the printer is ON-LINE (ready for printing) .. Press F2. When printing is finished, you can leave this submenu: .. Press Esc. 8Tips You can call up a number of useful tips for each of the result displays that you look at. Sometimes these tips consist of ideal values that you can compare with your own writing. Sometimes you obtain tips on how to improve your writing. If you wish to look at the tips: .. Press F8. When you have finished reading the tips: .. Press Esc. 9Ideal An ideal display is available for each result display that you look at. To compare your result display with the ideal display, proceed as follows: .. Press F9. When you have finished looking at the ideal display: .. Press Esc. 10Help Readability Plus has a built-in help function (F10) which provides you with brief, helpful information as your work proceeds. .. Press F10. When you have finished with the help information: .. Press Esc. UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS RESULTS This section explains the displays created in a Readability Plus analysis. Here, you will learn how to call up the different displays, how to use them to your advantage, and compare your values to the ideal values. SELECTING AN ANALYSIS DISPLAY To select an analysis display, you must respond to the following prompt: ------------------------------------------------------------ Desired display:_ ------------------------------------------------------------ If you know which display you wish to look at and you know its number: .. Type the display's number. .. Press Enter. If you do not know which display you wish to look at or if you are uncertain about its number: .. Press F4. You can now look through a list of the displays that are available. When you have decided which one you wish to look at: .. Type the display's number. .. Press Enter. Browsing Among the Displays You can also browse among the different displays by pressing PgDn and PgUp. PgDn moves you forward to the next display. PgUp moves you back to the previous display. EXPLANATION OF THE DIFFERENT ANALYSIS DISPLAYS The different analysis displays are explained below. Remember that you can always call up useful tips or ideal patterns via F8 and F9 on the submenu. In this section, we will use part of the first chapter from Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain as an example that provides good analysis results. Naturally, your writing doesn't always have to resemble Tom Sawyer, but even if you are usually writing for adults and dealing with more complicated subjects than rafting down the Mississippi, it might be a good idea to use a similar writing style. If you wish to look at the result displays while you are reading this chapter, proceed as follows: .. Start Readability Plus. .. Press F3 to view the Sawyer analysis. .. Highlight SAWYER. .. Press Enter. The teardrop diagram will appear on the screen when the analysis is finished (Display 11). Another way to get to this point is to: .. Press F2 to do a new analysis .. Highlight SAWYER .. Press Enter .. Answer yes (Y) when you're asked if it's OK to write over the previous analysis of SAWYER. Display 11 - TEARDROP Diagram Display 11 consists of the "teardrop" diagram. On this dia- gram, each sentence in the text is represented by a dot. The computer positions these dots according to the number of words in the sentence and the number of long words each sentence contains. A word is considered long if it has more than seven letters. The series of very small dots on the diagram constitutes the "ideal curve". This depicts the ideal relationship between sentence length and number of long words per sentence. An asterisk (*) indicates the focal point of the text on the diagram. Ideally, the sentences (dots) should be spread evenly to the left and to the right of the ideal curve, and the focal point falls on, or close to, the ideal curve. Most of the sentences should lie within pattern 1 - normal diagram. An easy-to-read text has numerous sentences near the bottom of the diagram. This means that many sentences contain only short words. Note that the sentences in the Sawyer diagram are arranged in such a pattern. The Sawyer sentences are located on both sides of the ideal curve. The focal point is located at 14.0/1.8 which is slightly to the right of the ideal curve. Good. There are no sentences in the upper left-hand area (where complicated sentences are plotted). Very good. Several sentences have been plotted out to the right in the area used for wordy and pompous sentences. If you press F6, move the cursor to the rightmost sentence and press Enter, you will see that the first sentence in the text is located there. To obtain an idea of what this type of writing resembles most, proceed as follows: .. Study the percentages in the column to the right of the teardrop diagram and see which pattern had the highest percentage of matches for this text. .. Press F8 to see what the different patterns are called. Select the desired pattern with the up or down arrow keys or by typing in the pattern number to see how well the text in question matches the selected pattern. Sentences that fall within the pattern outline are considered normal by Readability Plus. Any sentence that lies outside the pattern outline is considered deviant. If you have a printer, you can print out a list of all of the deviant sentences. The program presents you with the first few words in each deviant sentence and tells you the line on which the sentence is located. Proceed as follows to print a list of the deviant sentences on the printer: .. Make certain that the printer is ON-LINE (ready for printing). .. Press