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MIT.TXT

╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║ General Instructions:                                  ║
║   While in any given chapter,                          ║
║   Screens may be changed in 2 ways:                    ║
║     >> "+","-",PgUp,PgDn = forward/backward 1 screen   ║
║     >> F1 = enter screen number directly               ║
║   F2    = chapter contents                             ║
║   F3    = this information                             ║
║   Alt/M = main menu                                    ║
║   Alt/X = exit to DOS                                  ║
║                                      any key to resume ║
╚════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╝
╔════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╗
║ File Locations: (3.5",5.25")                                       ║
║                                                                    ║
║ Main Menu ---  1,1    Scales ----------- 1,2   Meredith Monk - 2,3 ║
║ Preface -----  1,1    Intervals -------- 2,3   Melody Writer - 2,4 ║
║ Schedule ----  1,1    Musical Analysis - 2,3   Keybaord ------ 2,4 ║
║ Course Info -- 1,1    Harmony ---------- 2,3   Pitch Memory -- 2,4 ║
║ Acoustics ---- 1,1    Sound Polltion --- 2,3   SoundForms ---- 2,4 ║
║ Pitch Basics - 1,2    Harry Partch ----- 2,3   Editor -------- 2,4 ║
║ Rhythm ------- 1,2    Creativity ------- 2,3                       ║
║                         (any key to resume)                        ║
╚════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╝

PITCH.TXT

			       MUSICAL SPACE


          That music is a temporal art is an easy notion to grasp.
              It is, also, spatial, and in more than one way.

     It is most clearly spatial in that sound has location in space.
     Where a sound comes from can affect the listener.  Thus the loca-
     tion of a sound can be an integral aspect of the compositional
     conceptioning...

               This fact has often been ignored by composers,
               but its use in antiphonal church music during
               the Renaissance, and its "rediscovery" and de-
               velopment by some composers (like Henry Brandt)
               in the 20th century, illustrate its viability.

          At this time, however, we are not going to consider this
          kind of spatiality, but rather the metaphorical sense in
          which the pitch of sounds is thought of as corresponding
          to relative height, the "up and down" axis.

     Pitch, as the frequency (rate of vibration) of a sound, has, of
     course, no direct spatial higher or lower coordinate.  Why we re-
     present frequency in this way, and have throughout history, as
     well as cross-culturally, is a matter of speculation.

            Be that as it may, pitch is conceived of and represented
            in spatial terms.  And it is most destinctly a character-
            istic of music, to be shaped and controlled.  It is often
            thought of as the chief incrediant of melody, although
            the other parameters of sound also contribute their share.

               Pitch is decidely the stuff of which intervals
               and scales are made, and since these in turn
               are primary organizing factors in most musics,
               knowledge of how pitch is notated is of help in
               understanding music.

     Pitch, being a vibratory rate and perceived on an up versus down
     axis, affects the human physiology in both clear and subtle ways.
     Extremes of pitch, high or low, produce tensions, both muscular
     and mental.  Frequencies in the middle range of the audible
     spectrum, expecially within the speech range, are more soothing.
     These are generalities, of course, for other factors such as
     loudness and timbre also affect the mind and body.  Subtle
     shadings of pitch, especially melodies employing microtones
     (East Indian music, for instance, or the Blues), produce very
     distinct reactions in us which can be felt bodily in changing
     breath rate and heart contractions, among other things.

          Every physical body resonates in response to sonic
          vibrations, hence pitch has very direct effect on
          material objects.  The destructive uses to which
          sound has been put, described in the chapter on
          sound pollution, illustrate this.  There is also,
          in occult literature, speculation that particular
          frequencies can be and have been used to produce
          levitation, and are capable of healing properties.

                    However we approach the issue,
                    pitch is an essential ingredient
                    of music and knowledge of its
                    notation crucial for our better
		    comprehending how music works.

     The Staff

     Pitch is most commonly represented on  some form of vertical axis.
     Generalized  pitch level  could be  notated around  a single  line
     specified as a particular pitch. Or, as has occasionally been done
     as a reminder  of pitch relationships learned by rote,  with up or
     down gestures of the hand.

     The extension of this idea into the use of more lines to stand for
     other specific  pitches, called  a staff,  is attributed  to Guido
     d'Arezzo (c. 990-1050 AD), who suggested the use of a 3- or 4-line
     staff  to denote specific pitches (the pitches we now call F2, A2,
     and C3).  The  four-line staff is still employed  for the notation
     of Gregorian  Chant, but as  early as  the 13th century,  a 5-line
     staff was used to notate  polyphonic ("many-voiced") music, and it
     is this staff which is in general use today.

     The convention in referring to pitch placement on the modern 5-line
     staff is to count from the bottom line or space upwards. Thus we say
     "note such and such" is on the 3rd line up, or the 2nds space up, etc.

     Pitch Names

     In  our  investigation  of  acoustics,  we  discovered  that  each
     doubling of  frequency produces  an octave.   The term  octave was
     used  because  the  most  common  number  of pitches  employed  in
     melodies in Western music within  this doubling of frequencies has
     been 7,the 8th pitch being twice the frequency above or below some
     starting point--hence, octave.

     PRELIMINARY EXERCISE

     Hit "H" (to HEAR) to play "Doe A Deer" from The Sound of Music.
     Try to determine how many distinctly different pitches there are
     within the octave this tune encompasses. (You should be helped by
     association with the "do-re-mi" format)!  Proceed to next page to
     see the tune written out. You will see notes on different lines
     and spaces adding up to the number you heard from lowest to highest.

     Careful observation of this tune should have lead you to hear and
     see 8 different notes,  from an extra line below the  staff to the
     third  space  up.  These  8  notes,  when arranged  in  sequential
     ascending order,  produce what is called  a scale (from  the Latin
     scala,  meaning  "ladder").  The  bottom  note  and the  top  note
     constitute the  frequency ratio of 2:1,  the octave.  Each  of the
     seven  different pitches  within  the octave  is  designated by  a
     letter name, from A to G.

         If a line or space on the staff is reserved for one of these
         pitches, the location of the other pitches can easily be de-
         termined by counting, in order, up or down (forward or back-
         ward) the letter names of the pitches.  For instance, on the
         4-line staff of the Gregorian Chant tune you heard a while
         ago, the stylized "C" at the top left of each staff desig-
         nates that line as what we know via the piano as "middle"
         C (261.6 hz).  Counting, in order, down the lines and spaces,
         one arrives at the pitch F as the first note of the piece.
         The other notes can be determined accordingly.

  The Clefs

  Given a set of parallel horizontal lines on which to designate specific
  pitches, all that is necessary is to indicate a starting point: one line
  or space of the staff being a particular frequency.

     Music notation, evolving at the same time as different styles and
     genres of music, developed primarily to accomodate vocal music.

          It was reasonable then that the pitches the staff
          evolved to denote should essentially represent the
          human voice range.  We will accept this tradition,
          even though instruments can sound frequencies well
          outside the range of the voice.

  The TREBLE CLEF was invented to represent the frequency range of female
  voices.  Originally called the "G" clef, it marks where the pitch "G"
  within the SOPRANO and ALTO ranges is to be notated.  This is on the
  second line up, using the stylized "G" symbol.

                This is, specifically, 392.2 hz.

  The BASS CLEF was designed to accomodate the lower voice ranges (tenor and
  bass).  It originated as the "F" clef, which designates where F (174.6 Hz),
  is written.

     Originally, the Bass and Treble clefs were movable, so that their
     placement on the staff indicated slightly higher or lower ranges.

  Today, however, these clefs remain fixed. But there is a clef which is
  movable. It originated to designate a range between treble and bass,
  and is known as the "movable C' clef. It is used to locate "middle C."

     LEDGER LINES
     Notes outside the range of the five lines of the staff may be written
     with the use of ledger lines. The same order of notes is continued
     above or below the staff and the lines themselves are drawn with the
     same distance between them as on the staff itself.