F7. .. Press F1. A list of the deviant sentences will now be printed. You may continue by examining another result display. Display 12 - Sentence Characteristics Each sentence in the text is classified as one of the following types: .. Simple - short sentence containing short words .. Normal - medium sentence containing short words .. Narrative .. Foggy .. Wordy - long sentence containing short words .. Elegant .. Difficult .. Pompous - long sentence containing long words .. Complicated - short sentence containing long words Display 12 shows the percentages of each type of sentence in the text in question. The spread around the focal point is a measure of the extent to which the sentences are spread in the teardrop diagram. The Sawyer text contains mostly simple and normal sentences. It is easy to read. The spread around the focal point is greater than 8, which is good. The bars on the diagram get shorter as one moves to the right, and this complies with the pattern found in the ideal display (press F9). The text does not contain any complicated sentences. If you want to learn more about focal points, spread, ideal curve, etc. please refer to the detailed chapter in the hard cover manual you'll receive when you register the program. Display 13 - Long Words Per Sentence Display 13 presents the number of long words per sentence. If you use too many long words, your writing is difficult to read, especially if you do not use many small words to "dilute" the text. As much as possible, you should avoid using more than nine long words in a single sentence. You can find out how many sentences have more than a specified number of long words. If, for example, you wish to see which sentences have more than five long words: .. Type: 5- .. Press Enter. The resulting display shows the number of long words per sentence for the Sawyer text, setting a good example for easy-to-read writing. Most of the sentences contain 0, 1, or 2 long words. The gently rounded profile of the bars on the diagram indicates that the language used was written by a single person. In situations where a number of people have edited the text, the pattern is usually more irregular. Display 14 - Sentence Lengths Display 14 presents the number of words per sentence. People often mistakenly believe that easy-to-read writing consists of short sentences. However, the results provided by Readability Plus show that this isn't necessarily true. Easy-to-read writing can contain long sentences if the number of long words per sentence is kept low. The upper limit for sentence length is about 35 words. You can find out how many sentences have more than a specified number of words. If, for example, you wish to know which sentences are longer than 35 words, proceed as follows: .. Type: 35- .. Press Enter. Display 15 - Consecutive Short Words The more short words you write in succession, the easier it will be for your reader to grasp your meaning. Display 15 presents the number of consecutive short words. As you can see, the Sawyer text has many short words in succession. This improves readability. Only about 7% of the short-word runs contain only a single word. Display 16 - Consecutive Long Words When you write texts containing numerous facts that force you to use long words, it is important that you avoid the use of long-word runs. Display 16 shows the number of consecutive long words. The display shows that more than 40% of the long-word runs contained a single long word. This indicates that many long words are surrounded by short words. Such a configuration is extremely easy to read. The fact that the ratio of short-word runs to long-word runs was 7.44 indicates that the text contains many short-word runs. Even 3.5 would have been a good value. Display 21 - Word Lengths The words in the examined text were divided into groups based on length. This display shows the percentages of words containing 1-3 letters, 4-6 letters, ..., 25 or more letters. You can find out how many words of a specified length were used. If, for example, you wish to find out how many words had 14 or more letters: .. Type: 14- .. Press Enter. If you want to find out how many words had precisely four letters: .. Type: -4- .. Press Enter. If you want to find out how many words had 4-6 letters inclusive: .. Type: 4-6 .. Press Enter. The word lengths in the Sawyer texts averaged 4.0 letters (a short, therefore good, value). The text did not contain a single word longer than 14 letters. That's one of the reasons it's so easy to read. Display 22 - Bricks When Readability Plus analyzes a text, it keeps a record of all the different words and how often they have been used. In Display 22, the program has segregated the 2450 most frequently used words in the English language. The remaining words (called bricks) are presented in a list which also tells you how many times each of these words was used. To browse forward in this list: .. Press Enter. Here, you can find all of the words that begin in a certain way. If you wish to look at all words in the Sawyer text that begin with "con": .. Type: con .. Press Enter. Here, you can see a number of imaginative words begin with "con". Moreover, you can find all the words that end in a specified series of letters. If, for example, you wish to look at all the words that end in "ing": .. Type: ing .. Press Enter. You can also find all of the words having a specified minimum number of letters. If, for example, you wish to look at all of the words that have at least 13 letters: .. Type: 13- .. Press Enter. Moreover, you can find all of the words which, for example, have a maximum of 5 letters: .. Type: -5 .. Press