         G  A  B  C  D  E  F  G            B  C  D  E  F  G  A  B
         D  C  B  A  G  F  E  D            F  E  D  C  B  A  G  F

  Notes several ledger lines above or below a staff exceed normal vocal
  ranges, but are useful for instruments whose ranges are greater.

      THE OTTAVA SIGN

      Sometimes, to avoid excessive and confusing addition of ledger
      lines, the ottava sign is employed, which shifts the entire
      range of the notes under the bracketed sign by an octave.  If
      the sign is above the notes, the shift is obviously upward;
      if below the notes, and often accompanied by the word basso,
      the shift is down one octave. <RET>

  Previous convention called for the abbreviation of ottava as 8va. Mod-
  ern usage, however, accepts the numeral 8.  In either case, the length
  of time the octave displacement is to occur must be indicated by the
  dotted lines.

  Occasionally, some instruments (the piano, for one) play in extreme high
  or low registers, which may call for so many ledger lines as not to be
  accomodated by even one octave's shift.  A double octave shift may then
  be called for, the sign for which is the numeral 16. <RET>

     Use of ledger lines, the ottava  sign, and the double ottava sign,
     is determined by common sense and custom.  Flutists, for instance,
     are trained to read notes which  extend by five ledger lines above
     the treble  staff, while  violinists, by  training, are  generally
     more comfortable  reading these same  notes under an  ottava sign.
     In writing music  for several instruments, use  of these different
     procedures  is often  a  matter of  what  is  appropriate for  the
     particular score  format being  used.  If  staves are  too crowded
     together, with  parts extending above  and below, the  ottava sign
     would be called for.

     THE GRAND STAFF

     Much music, including that for piano, is notated in a format known
     as the grand staff, which conjoins the treble and bass staves
     with middle C being the common link between them, one ledger line
     below the treble staff, and on ledger line above the bass staff.

     Specific Pitch Designation

     Often, it is necessary to distinguish a specific pitch in a speci-
     fic octave range.  If you were asked, for instance,  to notate "A"
     on a grand staff, you would have to know which of the several oc-
     tave displacements of "A" was meant. There are several systems for
     designating specific pitches. With the advent of digital synthe-
     sizers and especially the development  of MIDI (Musical Instrument
     Digital Interface), one method seems to be emerging as a standard.
     It  simply labels  "Middle C"  as C3  and every  pitch within  the
     octave up to the next "C" with  this number. Thus the octaves from
     middle C to the highest note on the piano are labelled as follows:

     Beyond Basic Notes

     All of  the pitches under discussion  so far are known  as "basic"
     notes. In the chapter on acoustics,  we discussed the fact that in
     Western music  the octave  is normally  divided into  twelve equal
     parts. Our pitch notation system enables  us to denote 7 of these,
     so far  - the "basic"  notes "A" to  "G". Accidentals are  used to
     indicate the additional 5 pitches on the 5-line staff. Each of the
     smallest increments between  the twelve notes within  an octave is
     known as a half-step. A sharp  sign (#) increases the frequency of
     a basic note by a half-step:

     A flat sign (b) decreases the frequency of a basic note by a half-
     step:

     Accidentals apply  to an entire measure  in which they  are found.
     The bar line "erases" the effect of an accidental unless the acci-
     dentalized note is tied over the bar-line, or, for clarity's sake,
     there has  been an  accidental just prior  to the  bar-line, whose
     effect is to  be cancelled out in  the new measure. To  cancel the
     effect of a sharp  or flat, a natural sign is  used, which returns
     the note to its "basic" frequency (  ).

     Sometimes it is  necessary to raise or  lower a basic note  by two
     half-steps, in which case a double sharp or double flat is used:

PREFACE.TXT

     PREFACE

     Harry   Partch,  that   quintessentially  American   individualist 
     composer, said that true education, as far as he was concerned, is 
     a matter  chiefly compounded of investigation,  investigation, and 
     investigation.  That  is the  underlying premise  of MUS  1/Music: 
     Technique and Imagination.

     I  assume that  we  are here  to learn  something  that we  didn't 
     previously know,  and that we are  here to question  and challenge 
     anything and everything  that we think we  know.  The etymological 
     roots of  the word "education"  mean "to  draw out," or  "to bring 
     out." The methods used in this course, and the approaches taken to 
     learning, are intended  to be useful throughout one's  life in the 
     continual process  of bringing  out of  one's inner  self insights 
     which range beyond the acquisition of  facts.  We use the study of 
     music  as a  means to  acquire critical  thinking skills,  develop 
     imagination, and to become incurably curious, inveterate question-
     ers, seekers after knowledge and wisdom.

          A recurring theme in MUS 1 is the notion that creativity
          can be and needs to be fostered and nurtured.  Our goals
          in this regard are to apply the insights provided for us
          in this catalogue of the traits of creativity:

     Creativity includes the ability to:
          *WONDER, BE CURIOUS
          *BE OPEN TO NEW EXPERIENCE, SEE THE FAMILIAR FROM AN UNFAMILIAR
               POINT OF VIEW
          *CONFRONT COMPLEXITY AND AMBIGUITY WITH INTEREST
          *TAKE ADVANTAGE OF ACCIDENTAL EVENTS IN ORDER TO MAKE DESIRABLE
               BUT UNSOUGHT DISCOVERIES (CALLED SERENDIPITY)
          *MAKE ONE THING OUT OF ANOTHER BY SHIFTING ITS FUNCTIONS
          *GENERALIZE IN ORDER TO SEE UNIVERSAL APPLICATIONS OF IDEAS
          *SYNTHESIZE AND INTEGRATE, FIND ORDER IN DISORDER
          *BE INTENSELY CONSIOUS YET IN TOUCH WITH UNCONSCIOUS SOURCES
          *VISUALIZE OR IMAGINE NEW POSSIBILITIES
          *BE ANALYTICAL AND CRITICAL
          *KNOW ONESELF, AND HAVE THE COURAGE TO BE ONESELF IN THE FACE
               OF OPPOSITION
          *BE PERSISTENT, WORK HARD FOR LONG PERIODS, IN PURSUIT OF A
               GOAL, WITHOUT GUARANTEED RESULTS
                    (from Art Creates Us Creates Art, Duane Preble,
                    Canfield Press, San Francisco, 1976, p.10)

     This text itself is an attempt  to apply some of these principles. 
     It  is most  certainly an  experiment.  While  there are  numerous 
     music  theory  programs  on  the market,  and  very  useful  ones, 
     especially for  computers capable of multi-voice  and multitimbral 
     effects, I  know of no text  like this one.  Its  incorporation of 
     audible examples, interactive exercises and experimental "labora-
     tories" excites me, even given the definite limitations of present 
     sound and memory capabilities.  At least  we are able to hear some 
     things, which  is more than the  usual text provides.  And  in the 
     not distant future, with further  advance of digital recording and 
     storage  techniques, we  will be  able  to have  texts with  aural 
     examples sounding like live orchestral concerts and providing full-
     scale experimental and compositional control of sound.

     Use this text  as a tool.  To  learn about music.  To  learn about 
     learning itself.  And take to heart this message, from the closing 
     lines of T.S. Eliot's Four Quartets:

                    We shall not cease from exploration
                    And the end of all our exploring
                    Will be to arrive where we started
                    And know the place for the first time.

README.DOC

Music Imagination & Technique by Norman Lowrey
Copyright (C), 1990. All rights reserved.

INTRODUCTION
MIT is a fully functional music instruction program that I developed for
use in an introductory music theory/composition course at Drew University.
Since every student at Drew acquires a computer as part of their matricula-
tion, I have been able to completely do away with a hard-copy text. All the
reading, exercises, and assignments are done on the computer and assignments
are transmitted over E-Mail, evaluated on screen, and returned via E-mail.