Enter. Finally, you can combine all four of the above. If, for example, you wish to find all of the words that begin with "s" and have between 4 and 7 letters inclusive: .. Type: 4-7 s .. Press Enter. If, for example, you want to find all of the words that end in "ing" and have at least 12 letters: .. Type: 12- -ing .. Press Enter. Remember, however, that the 2450 most frequently used words in the English language were eliminated before making the above analyses. Display 23 - Mortar and Bricks The 2450 most frequently used words are called mortar. All other words are called bricks. Usually, a text contains around 20% bricks. If this percentage is higher, it indicates that more difficult words have been selected in your text than in a normal text. Display 23 shows the percentages of brick and mortar. For the Sawyer text, Display 23 shows that there is a favorable ratio between mortar and bricks. This text has 17% bricks which is excellent. Display 24 - Comments on Choice of Words If Readability Plus has any comments to make on the words you have chosen to use in the text, they are presented in Display 24. It indicates, for example, whether you have used both "thru" and "through" in your text. It also indicates how many words were needlessly prolonged, thus making your text more difficult. For instance, you might have used the word "objective" when "goal" would have sufficed. The comments in Display 24 are based on the list of synonyms that is included with Readability Plus. This list is in a file named SYNLIST.RDB (located on your original diskette). Display 31 - Sentence Characteristics Display 31 shows how each sentence has been evaluated, starting from the beginning of the text and proceeding sentence by sentence. Here, you can easily see which sentences are "narrative" and which are "difficult". You should compare this with the characteristic breakdowns presented in Displays 11 and 12. If, in spite of their disadvantages, you must include complicated sentences in your writing, you should make every effort to prevent them from being bunched together. This also applies to pompous and wordy sentences. Here, you see that the sentences in the Sawyer text vary widely with regard to characteristics. Only a few sentences are pompous and they are well scattered throughout the text. If a text consists of more than 60 sentences, you can browse forward as follows: .. Press Enter. You can find all of the deviant sentences (those which lie outside the area covered by the pattern outline). If, for example, you wish to look at all deviant sentences starting with sentence No. 10: .. Type: 10- .. Press Enter. You are now provided with information about the first deviant sentence. To look at the next (and then the next, etc.), proceed as follows: .. Press Enter repeatedly. Displays 31 and 32 make it possible for you to find where any "uphill slopes" occur in the text. Display 32 - Long Words Per Sentence Display 32 presents the number of long words per sentence. Here too, you can find the deviant sentences. The number of long words per sentence varies considerably in the Sawyer text. There are only two sentences containing more than nine long words, and they are widely separated. This is one of the reasons that the text is so easy to read. If a text contains more than the 60 sentences shown, you may browse forward: .. Press Enter. You can find all the deviant sentences. If you wish to look at all deviant sentences starting with sentence No. 10: .. Type: 10- .. Press Enter. You are now provided with information about the first deviant sentence. To look at the next (and then the next, etc.), proceed as follows: .. Press Enter repeatedly. Display 33 - Sentence Lengths Display 33 shows how long each sentence is, starting at the beginning of the text and proceeding forward sentence by sentence. As a result, you can easily see how successful you have been in varying sentence length throughout the text. In the Sawyer text, sentence length varies considerably, although you can find examples of long sentences that are bunched together. Text in which sentences of varying lengths are well scattered captures and retains a reader's interest. If a text contains more than the 60 sentences shown, you may browse forward: .. Press Enter. Display 40 - General Evaluation I Display 40 presents an evaluation of the chosen text based on the Flesch-Kincaid, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning's Fog Index, and LIX readability indices. The scores given to the text based on each of these indices are presented near the bottom of the screen. Display 41 - General Evaluation II Display 41 presents a general evaluation of the following five technical factors the text: .. Distance from the ideal curve. .. Spread around the focal point. .. Compliance with the ideal curve. .. Percentage of mortar. .. Percentage of sentences containing only short words. Here, you can read the final value assigned to the text for each factor. For example, you can see that the distance from the focal point to the ideal curve is 1.2. A text's focal point is the point on the diagram that represents the average sentence length and the average number of long words per sentence. (All words containing seven or more characters are defined as long by Readability Plus). But to fully understand this display, you'll need the hardcover manual which you will receive when you register the program. Each factor can be compared with the ideal factors. To compare the different factors, you must invoke Tips and Ideal from the submenu. Any writer could be proud of the general evaluation as good as the one earned by the Sawyer