Since one of the intentions of creating this program was to have a 100%
software based text, it is essentially self-contained, needing very little
external documentation. It is menu driven, following mostly standard key-
stroke conventions. Its intended audience is high school age or above,
people interested in learning basic principles of music notation and
compositional processes and who have fairly good reading skills.

While the obvious advantages of using the computer for learning about
music (audibility, animation, interaction) make for a livelier approach
than the standard text, the presentation here is not intentionally "enter-
taining." Little has been done to hide the fact that acquiring knowledge
and applying it is rarely easy. This does not mean that you can't have fun
using this program! It's just to state that it is not intended as a computer
game.
=============================================================================
CONTENTS
The files included in the complete MIT program are divided into 4 cate-
gories, which appear as the main menu headings on bootup. These are:
Music Theory, Utilities, Discussion, and Help.

The topics included under Music Theory are:
  1. Acoustics
  2. Pitch Basics
  3. Rhythm
  4. Scales & Keys
  5. Intervals
  6. Analysis
  7. Harmony

  Each of these topics is a complete "chapter" devoted to the designated
  subject, complete with table of contents, thorough discussion, notated
  examples, animated illustrations, and drill/practice screens. The infor-
  mation is presented beginning with the most basic material and leading to
  increasingly more complex matters. Use of the materials does not have to
  proceed in a sequential manner, however. Any screen is accessible through
  directly entering a screen number while in any given chapter and return-
  ing to the main menu for changing chapters.

The Utilities include:
  1. Melody Writer
  2. Keyboard
  3. Pitch Memory
  4. SoundForms
  5. Editor

  We use Melody Writer more than any other utility in the course for which
  MIT was written. It is a simple music notation module for the writing of
  single-line melodies that can be played back over the PC's internal
  speaker or through an external MIDI synthesizer. This is like a word
  processor for music, having a variety of editing features, and capable
  of printing out fairly high quality music notation.

  The Keyboard is accessible from both the main menu and from Melody
  Writer. It can be used to turn the computer keyboard into a piano-
  style instrument to play real-time tunes and also includes a feature
  to accompany the tunes with rapidly arpeggiated chords. Unlike many
  computer music "keyboards," I have written the program replacing the
  standard key interrupt and thus tones can be sustained for as long as
  a key is held down.

  Pitch Memory is a little "game" in which you are presented with a random
  pitch played by the computer and asked to try to match it as nearly as
  possible by adjusting a pitch up and down on the computer.

  SoundForms is like a musical Etch-A-Sketch. Up to 6 different screens
  of pitch "shapes" can be drawn, with variable rates of playback. These
  are treated like sound "objects" that are linkable on a "construction"
  screen. I use this utility in the beginning weeks of my course for
  students to create musical structures without their having to know
  anything about traditional musical notation.

  The Editor is also accessible from both the main menu and from Melody
  Writer. It is a no-nonsense WordStar style text editor which contains
  some extensions for writing Basic type music code to drive an external
  4-voice synthesizer which plugs into the printer port. This unit is
  still under development and will be available with a future upgrade of
  MIT. I use the editor to do direct manipulation of the text files which
  constitute the raw data generated by both Melody Writer and SoundForms.

The Discussion topics presently consist of:
  1. Sound Pollution
  2. The Music of Harry Partch
  3. Creativity
  4. The Music of Meredith Monk

  I am leaving these texts in MIT for general distribution, not because
  they directly pertain to the subject of music theory, but because they
  are integral parts of the liberal arts orientation of my teaching method-
  ology. Other topics may be added to the program as it evolves.

Under the menu heading of Help are:
  1. Instructions
  2. Print Texts
  3. OS Shell

  These items should be, I think, self-explanatory.
=============================================================================
INSTALLATION
MIT will run on an IBM or compatible computer with at least 256K of memory.
CGA card required.

On hard drive:
  Make a subdirectory with whatever designation you wish (I use MIT).
  Copy all files to this subdirectory.

Two floppies:
  If you do not have an autoexec.bat file, make one which sets your
  path=a:\;b:\. If you already have an autoexec.bat file, make sure
  it includes this path statement.

  Simply make backup copies of all MIT disks. The disk with the MIT.EXE
  file needs to be in your 'A' drive and disks with filenames related to
  the selected topic needs to be either in the 'A' drive after booting
  into main menu or in the 'B' drive. You can run the program from one
  drive, but a lot of disk swapping may be necessary.
=============================================================================
BOOTING
Move to whatever directory contains the MIT.EXE file and type MIT [Return].
Access to all of the other files of the program is gained through the main
menu that appears at this point.

If you want to print the graphics screens of any chapter or the
Melody Writer, you need to load the GRAPHICS.COM file (or equivalent)
that is part of your DOS utilities. If you want Melody Writer screens to
be printed down the length of an 8-1/2" x 11" paper, you will need some
other utility like HIGRAF-L.COM (available in DOS POWERTOOLS by Paul
Somerson, Bantom Books, 1988).
=============================================================================
REGISTRATION
Music Imagination & Technique has been developed over the past three years
and is, as you can tell by the number of disks required, an extensive
program. It is being offered as shareware with no limitations. 

If you find the program useful, I encourage you to register your copy.
Your registation will entitle you to some minimal documentation,
including tutorials for the SoundForms and Melody Writer utilities, as
well as free phone support and low-cost upgrades. Your registration will
also help support continued development of this product. I am scheduled
for sabbatical leave from Drew University next fall during which time
I plan a major revision of MIT into a less text-based and more hyper-
text oriented program with development of an inexpensive external poly-
phonic synthesizer.

To register your copy of Music Imagintion & Technique, send a check or
money order for $50.00 to:

Norman Lowrey
37 Intervale Rd.
Boonton, NJ  07005
Phone (201) 316-8142

or:

Norman Lowrey, Chair
Music Department
Drew University
Madison, NJ  07940
Phone (201) 408-3421
=============================================================================

SOUND.TXT

     Thunder let loose upon the Void.  The Voice of God.  And trillions
     of years  later we are  still rocking with  the waves of  that Big
     Bang.  For everything is still vibrating and all is vibration, and
     in its  broadest sense all  vibration is  a kind of  "sound" whose
     primacy has been recognized by  virtually every culture, including
     the Judeo-Christian heritage:  "In the beginning was the Word, and
     the Word was God..."  The identification of the Word, which had to
     be  articulated  through  sound,  with  deity,  the  creative  and
     sustaining spirit  of God...  For  other cultures, the  primacy of
     sound as a basis for existence has been even more emphatic.

     Marius Schneider, in an article  on   "Primitive Music" in The New
     Oxford  History  of  Music, affirms  that  "sound  represents  the
     original  substance of  the  world" as  far  as  the historian  of
     culture  is  concerned, and  points  out  that the  (East)  Indian
     tradition  emphasizes  the  "luminous  nature  of  sound"  in  the
     similarity between  svar (light)  and svara  (sound).  [quoted  in
     McClain, Ernest G., The Myth of Invariance, p.7]

     India's oldest sacred book, the Rg  Veda, not only posits sound as
     the "original substance of the world," but as discussed in a study
     of the  philosophical methodology  of the  Rg Veda  by Antonio  de
     Nicolas [Four-Dimensional Man], the  meanings of existence derived
     by our  sensorium, the  whole sensory apparatus  of the  body, are
     organized primarily on  a model of sound.  "Rgvedic  man (sic) was
     enveloped  by  sound, looked  for  centers  of experience  in  the
     experience  of  sound,  found  the  model  of  complete,  absolute
     instantaneity and communication in sound." [McClain, ibid, p.2]

     These same ideas, in different guises,  can be found in the sacred
     texts and mythologies of Babylon,  Egypt, Greece and Palestine, in
     the  Egyptian Book  of the  Dead,  the Bible,  and Plato   [ibid.,
     p.xi], particularly as sound tuning  systems and music are defined
     by number,  by mathematical  relationships.  And  while, for  most
     people in the present day in  Western culture, sound has lost this
     primacy of meaning, there still  occur discussions drawing us back
     to this  fundamental level,  as in  the scientist/inventor  Itzhak
     Bentov's  book Stalking  the Wild  Pendulum: On  the Mechanics  of
     Conciousness, in which it is  speculated that the "orderly pattern
     of atoms in matter" may be "the  result of the interaction of some
     kind of 'sound waves' in matter." [p.11]  He further says that "we
     could actually associate our whole reality  with sound of one kind
     or another because  our reality is a vibratory  reality, and there
     is nothing  static in it.  Starting  with the nucleus of  an atom,
     which vibrates at enormous rates,  the electrons and the molecules
     are all  associated with characteristic  vibratory rates.   A most
     important aspect of matter is vibratory energy."