text. Display 42 - General Comments This display presents you with advice on how to improve your writing with regard to the percentage of long words per sentence, the number of words per sentence and the spread ofthe sentences on the teardrop diagram. Display 43 - Number of Sentences and Words Display 43 presents the following numeric data: .. Number of characters in text. .. Number of words in text .. Number of short words in text .. Number of sentences in text. .. Average number of words per sentence and how many of them are (on the average) short and long. LIST OF SYNONYMS Display 24 identifies words in your text that are synonyms or homonyms, and asks you to be sure you've selected the correct word. It also allows you to create a personal "hit list" of words to avoid, and suggests words that might be used in their place. This list of words is in a file named SYNLIST.RDB, and it is on your program diskette. You may choose to replace our list with one of your own, or to make it even more useful, you may add to the list words specific to your own organization or field. Changing SYNLIST.RDB You can use any word processing program which writes or converts to ASCII to add words to or remove words from the list of synonyms. You may wish to add words in order to: .. Avoid using them. .. Remember explanations. When you use a word that is in the list of synonyms, you may obtain comments on it through Display 24. The list of synonyms does not have any effect on your text. This means that any words that you wish to avoid are not eliminated automatically. However, you are reminded of whether or not you should use a particular word. To make a change in a list of synonyms, proceed as follows (for example): .. Start your word processing program. .. Load the program called SYNLIST.RDB You may now add synonyms to or delete synonyms from the list using the ordinary word processing procedures. To make a change, proceed as follows: .. Use upper case letters for the key words. .. Enter the # character (if you do not have it on your regular keyboard hold Alt down and type 35 using the keys on the numeric keypad) immediately after the word in order to search for a synonym. .. Type a space immediately after the word in order to search for a word whose first letter is the same. For each key word you can type a comment containing a maximum of 40 characters. You can write these using lower case letters. Example: .. REGISTER - Searches for the word "register" in your text. .. STATION - Searches for all words that start with station. A part of SYNLIST might appear as follows: PURCHASE buy RECORD enter (into) DEPOSIT save ACQUIRE get Note! You must save SYNLIST.RDB as a non-document or ASCII file. Creating Your Own Lists of Synonyms You are permitted to have different lists of synonyms for different types of text. You create these lists as ordinary word processing program documents, as described above. However, you must save each list as a non-document. Remember to select names for your synonym lists that are meaningful so that you can retrieve them easily. Activating One of Your Own Lists of Synonyms You can activate one of your own lists of synonyms by typing its name when you start Readability Plus. Suppose the desired list of synonyms was named MYLIST.RDB. You'd proceed as follows to change to it: .. Type: read s=c:mylist.rdb .. Press Enter. Installing a List of Synonyms If you have DOS version 3.0 or later, it is advisable to put the list of synonyms in the same subdirectory and disk drive as Readability Plus. However, you can also put the list of synonyms in the subdirectory that is active when you start the program. You will find the DOS version number on the DOS diskette that came with your computer. If your version of DOS is earlier (lower) than 3.0, you can put the list of synonyms in the directory that is active when you start the program. Note that this also applies to lists of synonyms that you create yourself. EXITING FROM READABILITY PLUS To exit from Readability Plus, you must first return to the main menu. .. Press F1. The main menu appears. To exit from Readability Plus, you must select Exit on the main menu: .. Press 0. .. Press Enter. When the system prompt (A>) appears, you can remove your diskette, concluding the Readability Plus session. BASIC CONCEPTS In this section, we will review the basic concepts underlying the Readability Plus program. WHAT AND HOW DOES READABILITY PLUS MEASURE? When we speak, we are able to watch our listener and observe his reactions. Unfortunately, this is not true when we write. Readability Plus gives you some idea of how readable someone will find your writing. The Readability Plus method is based on statistical procedures that measure word length, sentence length, percentage of commonly encountered words, and percentage of unusual words. Naturally, there are many other factors that affect the ease with which a reader can understand the message we are trying to get across. For example, Readability Plus has no way of knowing how familiar the reader is with the subject at hand, how interested he is in it, or his general level of education. Syntax errors that flaw the structure of a sentence and unclear references within sentences are also examples of factors that Readability Plus cannot measure. However, it does provide you with a useful and objective measure of the quality of your writing. One could say that a good readability rating is a necessary but not an all- embracing factor of a piece of writing. While creating Readability Plus, Roland Larson analyzed approximately 600,000 words in texts taken from many different fields. These