               And continuing:
               "When we think, our brains produce rhythmic electric
               currents. With their magnetic components, they
               spread out into space at the velocity of light, as
               do the electric waves or sounds produced by our
               hearts.  They all mingle to form enormous interference
               patterns, spreading out and away from the planet.

               "They are admittedly weak, but they are there.  The
               more finely our systems are tuned, the clearer a
               signal we can pick out of the general noise and
               jumble of 'sounds.'

               "Our planet itself is producing shock waves in the
               plasma that fills the solar system.  These shock waves
               interact with those caused by other planets and produce
               resonances between the planets and the asteroids.  In
               short, our whole reality is based on one common factor,
               and that is periodic change, or sound." [p.23]

     It is in the context of  the underlying significance of sound that
     I  wish for  us  to place  our  study of  all  aspects of  sound's
     emanations, from acoustics to the structure of a symphony or a pop
     tune.  In  our most common understanding  of sound as  an auditory
     phenomenon, sound  is, as  has been stated,  a vibration.   But no
     simple vibration,  this, for oscillographic  analyses of  a "large
     number of musical, linguistic, and environmental sounds...reveal a
     previously unrecognized sonic substructure  of immense detail that
     directly determines the nature of perceived sound." [Cogan, Robert
     and Escot, Pozzi, Sonic Design, p.439]

     COMPONENTS OF SOUND

     In  order for  sound  to exist,  as  we know  it,  at least  three
     mutually-supportive  components are  necessary.  First,  something
     which vibrates, called the sound source.  Second, a medium through
     which the  vibrations travel  from the sound  source to  the third
     element, a  receptor capable of  responding to the  vibrations and
     interpreting their significance.

     SOURCE:
     David Reck, in  Music of the Whole  Earth, says that "there  are a
     limited  number of  ways that  sound can  be produced,  and it  is
     unmute testimony to the imagination of  man that he has discovered
     most of  them and has used  them with astounding  variety." [p.61]
     He lists the basic  ways a sound source may be  set into vibration
     along with examples  of musical instruments from  various cultures
     that use  these methods: "A  solid object may  be hit (like  a log
     drum), scraped (like a comb), whirled through the air (like a bull-
     roarer), shaken (like a rattle), plucked (like the metal prongs of
     an mbira), or rubbed (like a glass harmonica...). A stretched skin
     may be beaten, rubbed, or scraped (as  in the drums of the world);
     or stretched strings may be made to vibrate by plucking them (like
     a guitar), by  the friction of a  bow or stick rubbed  across them
     (like a  fiddle), or  by striking them  (like a  hammer dulcimer).
     Reeds set in an enclosed chamber with air forced across or through
     them (by breath, bellows, or bag)  will vibrate into sound (like a
     harmonica, oboe, or bagpipe), as will breath (or air) split across
     the edge of a hole and into an enclosed space (like blowing across
     the top of a bottle or a flute).  Air buzzed through the tightened
     lips  into a  tube also  causes sound  vibrations (like  trumpets,
     horns,  trombones).   And  finally,  sound   can  be  produced  by
     electronic means."

     MEDIUM:
     The medium  through which vibrations  are normally carried  to our
     ears is,  of course,  air.  We know,  however, of  other materials
     through which vibrations may be propagated: wood, metal,water....
     any substance other than a vacuum.  Water, in fact, is a far better
     medium than air for transmitting vibrations. Whales can hear their
     amazing "songs" over distances of hundreds of miles because of this.

     [SONIC ACTIVITY #1: Tie the two ends  of an arm's length of thread
     to the bottom sides of a common wire coat hanger.  Wrap the thread
     around index fingers a couple  times, leaving enough space between
     hands to fit around head.  Stick  index fingers in ears, lean over
     to  allow hanger  to  be suspended,  and  swing  hanger to  strike
     against any solid object, a  desk, for instance. Listen carefully.
     {A  student  in  one  of my  classes  once  called  this  activity
     "ridiculous."   Aside  from  this failing, by  thus  labeling  the
     activity, to hear how incredible this sound actually is, he demon-
     strated a deeper  ignorance of the processes  by which discoveries
     are made.  The mind at play,  often even in seemingly "ridiculous"
     or  "silly"  activities,  is  in, or  borders  on,  that  mode  of
     receptivity to experience in which previously unnoticed things may
     be noticed, and  more importantly, in which  disparate "facts" may
     be drawn together to arrive at unique and creative syntheses.}]

     RECEPTOR:
     A receptor is properly called a  transducer, which is a device for
     converting one form  of energy to another.  The  chief receptor by
     which we  perceive sound  is the ear.   The ear  converts acoustic
     energy,  the vibrations  of air  molecules, into  electro-chemical
     impulses which  the brain  in turn converts  into sonic  sense.  A
     microphone is another  example of a sound  receptor or transducer.
     It functions  similarly to the  ear, only its  electrical impulses
     are directed  to some other  electronic processing device,  like a
     tape recorder or an amplifier.

     Each one  of these components, the  sound source, the  medium, and
     the mechanism  of the  human ear,  would provide  fit study  for a
     complete book, but for the moment we want to take a closer look at
     the sound source, the origin of the vibrations we eventually "hear."

     VIBRATION

     By vibration is  meant some kind of back and  forth motion (oscil-
     lation).  In order to vibrate, the sound source must be, as it is
     known in the  jargon of acoustics, an "elastic body."   A good and
     obvious example of an elastic body is a stretched rubber band.

     [SONIC ACTIVITY #2:  Try the index-finger-in-the ear trick with a
     rubber band, for yet another amazing sound. (See p.8)]

     To set the  rubber band into vibration, it must  be displaced from
     its position of rest--usually by pulling it or plucking it.  Being
     elastic  (and  here  don't  confuse the  word  elastic  only  with
     material like  rubber--anything is "elastic"  that returns  to its
     original  state  after  being   "disturbed"  or  displaced),  when
     released from displacement, its molecules  seek to return to their
     original place  of  "rest."  But since a certain  amount of energy
     has been invested in its displacement,  it is carried by the force
     of momentum, a  carrier of that initial  energy investment, beyond
     its original point  of rest until the strictures  of its molecular
     structure  balance  the  momentum  and pull  it  back  toward  the
     original position.  The  rubber band thus vibrates  back and forth
     until the forces of molecular cohesion and friction have complete-
     ly absorbed the original energy, converting it into heat and sound.

When the rubber band is displaced and released, as it makes its first vigorous
snap back in the direction of rest, it pushes the air molecules surrounding it
in the direction of its movement, disturbing them, pushing them in fact, to-
gether, compacting them, making what is called a condensation. At the same
time, the air molecules behind the rubber band are dragged along with it, thus
spreading them out, causing a rarefaction. These disturbances in the air occur
with every back-and-forth motion of the rubber band, creating a series of con-
densations and rarefactions which are transmitted in all directions around
the rubber band as molecules of air knock together and pull apart, creating
waves of air. Thus a series of pressure waves is created in the air which
causes our eardrums to vibrate in response, and hence, sound. <RETURN>

     FREQUENCY

     We know that  if we stretch the  rubber band tauter, we'll  hear a
     different sound, which  we describe as "higher,"  although this is
     purely a metaphorical term.  What we have just done is to make the
     molecules of  the rubber  band seek their  original point  of rest
     with greater intensity, causing the rubber band to vibrate faster.
     Frequency  is  the  technical  term for  rate  of  vibration.   We
     subjectively perceive  the frequency as  pitch, the  "highness" or
     "lowness" of a sound.