analyses showed that texts which we consider easy to read earn good readability ratings, while texts that people consider difficult to read and to understand fail to earn good ratings. One example of good writing is the excerpt from Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, used in this manual. LANGUAGE BUILDING BLOCKS Writing can be compared with building a brick wall. Here, the bricks form the wall itself, but in order to join them together, you must use plenty of mortar. The ratio of bricks to mortar must be properly balanced in a stable, well-built wall. In language, we use many small words and bridging words that serve as mortar. All other words are considered bricks. Readability Plus contains the 2450 most frequently used words in the English language. They are considered mortar, and all other words are considered bricks. Bricks Bricks are the words that carry the information we wish to convey. The following are examples of bricks: snowstorm, twilight, television, chimney, computer. Any sentence that contains more than ten bricks will probably be difficult to understand. Mortar What percentage of a text is normally made up of commonly used words? .. The four most frequently used words (and, in, that, a) make up 10% of a text. .. The ten most frequently used words make up 20% of a text. .. The twenty most frequently used words make up 30% of a text. .. The 450 most frequently used words make up 60% of a text. .. The 2450 most frequently used words make up 80% of a text. If you want your writing to be pleasant and easy to read, you must use plenty of mortar. In good writing, bricks and mortar are properly balanced. A sentence that contains too many bricks will be somewhat foggy and perhaps complicated. A sentence having too much mortar will be wordy. However, situations do arise in which a sentence containing only short words is needed to provide a "break" in the text so that the reader will be able to recover his capacity to digest a highly informative section. Readability Plus measures the ratio of bricks to mortar and, if properly balanced, the program will issue a good rating. Misconceptions About Sentence Length People often mistakenly conclude that short sentences are needed for good readability. However, short sentences must not become an objective in themselves. There is no reason not to write long sentences (though not too long). Mixing short and long sentences together is good practice. However, it is important to note that sentences should not contain too many long words. Teardrop Diagram Readability Plus measures the total number of words and the number of long words in each sentence. (A long word is a word having seven or more letters.) Each sentence is assigned a characteristic depending on where it is located in the teardrop diagram. .. A simple sentence is quite short and contains only a few long words. .. A complicated sentence is quite short and contains many long words. .. A wordy sentence is long and contains only a few long words. .. A pompous sentence is long and contains many long words. When you analyze a text, you select the pattern against which you want your sentences to be evaluated. Readability Plus has nine patterns for different types of texts (newspaper articles or technical manuals for example). Each sentence that falls outside the selected pattern outline is classified by the program as deviant. These deviant sentences are of particular interest to you, since they do not comply with the intended type of writing. Readability Plus permits you look at all deviant sentences very conveniently. You'll see on the screen the beginnings of the sentences and their locations in the text. If you have a printer connected to your computer, you can also print out a list of all deviant sentences. Here too, you will be provided with information that enables you to find them quickly in the text. Good writing requires sentence variation. Long and short sentences should be interspersed and they should contain varying numbers of long words. The ideal area on the teardrop diagram contains the following types of sentences: normal, simple, somewhat foggy, narrative, difficult, and elegant Sentences that are wordy, complicated, or pompous fall outside the ideal area. Does Readability Plus Measure Grammar Usage? Different grammatical configurations affect sentence length and word length in different ways; this is reflected in the "teardrop" diagram. Readability Plus does not measure grammatical usage in and of itself, but the effects of certain grammatical configurations are measured. Poorly composed sentences are positioned in the upper left-hand part of the "teardrop" diagram. MORE THAN YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT READABILITY INDICES Most writing experts don't like readability formulas. They warn you that readability indices should be used very cautiously; and that too much reliance shouldn't be placed on them. It's important to realize that nearly all readability indices measure the same two variables: average sentence length (in words) and average word length (in syllables or characters). What's different is how the results are computed and reported. While these two factors are very important for ensuring easy readability, other factors such as vocabulary choice are just as important. That's why we feel that our Mortar and Bricks display is at least as important as our display of readability indices. It's also important to realize that the evidence that readability scores are linked to increased comprehension is very sparse. Nearly all the original research was done on school children and military enlisted