     Frequency is  measured by the  number of times  something vibrates
     back and  forth per  some given time  unit, which,  when measuring
     acoustic vibrations,  is the second.   The proper  designation for
     the frequency of  a sound is cycles per  second (abbrviated c.p.s)
     or hz  (pronounced Hertz, named for  a 19th century  physicist who
     studied the nature of vibration).  A  cycle is one complete "trip"
     of the vibration.  This can be illustrated by observing the action
     of a swinging pendulum.

     The cyclic  motion is usually measured  in terms of  movement from
     the state of  rest to maximum point of  displacement, back through
     the resting point to maximum point of displacement on the opposite
     side, and back to the resting point.  Actually, one may start from
     any point  and measure to  the analogous  point in the  cycle, and
     this is done  in examining the phase of one  vibration in relation
     to another. <RETURN>

     If a pen were to be attached to the bottom of the pendulum and a roll of
     paper moved from right to left underneath the pen, a picture of the
     pendulum's motion could be drawn. <RETURN>

     If the distance between the starting line and ending line were to
     represent one second, then the frequency here is 1 c.p.s., or 1 Hz. <RET>

     If the distance between the starting line and ending line were to
     represent one second, then the frequency here is 2 c.p.s., or 2 Hz.

     The human ear responds to acoustic frequencies within the general range
     of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz (sometimes abbreviated 20K Hz).  Some people can
     hear somewhat beyond these ranges, and other animals are capable of
     much wider response, which signifies that human perception of reality
     is actually very limited.

     You can now enter frequencies at the prompt to test your hearing, as
     well as the frequency response of your computer. Hit 'E' to enter.

                                 THE OCTAVE
          [ <RETURN> to hear sound discussed below, any key to stop ]

   The sound you are hearing as you read this is a sweep of frequencies from
   20 Hz to 4K Hz and back down to the lowest frequency on a standard piano
   (whose frequency you will be asked to calculate in a minute).
   Then the frequency jumps by octaves up to 440 Hz, which, since the 1920's
   has been used as the international tuning standard.

        The distance from one frequency to another can be expressed
        as a ratio. When we hear one frequency in relation to another,
        their difference (or ratio) produces a perceived difference
        in pitch, which is called a musical interval.  The term octave
        refers to what is perhaps the most important musical interval,
        which is a ratio between two frequencies of 2:1.

 The word octave is derived from the fact that most common tunes in Western
 music employ 7 different pitches (labeled A,B,C,D,E,F,G), within the
 frequency ratio of 2:1.  The eighth pitch (thus octave) is the same
 letter name (in this case "A") at a frequency ratio of 2:1. This ratio is
 possibly the only universally common interval, forming the basis for  the
 world's diverse tuning systems. Since we'll be referring to the octave
 again and again, a thorough understanding of this interval is important.

    Here are a series of octaves, with their frequencies given. Note that
    octaves have a similarity of sound. They are just "higher" or "lower".
    They all form 2:1 ratios. <RETURN>

    OCTAVE PRACTICE AND PROBLEMS 1 & 2

    You may again enter frequencies as you did on page 16. This time focus
    on listening to frequencies with rations of 2:1.  ['E' TO ENTER,
    '+' FOR NEXT PAGE, '-' FOR PRIOR. HIT 'R' TO GOTO TO PROBLEM #1].

                        ENTER FREQUENCY (no commas):

     EQUAL TEMPERAMENT [ <RETURN> to hear sound mentioned below ]

     As you read this sentence, the 7 basic pitches deployed within the
     octave, which are common to Western  music, are being sounded. You
     have no doubt heard this scale  before, and its particular pattern
     will be described in greater  detail later.  An incredible variety
     of music has been produced using only these pitches, but by adding
     just a few more the possibilities for pitch combinations  increase
     geometrically. 5 additional pitches are common to Western music.

     A tuning of  pitches within an octave has been  developed which is
     called equal temperament.  A temperament is another name for a way
     of relating  one pitch  to another  within an  octave.  Any  equal
     temperament is a  tuning in which an octave is  divided into equal
     increments.  The temperament of Western  European music, which was
     only codified within  the past 300 years, divides  the octave into
     12 equal parts.  To hear these 12 increments, hit 'H'.

     What you have  just heard is a  pattern of intervals, each  one of
     which is called  a half step.  Whereas the frequency  ratio of the
     octave is 2:1, the  ratio of a half step is  much smaller.  It can
     be  calculated  as  the  12th  root of  2,  which  results  in  an
     irrational number  (1.0594531...).  The starting frequency  of the
     series just sounded was 220 Hz.  Each successive pitch was arrived
     at by multiplying the previous pitch by this small amount.

     If you consider that  our hearing range is from 20  to 20K Hz, and
     that this represents  a little over 10 octaves,  you can calculate
     that 12-tone equal temperament makes  available somewhat more than
     120 distinctly different frequencies.  It has been calculated that
     "...the  total   of  perceptible   pitches...within  our   hearing
     range...is about 1400..." [Cogan & Escott,p.442]  We therefore are
     capable of hearing  many more pitches than we are  used to hearing
     in the  music we are familiar  with. Many cultures other  than our
     own employ  much finer  gradations of  pitch difference.   This is
     true especially in the Orient, India, and Southeast Asia.

     At least  from the  time of  Pythagorus, scientists  and musicians
     have experimented with many tuning systems.  We will hear later on
     some of the music  of Harry Partch, a composer in  our own century
     who used  a tuning which  employed up  to 43 increments  within an
     octave.   Just  within  the past  year,  the  latest  synthesizers
     (including the  "industry standard" Yamaha  DX7II) have  added the
     feature of  alternative tuning  systems, so you  will no  doubt be
     hearing more music containing smaller divisions of the octave.

     You  can now  experiment  with hearing  varying  divisions of  the
     octave.  The standard way of  dealing with small pitch differences
     is to divide up the half step into 100 parts, each one of which is
     called a cent.  At the prompt, you  can enter the number of cents,
     from 1 to 100, you wish to  hear as the smallest frequency change.
     [ 'E' TO ENTER, <RETURN>. TO HEAR 1ST TIME, ALT/P TO HEAR AGAIN.
       ENTER AS MANY TIMES AS YOU WANT WITH 'E'-<RETURN> SEQUENCE. ]

    Frequency changes, along with varying lengths of tones, are the basis
    for melody, which is the foundation of Western music. One final issue
    regarding frequency before moving on:

    A musical tone may be properly conceived of as vibration which is
    periodic, that is, whose frequencies are consistent. If fluctuation
    of frequency is very rapid, the vibration is aperiodic and results in
    noise. Noise is technically defined as erratic, intermittent, or
    statistically random oscillation. For an example, hit <RETURN>.

     AMPLITUDE

     The amount  of energy invested  into setting the  vibrating source
     into oscillation determines how loud a  sound is.  Loudness is how
     we  subjectively perceive  amplitude.   The  farther something  is
     displaced from  its resting state,  the greater is  the amplitude.
     Whereas frequency is represented along the horizontal axis , as we
     saw with  the representation of  a pendulum's swing,  amplitude is
     measured along the vertical axis.  The  farther out the swing, the
     greater the displacement, thus the louder the sound.

   Another term used to describe loudness is intensity. The common meas-
   urement of intensity is the decibel. The decibel is a logarithmic num-
   ber in which 0 decibels represents the threshold of hearing (for a
   frequency of  1000 Hz).  Every 3  decibels represents a  doubling of
   perceived sound intensity; every 10 decibels represents an increase of
   pressure by a factor of 10.  From 0 to around 40 db (as the decibel is
   abbreviated), sounds are very quiet indeed.  It is not until a sound
   reaches this level that it said to cross the threshold of intelligibil-
   ity. Sounds approaching and louder than 120 db achieve the distinction
   of crossing the threshold of pain.  The difference between 0 and 120
   decibels is a one trillion (1,000,000,000,000) increase in intensity.

     Since  there  is  no  programable  control  of  loudness  on  this
     computer, we cannot  demonstrate changes  in  amplitude with  good
     aural examples.   You may have  noticed, however, that  during the
     frequency "sweep"  in the unit  on pitch, some  frequencies seemed
     louder than others.   This is due to the  whole computer vibrating
     along with its tiny speaker, with some components (like side wall)
     having particular frequencies more likely  to vibrate than others.
     This computer has  its own resonance frequencies,  and you'll have
     the chance  later on to  try to find out  what they are.   For the
     moment, we'll rely upon this  phenomenon to illustrate differences
     in loudness.  By holding down the UP/DOWN arrows, you can sweep up
     and down from approximately 50 to 4000 Hz. Listen for subtle varia-
     tions in loudness.  These  are actually the result of the original
     vibrations  in the speaker  being reinforced and not by any actual
     increase of amplitude within the speaker itself.  Nonetheless, you
     should be able to  hear what probably could be measured  as a  3-4
     decibel difference overall.

     Sound  loudness measurements  are complex  because  the human  ear
     responds to different loudnesses at different frequency ranges and
     with differing qualities of sound.   Greater pressure is needed in
     the extremities of  the hearing range in order to  produce a given
     loudness,  than  in optimum  response  ranges  of the  ears.   The
     optimal response range is from 1000 to 4000 Hz.  "Human hearing is
     variable.  It is affected, for  example, by culture: some Africans
     hear  sounds that,  to  20th-century  urban North  Americans,  are
     remarkably soft.  In  industrialized cultures, the young  are able
     to hear a wider  range of frequencies than the old.   We are still
     ignorant of the  exact roles that culture,  habit, and environment
     play in affecting  human hearing equipment and  ability." [Cogan &
     Escott, p.442]

          Sound Level Reference

          0-40 db:.........barely perceptible sounds, not clearly
                           identified--distant wind sound, for instance
          40-50 db:........whispering at 5-10 feet distance
                           rustling leaves, 10-20 feet away
                           cat purring, 5 feet distant
          50-60 db:........normal conversation, 5-10 feet away
                           central air conditioning unit in big building
                           your own footsteps on concrete, hard-soled shoes
          60-70 db:........orchestra, moderate passage, 30-40 feet
                           general din, dining hall
                           light traffic at 30 feet
          70-80 db:........truck traffic, 30 feet
                           stereo, 3/4 gain, 10 feet
                           shouting
          80-90 db:........lawnmower, 20 feet
                           loud orchestral passages, 20 feet
          90-100 db:.......hammering nails, 5 feet
                           thunder, half mile to mile
          100-110 db:......jackhammer, 10 feet
                           table saw, 5 feet
          110-120 db:......Rock concert, 20-30 feet
                           airplane taking off, 200 feet

     TIMBRE

     The diagrams  we've seen illustrating  the swinging of  a pendulum
     are pictorial representations  of wave forms.  The  pendulum swing
     creates a simple curvilinear form because  as it swings out to the
     positive side of  displacement it slows down until  it reaches the
     turn-around point,  then regains  speed as  it passes  the resting
     point, slowing down on the opposite swing, and so on.  This simple
     motion is  similar to the  way a piano  string or a  violin string
     vibrate over their  overall length.  The resultant wave  form is a
     sine wave.   The tone such a  vibration would produce is  called a
     sine tone.

  No acoustic vibration is quite this simple, however.  The vibration of a
  piano string can illustrate this. When it is set in motion, it not only
  oscillates back and forth over its whole length, but also vibrates in
  parts, each one of which vibrates at its own rate. This occurs because
  the molecules of the string are knocking against each other, waves of
  kinetic energy are flowing along the string, being reflected back from
  the stopped ends of the string, and reinforcing or cancelling each other.
  You've seen this happen if you've ever thrown a pebble into a small pool
  of water. A circle of waves radiates outward, reflects back off the sides
  and crosses on-coming waves. Reinforcement and cancellation of the waves'
  energies create an overall wave structure called an interference pattern.

     The interference pattern  in a vibrating string  was discovered at
     least  as long  ago  as the  6th century  BC,  by Pythagorus.   At
     exactly whole-number (integer) divisions of  the string, points of
     no energy  occur.  These are called  nodal points.  The  result is
     that the string vibrates over its whole length at the same time as
     it is vibrating over half its length,  over a third of its length,
     over a quarter of its length, and so on.  Each of these subsidiary
     vibrations  occur at  frequencies inversely  proportionate to  the
     lengths and with varying  amplitude relationships.   The vibration
     over  the whole  length  is called  the  fundamental.   It is  the
     frequency  of  this  whole-length vibration  which  we  have  been
     referring to  in describing  pitch.  If this  frequency is  100 Hz
     then the half-length vibration of the string is 200 Hz, the third-
     length vibration  is 300 Hz,  the quarter-length vibration  is 400
     Hz, and so on. ( <RETURN> for illustration ).

     These subsidiary vibrations are  variously described as overtones,
     partials,  or harmonics.   They are  audible,  and every  acoustic
     vibration  produces  them.   We generally  do  not  perceive  them
     discretely, however,  but rather  coalesce them  into a  composite
     sound  whose quality  varies from  sound to  sound, instrument  to
     instrument, depending  upon their particular  configurations.  The
     pattern of harmonics  is different for virtually  every sound, and
     thus we  can distinguish  between one kind  of sound  and another.
     This is  what is  called timbre  (pronounced "tam-ber"),  or "tone
     color."  Together  with the  manner in which  a tone  is initiated
     (called onset),  timbre allows  us to  distinguish whether  we are
     hearing a flute, oboe, human voice, and so on.

     Depending upon overtone constituency, a  sound may be described on
     a continuum from  relatively pure to relatively  harsh.  The fewer
     the audible  overtones, the more pure  the sound, the  greater the
     number of partials the harsher the  sound.  The purest sound would
     be a sine tone, and the closest  instrumental sound to a sine tone
     is a  flute in  its higher  register.  Electronic  instruments can
     produce sine tones within their circuitry such that they appear as
     simple pendulum-swing curves on an oscilloscope, but when they are
     made audible through a speaker, the membrane of the speaker itself
     generates harmonics and thus a tone which is not entirely pure.

     The timbre  of the tone  generated by  this computer is  not quite
     pure  and varies,  like the  amplitude,  with different  frequency
     ranges.  We again  have no programable way of  altering the timbre
     here, but with some programming  manipulation we can approximate a
     variety of tone qualities.  Listen first of all for the quality of
     the unaltered tone and hear if you can perceive the slightly buzzy
     quality indicative  of the  presence of  overtones.  Then  imagine
     that your  ears are capable of  focusing toward the bottom  of the
     frequency  spectrum being  sounded and,  like  a flashlight  beam,
     capable of  being swept upward.   Focus in on  successively higher
     frequency territories and  try to isolate the  pitches which cause
     the buzzy sound.   Do this with each example.   With practice, you
     should be able  to hear discretely varying  frequencies within the
     framework of what, at first "glance", appears to be a single sound.
     There are 7 examples. You may hear them as many times as you wish
     by hitting 1-7.

     Each of  these sounds  is distinctly  different, and  examples 5-7
     sweep up and down  through the harmonic series in the  way you can
     imagine doing when listening to a single sound.