men, and even with these groups the results were mixed. Only a few studies have tried to validate the scales' use with college graduates, and these results are even more mixed. Thus if it's critical that your readers understand what you've written, there's still no substitute for testing your material on a small sample of people before distributing it across the entire company or nation. Nevertheless, readability indices are here to stay; and Readability Plus allows you to compute the most popular ones. It's the only product on the market (with the exception of Corporate Voice, developed from Readability Plus) that links the scores to the purpose of your writing. Therefore, if you're going to compute readability indices, it's best done with these programs. Please, look at all of the displays the program produces and don't give undue weight to the indices. The "teardrop" scattergrams give you much more information from the same variables; the mortar and bricks display gives you a more useful revision tool; and the displays that focus on how long/short words and sentences are intermixed are much better for helping you keep your readers' interest. Now that we've given you the warnings, here's a little more information about the indices included in Readability Plus. Flesch-Kincaid Index This index is the one specified by many federal agencies, including the Defense Department and the IRS. It uses grade levels as its measure. Thus a score of 6.7 means that a student whose reading score on a standardized test is in the 7th month of the 6th grade should be able to read the text. Flesch Reading Ease Index Many states use this index to analyze insurance policies. It uses a scale of 1-100 and goes in the opposite direction from all the other formulas, with high scores indicating very easy texts and low ones meaning that the selection is very difficult. Insurance policy regulations typically require a score of 40 or higher. Gunning's Fog Index Like Flesch-Kincaid, the Gunning's Fog Index uses grade levels as its measure. It's a lot "tougher" however. A text that scores 7.9 on the Flesch-Kincaid may score 10.9 or higher on the Gunning's Fog Index. LIX A variation of Gunning's Fog Index, LIX is a popular index in Scandinavia. If you divide its scores by 2.5, you'll get the American grade level equivalent of the selection. More detailed descriptions of the readability indices, as well as the mathematical proofs and formulas, are in the manual that will be provided to you if you register your program. SHOULD I UPGRADE TO CORPORATE VOICE? When it was released in 1989, Readability Plus was the most powerful style checking program available. The only product that has surpassed its style checking ability is our new release, Corporate Voice. When we showed Corporate Voice to dealers and the press recently at the COMDEX computer show, the response was phenomenal! A well-known columnist commented: "Corporate Voice represents an entirely new category of software. It may have as profound an effect on corporate writing as Lotus 1-2-3 had on corporate planning." Originally, Corporate Voice was just a "style-building engine" that would allow you to add your own writing styles to a new version of Readability Plus. However, as we experimented with the engine, we found that by adding some features, we could provide an entirely new kind of writing tool -- a style replicator -- that allows organizations to produce higher quality writing in much less time. It also allows them to give their documents a "look and feel" that can be as distinctive as a logo. Our tests show that Corporate Voice allows many writers to double their productivity. It also saves managers as much as 80% of the time they spend reviewing drafts. And, because writers and managers understand what's needed right from the start, they emerge from high-pressure writing assignments on good terms, and more confident and relaxed than ever before! We were so encouraged by these results that we built all of Readability Plus' capabilities into Corporate Voice. This allowed us to discontinue Readability Plus and support a single writing package that's easier to use and less expensive than two separate ones. Here are just some of Corporate Voice's features: You can create style models from what you (or your competitors) have written. Corporate Voice can read WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, WordStar, WordStar 2000 or ASCII text files. You can build a style model from as many as 100 documents in less than 10 minutes. Once created, you can "protect" styles so that others can use them, but only you can change them. You can identify "trade words" and calculate "corrected readability indices." When you create a style, you can designate difficult words that your audience understands as trade words (e.g., gas station attendants with 3rd grade reading levels can read the word "carburetor"). Then, when it calculates readability indices such as the Flesch- Kincaid, it provides 2 scores: the standard index, and a corrected index that doesn't penalize you for using trade words. You can establish easily-enforced standards for good writing without technical knowledge. All you need to know is which documents have worked successfully in the past. Then you can establish standards such as: "All Final Reports must score at least 90% on the Corporate Final Report style and have a corrected Flesch-Kincaid index of 6.5 or less." You can match your text to the style model on more than a dozen measures of sentence structure, vocabulary and reading difficulty. Readability Plus only provides comparisons between your text and the style on the teardrop display. Corporate Voice gives you direct comparisons on nearly all of its displays. You can master Corporate Voice quickly, thanks to a completely new manual and more than 50 context-sensitive help screens. It will take most people about an hour to master the program, but if you've used Readability Plus, it should take you no more than 20 minutes. You can use the expanded set of pre-programmed style models included with the program, even before you build your own styles. We've added a user manual style, a legal style and the styles of several best-selling authors including Ian Fleming, Tom Clancy, and Louis Lamour. You can enjoy many other improvements, including an attractive storage case and a much larger "hit list' of words to avoid or be wary of using. Corporate Voice has a list price of $119.95. However, most leading software stores, such as Egghead Discount Software, sell it at a substantial discount. And, for a limited time, it is also available from Scandinavian PC Systems for only $89.95 -- that's a 25% savings! To order, just call our 24-hour order line at 1-800-288-SCAN (7226) and use your credit card. Or, you can print out the order form from the file called REGISTER and send it to us at Scandinavian PC Systems, Inc., 51 Monroe Street, Suite 1101, Rockville, MD 20850. If you're not ready yet for Corporate Voice, but think you may wish to purchase it in the future, we suggest you register the Readability Plus program. As part of your registration package, you'll receive a rebate coupon good for $15 off on Corporate Voice. This coupon is good no matter where you purchase the program; simply send it to us with a proof of purchase.
Dear User, Thank you for trying Scandinavian PC Systems' first shareware product, Readability Plus. In 1989, this same program -- Readability Plus -- was the best selling style checker in the United States. Buyers paid $130 to order it by mail, and the program was acclaimed in reviews published in every major computer magazine and in many popular magazines (including Playboy). Then why, with an estimated 100,000 people using it already, have we released it as shareware? Because we KNOW that there are at least 2 million PC users who can benefit from using a style checker such as Readability Plus, and we're hoping that you're one of them. We want to hook you on using Readability Plus so that you'll first become a registered owner, and later upgrade to our even more powerful product, Corporate Voice. Registration is a terrific deal. For $25 you get: .. A 120-page, hard cover, multicolored manual that several reviewers have called one of the finest PC manuals that's ever been produced. It even includes the complete mathematical model that underlies the program! .. Unlimited technical support. .. A coupon that will provide you with a $15 cash rebate if you decide to upgrade to Corporate Voice. To upgrade, simply call our 24-hour order line, 1-800-288-SCAN and use your credit card. Or print out the file called REGISTER which you can use to print a hard copy registration form. One final note: Please don't confuse Readability Plus with grammar & style checkers such as Grammatik and RightWRITER. It starts where those programs leave off. They correct many grammar and usage errors and let you stipulate how strict you want those programs to be through the selection of what they call business, technical and personal "styles." In contrast, Readability Plus assumes that what you've written is mechanically correct. Rather than look for errors, it looks for sentences and words that aren't appropriate for your intended audience and purpose. Compare your text to any of the nine writing style models provided with the program. "Align" the style of your draft with the model's so that they're indistinguishable. Whether you want to want to write love letters that read like advertising copy (not such a dumb idea!), or technical papers that read like well crafted magazine articles, Readability Plus gives an advantage that only other users of the program enjoy! For an even more powerful edge, after you've seen what Readability Plus can do, read the last chapter of this manual that will explain the additional features that Corporate Voice provides. We'll bet you'll end up owning it! Yours truly, Steve Frankel, President Scandinavian PC Systems
Readability Plus REGISTRATION INFORMATION Thank you for your interest in Readability Plus. This program, available through mail order and retail channels until January of 1990, had a list price of $129.95 and was discontinued due to its replacement by Corporate Voice. Corporate Voice has all of Readability Plus' capabilities, including improved versions of the nine style models, plus additional style models, some containing your favorite authors, such as Ian Fleming, Tom Clancy and Louis Lamour. The major improvement of Corporate Voice, however, is its ability to allow you to create your OWN style models, based on any type of writing you'd like to emulate. Corporate Voice is the world's first style replicator, and we know of no other program like it. We're making Readability Plus available to you as shareware in order to introduce you to the technology of writing style analysis. It's our hope that you will use and enjoy Readability Plus. And, frankly, we think you'll be intrigued enough to examine its "big brother," Corporate Voice. Single user registration of Readability Plus costs $25 and entitles you to use this software on a single computer and to make as many copies of this software as you wish for backup purposes. Upon receipt of your registration fee you will receive a hard cover, 100 