     Harmonics are so  named because of the  whole-number relationships
     they  bear to  one another.   Some  sounds, like  a cymbal  crash,
     generate partials  whose relationships  are inharmonic,  non-whole
     number ratios.   When sounds produce harmonics (as opposed to in-
     harmonics), their  ratios are simply calculated.   The fundamental
     is harmonic number 1. The next highest is number 2, and so on. The
     number in the series also  indicates proportion.   Number 2 is 2x1
     (or 2:1). Number 3 is 3x1 (or 3:1).  Ratios also may be determined
     between any two harmonics. The ratio from harmonics 2 to 3 is 2:3,
     and so  on.  Our  pictorial representation  of a  vibrating string
     only  illustrated 4  divisions  of the  string,  but actually  the
     divisions continue on  to a theoretical infinity.   We are capable
     of hearing up to  16 harmonics, but as you can  determine that the
     proportions become smaller and smaller the  higher one goes in the
     series, hearing  discrete upper  partials becomes  difficult.  The
     frequency sweeps in the preceding examples  focused on the first 8
     harmonics, which are easily perceived.

     To facilitate calculation, all of  the examples used a fundamental
     of 100 Hz.  Thus the second harmonic is 200 Hz, the 3rd is 300 Hz,
     and to continue  on: 4=400 Hz, 5=500  Hz, 6=600 Hz, 7=700  Hz, and
     8=800 Hz.  Listen  now to these frequency  relationships with each
     pitch sounding for about one second. <RETURN>

     When  a single  note  on  a piano  is  struck,  these pitches  are
     component parts of  what we normally designate as  a single sound.
     Some common sense analysis can lead to realization of why our ears
     focus in on the fundamental as  the indicator of frequency.  First
     of all, it is the loudest,  having the greatest displacement.  But
     second, within the first 8 harmonics,  it is replicated in octaves
     3 more  times.  The second harmonic  is an octave above  the first
     (2:1 ratio, remember!).   The 4th harmonic is 2  octaves above the
     fundamental,  and  the  8th  harmonic   is  3  octaves  above  the
     fundamental.  (There  is yet one  more octave  relationship within
     the first 8 harmonics--the relationship of the 3rd harmonic to the
     6th forms a 2:1 ratio).

     PROBLEM 3:
     Given a  fundamental of 55 Hz  (3 octaves below tuning  "A"), what
     are the successive harmonics up to the 8th? <RETURN>

     Wave Form

     We have seen an image of a  sine wave, with its simple curvilinear
     form.  If  one started superimposing  one sine wave  upon another,
     the resultant reinforcement and cancellation of oscillations would
     produce other  patterns.  This  is exactly  what the  18th century
     mathematician, Joseph  Fourier, determined.  He devised  a theorem
     which states that any wave can be  written as a unique sum of sine
     waves.  This  principle was employed  in the early  development of
     electronic music,  since all  that was  available to  composers at
     that  time   (the  1940's)  were   sine  wave   generators.   Some
     present-day synthesizers use  this technique also, in  a procedure
     called  additive   synthesis.   Many  current   synthesizers  make
     available other wave  forms and present math  theory contends that
     "...almost any waveform family will work  as the basic alphabet of
     a wave  language." [Quantum Reality,  Nick Herbert,  Anchor Books,
     1987]

     There are  four commonly  available wave  forms.  The  sine, which
     we've seen;  a square wave (which  is actually what  this computer
     generates); a sawtooth wave; and a  triangle wave. <RETURN> to see
     how these would appear as oscillographic images.

     Sine wave additive synthesis is capable of producing virtually any
     sound.  With  the added  capability provided  by other  waveforms,
     composers now have entire orchestras of sound contained in desktop
     instruments no larger than the clavichords of the 17th century.

     ENVELOPE

     All sounds vary, to greater or  lesser degree, with the passage of
     time.  The description of the overall changes in a sound over time
     is called  the sound's  envelope.  While  timbre or  frequency may
     change over time and thus may be  described in terms of timbral or
     frequency envelope, the  most usual application of the  term is to
     amplitude.  Amplitude envelope  is a description of  the manner in
     which a sound's loudness changes with the passage of time.

     There are four standard components  of amplitude envelope: Attack,
     Decay,  Sustain, and  Release (often  seen  abbreviated as  ADSR).
     Attack is  the amount of  time it takes for  a sound to  reach its
     maximum loudness level from the  instant of its initiation.  Decay
     is the time it  may take to level off to its  Sustain level (if it
     is cabable  of sustaining). And release  is the time it  takes for
     the sound to  die out once "turned off."    Some sounds bypass the
     sustain segment, and the release cycle is equivalent to the decay.
     A piano,  for instance,  whose envelope is  called a  "bell" shape
     (since it  has the  same configuration  as a  struck bell),  has a
     nearly instantaneous attack cycle with gradual tapering off of the
     sound (decay)  until reaching  0 loudness.   We cannot  illustrate
     amplitude envelope  with this computer,  but as  various pictorial
     representations appear, you  will hear the envelope  traced by the
     analogous frequency changes. <RETURN>

     Conclusion

     This discussion has been somewhat  technical.  The greater our un-
     standing of the  nature of sound, the  better we can hear.   I can
     think of no better way to enhance our hearing capabilities than to
     develop  the ability  to  hear harmonics.   Used  as an  exercise,
     focusing in  on harmonics  hones our hearing  equipment to  a fine
     degree. Knowledge  of other components  of sound,  like frequency,
     amplitude,  and envelope,  also  enhances  our hearing  acuity  by
     making it possible to focus on  details of sound.  The more detail
     we can take in, the richer is our experience. In depth exploration
     may also stimulate curiosity--the more we know, the more questions
     we are able to  ask.  The more questions we ask,  the more we come
     to know.  The more we know, the more questions....

     There is, furthermore,  a broader perspective here.  For  it is in
     the rather mysterious  property of vibrating things  to vibrate in
     complex ways, yet  having simple harmonic proportions,  that there
     exists a model for the relationship  of the heavenly bodies one to
     another.   This  in  fact  led Pythagorus  and  others  to  devise
     theories  about the  so-called Music  or Harmony  of the  Spheres.
     These theories manifest themselves in  many ways, among the latest
     being Superstring theory, in which reality is conceived to consist
     of  ten dimensions  and  "...the  fundamental building  blocks  of
     matter and  energy aren't  infinitesimal points  but infinitesimal
     strings." And  "it's at  this ultimate  smallness that  everything
     exists   as   the   dance  of   one-dimensional   strings   in   a
     ten-dimensional universe.  A string vibrating  and twitching  in a
     specific fashion  might manifest  itself in  the real  world as  a
     quark.   Another  string,  shaking  and  rolling  in  a  different
     fashion, might appear as  an electron, or a photon, or  one of the
     many other  creatures of the  subatomic bestiary. The  strings are
     the  same; only  the  modes of  vibration  change." [Gary  Taubes,
     "Everything's Now Tied To Strings," Discover, November, 1986]

     Also, in sound we have a representation of the idea of the One and
     the Many. A single sound is all one sound, a whole, perceived as a
     unified  entity;  but  at  the same  time  it  is  many-voiced,  a
     composite  of  an infinite number  of vibrations, each  unique and
     discrete.   Hence, when  you listen  to  sound, listen  carefully.
     Listen not only  to what is perceived at first  as the fundamental
     pitch, but listen  also for the many voices,  the overtones, which
     coalesce into forming the overall sound.  Listen with ears attuned
     to the harmonic structure of the universe, and maybe you will come
     to understand the importance of sound in the Rg Veda, sound as the
     basis for  all else,  the primal  vibration upon  which the  whole
     phenomenological world  floats, sound as Bentov  suggested, giving
     structure to the very atoms of which we are made.

SUBMISSN.DOC

Music Imagination & Technique by Norman Lowrey
Copyright (C) 1990. All rights reserved.

Detailed Program Description:

Music Imagination & Technique is a 100% software based course of instruc-
tion in the fundamentals of music theory. It is run from a main menu which
accesses four categories of "discourse:" Music Theory, Utilities, Discussion,
and Help.

The topics included under Music Theory are:
  1. Acoustics
  2. Pitch Basics
  3. Rhythm
  4. Scales & Keys
  5. Intervals
  6. Analysis
  7. Harmony

  Each of these topics is a complete "chapter" devoted to the designated
  subject, complete with table of contents, thorough discussion, notated
  examples, animated illustrations, and drill/practice screens. The infor-
  mation is presented beginning with the most basic material and leading to
  increasingly more complex matters. Use of the materials does not have to
  proceed in a sequential manner, however. Any screen is accessible through
  directly entering a screen number while in any given chapter and return-
  ing to the main menu for changing chapters.

The Utilities include:
  1. Melody Writer
  2. Keyboard
  3. Pitch Memory
  4. SoundForms
  5. Editor

  We use Melody Writer more than any other utility in the course for which
  MIT was written. It is a simple music notation module for the writing of
  single-line melodies that can be played back over the PC's internal
  speaker or through an external MIDI synthesizer. This is like a word
  processor for music, having a variety of editing features, and capable
  of printing out fairly high quality music notation.

  The Keyboard is accessible from both the main menu and from Melody
  Writer. It can be used to turn the computer keyboard into a piano-
  style instrument to play real-time tunes and also includes a feature
  to accompany the tunes with rapidly arpeggiated chords. Unlike many
  computer music "keyboards," I have written the program replacing the
  standard key interrupt and thus tones can be sustained for as long as
  a key is held down.

  Pitch Memory is a little "game" in which you are presented with a random
  pitch played by the computer and asked to try to match it as nearly as
  possible by adjusting a pitch up and down on the computer.

  SoundForms is like a musical Etch-A-Sketch. Up to 6 different screens
  of pitch "shapes" can be drawn, with variable rates of playback. These
  are treated like sound "objects" that are linkable on a "construction"
  screen. I use this utility in the beginning weeks of my course for
  students to create musical structures without their having to know
  anything about traditional musical notation.

  The Editor is also accessible from both the main menu and from Melody
  Writer. It is a no-nonsense WordStar style text editor which contains
  some extensions for writing Basic type music code to drive an external
  4-voice synthesizer which plugs into the printer port. This unit is
  still under development and will be available with a future upgrade of
  MIT. I use the editor to do direct manipulation of the text files which
  constitute the raw data generated by both Melody Writer and SoundForms.

The Discussion topics presently consist of:
  1. Sound Pollution
  2. The Music of Harry Partch
  3. Creativity
  4. The Music of Meredith Monk

  I am leaving these texts in MIT for general distribution, not because
  they directly pertain to the subject of music theory, but because they
  are integral parts of the liberal arts orientation of my teaching method-
  ology. Other topics may be added to the program as it evolves.

Under the menu heading of Help are:
  1. Instructions
  2. Print Texts
  3. OS Shell

  These items should be, I think, self-explanatory.
=============================================================================
Unique features of the program:

MIT includes complete and thorough information pertaining to the funda-
mentals of music theory and is not just a "drill and practice" program.
Also, it contains several novel utilities and instructional tools to
make learning interesting and challenging.
=============================================================================
Program's capacity or limitations:

MIT is fully functional even without registration.
=============================================================================
Does your program require any special system requirements:

CGA card required.
=============================================================================
How to start the program:

Disk 1 in active drive: type MIT at prompt.
=============================================================================
What is the registration fee for your program:

$50.00
=============================================================================
Materials or services that come with registration:

Brief documentation, tutorials, free phone support, low-cost upgrades.
=============================================================================
List of program files and one-line description of each file:

Disk 1:
  README.DOC - General description, installation instructions, booting.
  MIT.EXE - Main menu system for all other files.
  MIT.TXT - Text file for MIT.EXE
  PREFACE.TBC - Prefatory discussion of Music Imagination & Technique;
  PREFACE.TXT - Text file for PREFACE.TBC
  SOUND.MNU - Table of contents for chapter on Acoustics.
  SOUND.TBC - Overlay file for chapter on Acoustics.
  SOUND.TXT - Text file for SOUND.TBC.
  PRELUDE.EXE - Animated text introduction to chapter on Acoustics.
  CGA.BGI - Graphics driver for PRELUDE.EXE.
  TRIP.CHR - Font for PRELUDE.EXE
  PITCH.MNU - Table of contents for chapter on Pitch Basics.
  PITCH.TBC - Overlay file for chapter on Pitch Basics.
  PITCH.TXT - Text file for PITCH.TBC.
  SUNNY.SEQ - Example file for Melody Writer.
  EXAMPLE.SNX - Example file for SoundForms.

Disk 2:
  RHYTHM.MNU - Table of contents for chapter on Rhythm.
  RHYTHM.TBC - Overlay file for chapter on Rhythm.
  RHYTHM.TXT - Text file for RHYTHM.TBC.
  SCALES.MNU - Table of contents for chapter on Scales.
  SCALES.TBC - Overlay file for chapter on Scales.
  SCALES.TXT - Text file for SCALES.TBC.
  INTERVALS.MNU - Table of contents for chapter on Intervals.
  INTERVALS.TBC - Overlay file for chapter on Intervals.
  INTERVALS.TXT - Text file for INTERVALS.TBC
  ANALYSIS.TBC - Overlay file for chapter on Analysis.
  ANALYSIS.TXT - Text file for ANALYSIS.TBC.

Disk 3:
  HARMONY.TBC - Overlay file for chapter on Harmony.
  HARMONY.TXT - Text file for HARMONY.TBC.
  POLLUTE.TBC - Overlay file for discussion of Sound Pollution.
  POLLUTE.TXT - Text file for POLLUTE.TBC.
  PARTCH.TBC - Overlay file for discussion of Harry Partch.
  PARTCH.TXT - Text file for PARTCH.TBC.
  CREATE.TBC - Overlay file for discussion of Creativity.
  CREATE.TXT - Text file for CREATE.TBC.
  MONK.TBC - Overlay file for discussion of Meredith Monk.
  MONK.TXT - Text file for MONK.TBC.

Disk 4:
  MW.TBC - Overlay file for Melody Writer.
  KEYBOARD.EXE - Keyboard utility.
  PITCHMEM.TBC - Overlay file for Pitch Memory utility.
  SNDFORM.TBC - Overlay file for SoundForms utility.
  SYNTHED.EXE - Text editor utility.
  EDITERR.MSG - Error message file for SYNTHED.EXE

Directory of PC-SIG Library Disk #3470

 Volume in drive A has no label
 Directory of A:\

MIT      EXE     78504  12-07-90   5:53a
MIT      TXT      1583   4-21-90   4:48p
README   DOC      7981  12-07-90   5:45a
SUBMISSN DOC      7400  12-09-90   4:38p
PREFACE  TBC      9538   8-17-89   2:33p
PREFACE  TXT      3866   8-14-89   8:37a
SOUND    MNU      1140   8-13-89  12:22p
SOUND    TBC     51529   1-22-90   7:48p
SOUND    TXT     39494   1-20-90   6:33p
PRELUDE  EXE     19968   6-25-88   4:39p
PITCH    MNU      1190   7-07-89   9:13a
PITCH    TBC     60195   4-01-90   5:09p
PITCH    TXT     12804   9-21-89   9:49a
CGA      BGI      6029  12-16-87   4:00a
TRIP     CHR      7213  12-16-87   4:00a
SUNNY    SEQ      8136   2-17-90   3:28p
EXAMPLE  SNX      4993  12-09-90   4:06p
GO       BAT        38   4-13-93   9:00a
SHOW     EXE      2040   9-12-88  10:48a
       19 file(s)     323641 bytes
                       29696 bytes free