page professionally printed manual, a coupon for a $15 rebate if you decide to buy Corporate Voice, and you will be eligible for free telephone support (301-294-7453, 9-5 EST). SINGLE USER INVOICE Remit to: From: Scandinavian PC Systems, Inc. _________________________________ 51 Monroe Street, Suite 1101 Rockville, MD 20850 _________________________________ or call: _________________________________ 1-800-288-SCAN (7226) (9-5 EST) _________________________________ 1-301-251-1053 (Fax) _________________________________ _____ Please fully register my copy of Readability Plus for $25. _____ Send me _____ copy/copies of the complete Corporate Voice package (including manual and both sizes of disks)at $89.95 each (a 25% discount). Total: ________________________ ----------------------------------------------------------------- Checks, Money Orders, VISA, MasterCard, American Express, Diners Club and UPS COD are accepted. Written Purchase Orders are accepted for quantity purchases and site licenses from most companies, schools, and governmental units. Terms NET 30. Credit Card # ________________________________ Exp Date:____/____ Signature ________________________________ Phone ________________ ----------------------------------------------------------------- To Purchasing, Accounts Payable: Note that the disk for Readability Plus has been delivered and accepted by the customer. Upon receipt of this paid invoice, a printed manual will be sent. Our federal ID number is 52-1583735.
⌠ Running MS DOS, by Van Wolverton, pages 26-27 ⌡ When you test drive a car, you already know how to start it. The test drive is to help you become familiar with the controls, the steering, the brakes, the overall "feel" of the car. Now it's time to take a test drive with DOS. Your learned how to start DOS in the last chapter. It's time to begin learning how to control DOS, how to "steer" it in the direction of one task of another, and how to call a halt when you want or need to. That's what this chapter is all about. It introduces you to the directory of files that DOS keeps on each disk, and shows you how to use the specific keys on your keyboard. You use these keys to tell DOS to cancel lines or commands, freeze the display, and restart DOS. To try the examples given here, start up your computer, as you did in the last chapter. Enter the appropriate date and time, so that DOS responds with the system prompt, A> (C> of you are using a fixed disk). Don't worry about leaving your computer on while you read the text between examples; DOS is patient. Note: Part of this chapter deals with keys that have special meaning for DOS. If you are not using an IBM personal computer, you may want to check your documentation for equivalent keys on your system. Recall from Chapter 1 that information stored on a disk is stored as a file. DOS automatically keeps and updates a list of every file you save on every diskette you use. This list is called directory. If you create and save a new file, DOS adds it to the list. If you revise and old file, DOS keeps track of that, too. The directory eliminates the need to keep a separate record of everything you save on each diskette. You can tell DOS you want to see the directory whenever DOS is displaying the system prompt. The example on the next section serves the double purpose of showing you a directory and showing you around the DOS system disk itself. As you use the system more, you will come to recognize many of the DOS commands. Before you look at a directory, though, you should know a little about how DOS saves your files. Whenever you create a file, you give it a name, called the file name, of up to eight characters. Of you wish, you can add a suffix, called the extension, of up to three more letters. (Chapter 4 and 5 present more on files). Whenever you ask DOS to show you the directory of a diskette, it lists your files by name (and extension, if there is one). It also shows you the size of your file, in units called bytes, and it gives you the date and the time file was either created or last changed (that's why DOS prompts you for the date and time). Note: A byte is the amount of storage required to hold one character in computer memory or on a disk. Here are a few familiar items and their sizes, in bytes: the letters abcd, 4 bytes (1 byte per letter); the words United States, 13 bytes (blanks count); a double-spaced, typewritten page, 1500 bytes; this book, 600,000 bytes (approximately). Depending on which version of DOS you're using, and whether your drives use one or both sides of a diskette, your diskettes hold from 163,840 to 368,640 bytes. For convenience, quantities the large are usually given in kilobytes, or K. One kilobyte equals 1024 bytes, so the capacity of your diskettes can range from 160K 360K.
Volume in drive A has no label Directory of A:\ EXAMPLE TXT 1688 1-25-89 4:49p SCAN EXE 37090 7-11-90 5:54p RUNME BAT 62 7-11-90 4:40p ADCOPY TXT 3423 1-26-89 9:54a BUREAU TXT 2655 1-26-89 10:53a CHILD TXT 1975 1-25-89 4:49p GETYN COM 149 4-26-87 7:30p GOODGOV TXT 4533 1-26-89 10:50a GOVREP TXT 3373 1-26-89 11:18a SAWYER FX 7822 7-10-90 3:38p SAWYER FZ 81 7-10-90 3:38p MAGAZINE TXT 9838 1-25-89 4:49p NOVEL TXT 4513 1-25-89 4:49p NWSPAPER TXT 1049 1-25-89 4:49p READ EXE 165552 7-12-89 9:38a SAWYER FY 964 7-10-90 3:38p SAWYER 12897 3-26-88 9:11a SYNLIST RDB 12596 10-17-87 6:04p TECHMAN TXT 3413 1-26-89 10:41a WPROC RDB 3 1-26-89 1:02p README DOC 2770 7-10-90 1:52p REGISTER DOC 2960 7-10-90 1:52p READ DOC 61662 7-10-90 11:43a FILE2333 TXT 1925 9-21-90 3:10p GO BAT 31 9-21-90 11:31a GO TXT 810 10-04-90 6:49a 26 file(s) 343834 bytes 4096 bytes free